Chapter 5 - Sexually Transmitted Infections
Chapter 5 - Sexually Transmitted Infections PSYCH 3060
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Guercio on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3060 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Bruce King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
10415 1230 PM Chapter 5 WEEK ONE Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Related Diseases Learning Objectives When you have nished studying this chapter you should be able to 1 Explain what causes sexually transmitted infections how they are spread and who can get them Describe the symptoms of gonorrhea chlamydia syphilis chancroid herpes hepatitis genital warts HIVAIDS trichomoniasis pubic lice and scabies Understand that with many STIs it is possible to be infected and have no symptoms for particular STIs name whether men or women are more likely to be asymptomatic and at what stage Describe the method of diagnosis and treatment for each STI Summarize the complications that can occur if STIs are not treated early Discuss the possible effects on the fetus and newborn if a pregnant woman has various STIs Describe the different types of vaginal infections and discuss vaginal health care Discuss safer sex practices What are they and who gets them 12 Americans will contract at least one sexually transmitted infection in their lifetime 14 girls have an STI Sexual behavior mode of transmission for bacteria viruses or parasites Bacteria very small single celled organisms 0 Lack nuclear membrane but have all the genetic material RNA and DNA and metabolic necessities to reproduce themselves Viruses a protein shell around a nucleic acid core and cannot reproduce themselves 0 Invade host cells that provide the material to manufacture new virus particles Sexually Transmitted Infections emphasize that they are infectious diseases other diseases such as heart disease are not Refers to original diseases plus other infectious diseases that can be but are not always sexually transmitted Sexually transmitted infections are nondiscriminating 0 Doesn t only effect those in poor minority groups like most people think I Anyone having sex is at some risk for contracting a sexually transmitted infection Sexually related disease Other diseases of the sexual organs overgrowths of yeast or fungal organisms found naturally in the body but can be passed on during sex Where did they come from Generally unknown Been around for thousands of years Public kissing was banned by an emperor in Roman times because of an epidemic of a disease that they described being what we know now is Herpes Important to understand we don t know where they originated but they re here to stay 0 500 million new cases this year of gonorrhea chlamydia and syphilis GONORRHEA Gonorrhea A sexually transmitted infection caused by the gonococcus bacterium which lives on mucous membranes Oldest of the STIs symptoms described in the Old Testament 820000 new cases in the US Higher rate among African Americans than it is among Latinos or Whites Symptoms and Complications Lives on warm moist mucous membranes in the urethra vagina rectum mouth and throat and eyes Contraction mucous membranes come into contact with another person s infected membrane intimate contact Men s Symptoms 0 Thick white puss or yellowish discharge from the urethra starting 2 10 days after infection 0 An irritation or a burning sensation at the urethra opening and urination is often painful 10 to 35 of men show no symptoms If left untreated in Men gonorrhea can spread up the man s reproductive system and cause in ammation of the prostate and epididymis 10 to 30 of cases which can lead to infertility Women s Symptoms o The gonococcus invades the cervix 0 Most women show no symptoms during the early stages o 20 to 40 of women who show symptoms abnormal vaginal discharge and irritation of the vuvla and urethra causing burning sensations If left untreated in Women gonococcus spreads through the uterus into the fallopian tubes tubes become swollen and in amed AKA pelvic in ammatory disease 0 PID can cause scarring of the tube which blocks passage of the sperm and egg I Common cause of sterility Pregnant with Gonorrhea o Fetus will usually not be infected because the bacterium normally is not carried in the bloodstream 0 Babies eyes can become infected at delivery as it passes through the infected cervix and vagina I Leads to blindness of the newborn Requires antibiotics or silvernitrate drops Diagnosis and Treatment CDC recommends combination therapy injection of ceftriaxone plus orally administered azithromycin Real concern that there might not be cure Many people are diagnosed with gonorrhea are also found to have chlamydia at the same time the CDC is advising doctors to treat for both infections CHLAMYDIA AND NONGONOCOCCAL URETHRITIS any in ammation of the urethra not caused by the gonococcus is called nongonococcal nonspeci c urethritis NGU Chlamydia is much more common than gonorrhea with about 286 million new cases in US this year Symptoms and Complications Chlamydia trachomatis lives only on mucous membranes Spread the same way gonorrhea is intimate contact early symptoms start within 1 3 weeks after infection and are milder than gonorrhea o irritation and burning of the urethra and a discharge I 90 of women show no symptoms at all in the initial stage half of cases resolve themselves in women up to 18 of them develop PID Babies born to women with chlamydia 0 eye infections andor nosethroat Diagnosis and Treatment Noninvasive urine test for other mucous membranes a swab is taken followed by a culture test if chlamydia is con rmed it is usually treated with doxycycline or azithromycin Pelvic In ammatory Disease PID in Women A likely Consequence of Untreated Chlamydia or Gonorrhea possible consequence if infections aren t treated PIS is a general term for an infection that travels from the lower genital tract to the fallopian tubes and sometimes to the ovaries 45 of cases are caused by chlamydia and the rest gonorrhea 1 million new cases per year the inside diameter of the pathway an egg takes through a fallopian tube is less than that of a human hair thus even a small amount of scar tissue can result in an ectopic pregnancy or permanent sterility
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