History Notes 9/28-10/2
History Notes 9/28-10/2 hIST 1020
Popular in World history 2
Popular in History
This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to hIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Hamilton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see World history 2 in History at Auburn University.
Reviews for History Notes 9/28-10/2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/04/15
Making a Working Class Key terms amp concepts Vanishing peasants open field system commons enclosure capitalist agriculture proletariat Classical Liberalism Iron Law of Wages free tradequot Luddites Recall from last lecture mechanized cotton gin amp cotton gin worked into the Global World System freeing up labor in Britain cause using slave labor no more farm land or employees same for sheep and wool economic analysis shows that Britain needed 20 million acres of land to process all this material goods This was used inside the manufactories Britain laborers out of work Vanishing peasants No more rural class 0 Happens all over the world Open Field System Varied tasks amp skilled labor 0 Goalsubsistence Whole family works together 0 Women child and men Small areas of land Usually worked for the land owner for a portion of the crops A part of the cottage industry Cthlabor This was not the first time children worked Industrial Labor is when people started seeing it as a problem 0 Open field system Small fields broken up for different crops for different purpose Every village has common lands a Peasants use common lands I Grow small veggie plots there Allowed each village to be self sufficient a Not a part of the world system a Not efficient Efficiency start becoming more of a concern for the large land owners O O O O Scale Producing a lot more will cost less 0 Image Before and After of the farming system in Britain 0 Before Split up Ran by different farmers Producing a lot of different stuff so it doesn t have to go somewhere else to get what you need 0 After Make a couple of things in large patches Growing a commercial crop o Subsistencee Capitalist agriculture Subsistence working for survival Long term and long distance markets Capitalist agriculture is Focused on profit Enclosure Act a Takes away common land a Makes it part of the large estates a 11000 square miles entered into the hands of private ownership I seemed more efficient a goal produce cash crops n this forced the peasants into a cash economy 0 working for money to get what you need 0 didn t have the commons o The class effected by the is called the Proletariat They have nothing to give but their labor Cant make their own goods and crops Don t have a means of production a Land or machines any of the stuff they need to make products to sell Instead of working for food they are working for money Transformed into an urban working class Vanishing peasants Had to go to urban areas because that is where they could provide wages o This is not a theory this is true The Goose and the Commons 0 Generations of poets and writers write about this 0 The peasantry was no longer in the country side this changes the English people s views on themselves 0 They are aware this has changed and they begin to resist quotThey hang the man and flog the woman That steals the goose from off the common But let the greater villain loose Commons That steals the common from the goose 0 Who probably wrote this rhyme The peasantscommon people 0 What does it mean Taking the common land away from the people Its about the idea of law and that the law will punish the peasants for punishing a goose But if you are a rich land owner and get a law passed that gives you the land then take away their ability to live and survive and the government is behind you They feel that the government is not on their side Peasantry 9 Proletariat 0 You can take the peasant into the city but the social order must change too 0 New habits 0 New behaviors 0 New ways of working 0 New relationships between factory owners managers employees 0 They now live entirely off of cash 0 They used to only do this kind of work of extra moneyluxury but now this is their full time job 0 Farm Work Crop work is seasonal Crop work is hard amp heat factos But sometime had breaks when waiting for crops to grow 0 Industrial work Time is all the same all time is the same a Regardless of AMPM Labor is steady and uninterrupted Not paid by the piece you are paid by the hour a Producer pushes efficiency 0 Time becomes a key part of life 0 wasting timequot 0 Time is moneyquot 0 Clocks take off It has taken on a new many Punctuality being on time Working in the farm work off the sun in the factory work off the time Governs the lives of workers a This goes un noticed today Industrial mentality Separated form Natural Worldquot 0 People now fantasize about nature 0 Writing about mountains beaches etc 0 You see an increase in the romantic moment and the wonders of the country side ChaHenges Producing something to compete with English textiles o By the end of the 18th century labor wages were lower 0 Due to machines and the creation of the Proletarian class This is all they can do 0 Factories work on deskilling the part of the process making easier for the working class Repetitivesimple tasks A child could do this U see graph on ppt n Age of cotton mill workers in Manchester 0 Under 18 overwhelmingly under 16 o No adult men Overwhelming numbers of employees were children again this was not the first time just the first time it was a problem 0 Because you can employee whoever then you can continually lower the wages 0 Driving ideology driven by the Enlightenment Classical Liberalism Classical Liberalism 0 Adam Smith 0 Liberal economist o Enlightenment man Liberty is what we need People are rational and if you give them free reign they will produce the optimum system Political and economic liberty must go together 0 Wants scientific way of looking at money and economy 0 Puts it all in one statement about philosophy 0 He knows these things aren t true but he is a philosopher o Intended as thought experiment not practical system 0 The Wealth of Nations 0 Idea of the Natural cost 0 Cost of transportation production tariffs everything 0 Market prices what it sells for artificial because doesn t follow the Natural costs Argues that they shouldn t be this should be the same Without the government intervention the market price will always move towards the natural cost The INVISBLE HANDquot Laissezfaire economics 0 Assumptions No how much things are worth a This is not true think about used cars Contracts are not made by equals one is stronger than the other and sometimes you have government imbalances n Assumes perfect world without coercion of imbalances He wrote it as a philosophy but it turned into a policy a Classical Liberalism rises and serves as a model a Against labor unions colonial merchants etc Producers are now arguing for this free trade they are tired of the mercantilism and capitalist system Free trade in practice Growing number of taxes of slavery Abolition of slavery on humanitarian and economic grounds 0 People are now braces Enlightenment principles that slaves are humans Abolitionist Factories are ran by machines and machines are easily broken slaves would interfere 0 Still needed the slave labor on farms though 0 People were spending more money on slaves due to taxes and ways to keep them form slave rebellions In 1833 they abolition of slavery Factory owners were now paying minimally for free labor Natral price of labor Iron Law of Wages The natural price of labor is the minimum amount necessary to sustain the life of the worker Raising wages above the minmum distorts the market Lowering the wage below this amount results in mass starvation of slavery Increase production 9 increased wealth Increase material standards of living Growing gap of rich and poor Worked long hours Extended pay check week month quarterly makes sure your laborers don t run off Workman s comp was low Did all of this really improve lifequality of life 0 4 hours for 6 month 0 8 hours for 1 year Image attic apartment occupied by a working class family 0 ten in London1863 Class Conflicts and the Luddites Formed a military organization and break into factories and smash the machines They same machines as the instruments of their poverty Government s support of capitalist was causing this 0 Government sent troops Held rallies and trials to capture the Luddites Uprising was feared by the bougourosie because the revolution recently changed 0 They didn t want a revolution very small things for the working class Right to vote Peterloo Massacre Working class protest 11 workers died 0 government didn t interfere 0 this shocked people they now needed to pay attention to the working class 0 it convinced the working class the the government was their enemy 0 Class Conflicts 93015 The Great Divergence Key terms amp concepts Great Divergence biological old regimenew regime Malthusian cycles coal steam engine PreModernMedieval World System China was at core this is now changing England is more of a core 0 China becomes a periphery Turning point 1800 moment of the Great Divergence 0 Western European economies developing in a different way Production industrialization Exploiting resources from around the world Biological Old Regime Important part of industrial revolution technology 0 Steam enginecoal power machine 0 Labor organization comes first way before technological revolutions o Technological shift in 1800 Technology is not the sole cause that determines what happens a Example water wheel had been used for years to saw wood or grind mill just not in a way for factory settingsproduction 0 Biological old regime biological new regime o SHIFT AT 1800 Before anytime before 1800 After new is anytime after 1800 All Energy comes from annual flows of solar energy and their capture by humans through photosynthesis and food chains Sun provides energy9 plants capture for growth9 then animals eat plants9 people eat plants and animals 0 Human laborenergy comes from vegetables and humans 0 Animal laborenergy comes from grass and hay 0 Heating and cooking firewood dung grasses etc Think about times 0 Old Regime Crops eat within a year Animals eat after a few year of birth 0 New Regime Breaking out and not letting it limit to this using the solar energy Exploited fossil fuelsthis is years of soalr energy a Coal is a key factor in English production Malthusian Cycles That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence that population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase and that the superior power of population is repressed and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence by misery and vicequot Thomas Malthus 1798 o argues that population is limited by resources 0 ties production and population together 0 example population needs food if you produce 10 pounds of potatoes and everyone needs 2 potatoes but you have more than 5 people the people will be limited if reaches limit it will crash once it crashes people will die off then there is a surplus of produce available 0 for the majority of human history population growth has been very slow you can support more people using same technologysame way of life You have to figure out how to make more think about when farming became larger you then can support more people irrigation new plow more food will be produce local population will increase 0 Image look at charge You see exponential growth after the industrial revolution modern age Production has increased In the past 200 years the Earth s population has EXPLODED What to we have to thank for this Coal The Fossil Fuel Revolution 0 What is coalsee image 0 Millions of years of solar energy Ancient swap or forest where ever you see large sets of biomass the weight causes it to sink no oxygen and its hotter down there 0 Forms the black form of coal that we all know 0 You can use it in replacement of wood because burns at hotter temperature Burning bricks forming metal etc 0 Coal can be found underground 0 British They are a agriculture society so cut down woods to make farms therefore they ad been using coal for a long time Coal in England is close to surface Sometimes even on the surface therefore easy to access and it is a good source of energy by 17005 they had used all the coal up so they had to start mining a You could mine everywhere 56 of coal mining was in England during this time IT was also kept locally 0 Other parts of the world still had trees to burn a By the 18th century you had to mine deeper but it rains in England mines started to flood o How do you end flooding 0 There was a push for innovation something to fix this Newcomen Steam Engine This machine runs on coal to get water out of the hole to get more coal This was not the first steam engine they have been around for different purpose The steam engine was not naturally built for this it just adapted to this By 1800 there were only 2500 steam engines in britian almost all in the mine hadn t spread to industry 0 In 1790 the first spinning machine was built to aid the Steam engine More efficient than water wheels There is resistance to new technology See map large technology and coal fields are in same place I Needed coal and lower transportation cost made it better for industry a Transportation at this time was by wagon labor induche n Makes another cycle The way coal becomes economically efficient is in the railroad system I Use coal to transport coal to spread more coal a Not until 1804 first train a 1825 until tracks a now economically possible for more people to use coal in their factories n MORE COAL MORE PRODUCTION MORE MONEY Hand spinning 100 lbs of cotton n Indian hand spinning 50000 hours a Waterpowered machines 300 hours a Steampowered machines 135 hours Coal Colonies and Labor Colonies provide cheap raw materials and captive markets for finished products Enclosures create large labor pool and drive wages down 0 Price of labor down Availability of plentiful cheap coal close to English industrial centers allows production to increase 0 Existence of coal was almost accident Mechanization reduces labor hours needed 0 Result British textiles are cheaper and more competitive with India 0 India can be more expensive 0 Europe breaks free of Biological Old Regime This is the Great Divergence 0 There is a limit on the coal so we know population cant increase forever it just pushes the roof higher Now Compare this to China 0 China had so many things 0 Tea art etc o No colonies buys raw materials at full price or devotes land to growing them reduced food production 0 China did have colonies because focused inward internal economy Great Wall of China in the 15th century under the Ming Dynasty Stopped exploring over seas China didn t need anything overseas didn t need the raw material because was producing them internally o In order to feed the population had to produce more food and crops their raw material became more expensive Self contained cotton farmers there was a cottage industry within the borders a This diverted land from food production 0 More cotton mean less food 0 Less food means less population a Cottage industry competes with factories for raw materials markets and labor 0 China is so big and so the internal trade also had transportation cost 0 This is why they would trade down the streetquot rather than to the big production centers 0 This also creates a smaller market within china The was not a bougoursie Peasants had a choice of what to grow and who to sell it to Coal was also in China a China had large coal deposits in NW China Some of the most well developed coal mines that had been used for centuries had used for iron before they even had their own steam engines Population had moved south due to Mongols Coal distant from major industrial centers 0 See maps in comparison to Britain 0 GEOGRAPHY IS KEY o In Britain coal mines were close to factories and cities 0 Geography is not a plan it just happens 0 In China coal mines were far from factories and cities It is as if Britain s coal mines were located in the Telology Scale Carpathian Mountains of southeastern Europe Some say is china had factories closer to coal this is not true to ink coal production is key world wide We also can treat china as a person with one coal they are all individuals acting as individual interests Before everyone wanted to be China and copy them Modern boundaries not quite same Population 0 China 300 million UK 77 million Europe 150 million English vs China 0 Not all of England was not industrial in fact most wasn t o In areas where it was not similar to rural china 0 china is so much larger and so many more population twice as large as Europe as a whole look at the scale of the pacific region Great divergence conjuncture of factors that made England a key site 0 probusiness government 0 easy access to coal 0 colonies growing disparity to rest of world bump in population and production England allowed us to advancedquot 0 production does not always increase quality of life 0 industrialization is not a next step because it is not the only direction it could have gone Image GDP per capita 0 Gross domestic production per person person year China remains stable Briatin skyrockets The fossil fuel revolution increased production but you cant translate this into real terms Are people happier Healthier 000 Summary There is a great divergence between west and east There is no single explanation No racial or cultural superiority It is not a matter of technological superiority people embraced int in different ways Strong military support for industrialization Colonies benefitted old and new Lowed labor cost Cotton gin Geologic accident Relative autonomy peasants in china had more power 10215 Empire and Opium Key terms and concepts New imperialism capitalism Raj Construction of Difference deindustrilization Sepoy Rebellion Indian Nationalism opium Unequal treaties opening spheres of influence Taiping Rebellion Recall Enormous increase in production this allows populations to rise income is also rising Steam power brings costs of production WAY DOWN We still need people to buy our stuff9 look to the colonies New Imperialism Bengal Old empires Americas merchants empires looked to empower the state the new ones are private investors capitalist 0 Not the government driving the empire Domination by a foreign state over the land resources and population of a territory for political and economic gain Capitalist private actors seeking profit not mercantilist o Profits are seen as limitless 0 Make more sell more private profits will rise The industrializing countries had huge demand for raw materials and they also need a new amp large market NOT THE STATE59 IT39S THE MERCHANTS o The people who are selling the goods call to the state to back them up See old maps see pink shows British Empire at the time 0 Established by trading posts empires Not controlled by India or Britain its controlled by the East Indian Company a private company 0 At the mercy of the local authorities 0 The Mughal Empire controlled most of this area but this empire was starting to weaken during this time due to trade More division 0 Officers of East Indian Company don t want to compromise with the locals so when the empire weakens they use existing internal division to play political faction Especially in Bengal 0 Cotton producing region with a large population and a powerful port city can trade with others 0 Alliances with elites in Bengal 0 Hire indian authorities 0 Own army 0 East Indian Company addressed the weakened and push the Mughal out 0 Not British claims it a colony a colony of the East Indian Company 0 Bengal is the starting point for transferring East Indian Company as a pseudostate Own currency Signs treaties Sets itself up as a government Company Raj n Period between 17571857 starting from when they threw out the Mughal n The people in charge are members of the East India Company 0 Uses local leaders as puppets 0 Over the next century uses force to expand holding By 1857 the large amount of India is controlled by the company a Political military and cultural shift Construction of Difference Creates differences between British and India 0 Way more India than British 0 They push English superiority o Conqueror convinces the people that his take over is good 0 Make the Indians accept British rule 0 Separate races 0 Separate living 0 Ideologies 0 Set apart the domination In 1854 English is the official language making it an elite cultural thing 0 Court and legal things must be in English 0 Bring Enlightenment and industrial revolution 0 Going on at the same time DeIndustrialization of India 0 Still hand spun technique but quality was better 0 The Indian dying processes was still better 0 But Britain s prices were so low making it competitive Between 18201840 0 Steam driven machine 0 India imports English goods starting deindustrialization Seesaw effect British shifts to industrialization India pushed out 0 Farmers left fields to go work in the factories but now go back and farm cotton to produce for the large demand of raw materials In India before there was so much and the cost of living was low and cost of labor was based off that But now there is just less food I Must make money a More dependent on global market Vulnerable of price markets Sepoy Rebellion Vietnamese troops working for East India Company revolt against British officers this is a large scale rebellion and British couldn t put it down 0 Massacres Blow battle because it s a battle for the future of India 0 First stage of India dependence movement 0 Rebellion is eventually put down when British brings in troops 0 Changes the way British controls India 0 The state dissolves the East India Company and then makes it a nation 0 British directly controls formal colony Queen Victoria is the empress of India 0 Image EVC for English Patriots 0 Alphabet book 0 I for India 0 How the British saw their reign 0 Wild exotic place people go to hunt the British guy is civilized and relaxed has Indian servant o Characteture of race civilization vs wild Converting a country and making it a better place India sees themselves as a group as well gives sense of Indian Nationalism that they had never seen before a Before had different language religion culture food etc 0 Never saw as a unit 0 Image of the snake 0 Now have a common enemy a They are a collective that can be studied 0 Upper class Indians went to England to study and went to school Enlightenment ideas 0 Nations rights studying their own country 0 Come back with ideas of Nationhood 0 They are the ones that see the rebellion for independent I Image Indian Congress 0 Begin reforms 0 Increase Indian representation in English government Wants rights as people Eventually led to independence China is still the biggest economy of the world at the start of the era in India the British wanted to go here to get raw material and cut out China People want access to them and their goods 3 million people to sell things 0 Break into Chinese market always a demand for your goods 0 Still wanted their goods 0 China didn t want outside textiles Emperialism in India gave British oatmeal that the Chinese couldn t live without Opium Poppies Oatmeal pod scrape the outside then that is the oatmeal 0 People new about this for a long time 0 Used medically sleeping aid 0 Best oatmeal from India not a lot in china 0 First people to bring large opium to china is the Dutch 0 17th century Dutch bring American Tobacco and Indian opium to China tobacco is a new world crop same time as oatmeal people figured out if you mixed them then smoked you get stoned it is also more addictive than syrup of opium poppies selling DRUGS a extremely Ludacris a British joins the Dutch in selling this to China I Still trading for tea Causes social problems in China a Addiction a Criminal action 0 1729 China outlaws opium trade didn t stop British from smuggling o 1757 British EIC gains monopoly over Indian exports and increases opium production ports of Bengal makes India more weak see image of Opium Factory and how large it is o opium is a big reason why East India company wanted to expand 0 consumption increased by 150000 0 opium was 14 of entire British empire 0 Britain can finally sell something to Chinese Cause Chinese drain on economy Illegal drug trade 9 addiction Weakens government because people ignored them a Lose Qing support a In 18305 once century later the dynasty cracks downquot of the trade 0 Commissioner Lin burning 20000 chests of Indian opium in 1839 0 Similar to Boston tea party 0 Symbol 0 Not everyone thought Britain should have continued trade 0 Dominated by classical liberals o No room for morality 0 18391860 0 2 major wars between British Naval and Chinese military both won by britih o Opium wars 0 Terms that are set unfavorable to the Chinese 0 Shift power to the Europeans o Called the opening of chinaquot Opening China 0 the East India Company iron steam ship Nemedis destroying Chinese war junks in the First Opium War painting by Edward Duncan 18439 see image 0 not just the opium wars 0 unequal treatiesopening the market military force to get people to except your products Europeans in charge of politics and economic Not conquering or taking over They don t start a colony They do dictate what the Chinese government does Allow opium again Price drops Everyone gets it 17571900 addiction spreads and British influence becomes more pervasive n no one ever challenged British before a British before had been nothing a now defeated what did this say about china as a nann Decreasing confidence in Qing Dynasty among Chinese population increasing social unrest U see graph u now they were scared other European countries would stop move defense to the coast OOOOO Spheres of Influence Imperial powers Britain Germany Russia France and Japan carving up China Taiping Rebellion 18501864 0 Peasant rebellion against the Qing Dynasty 0 Total wardestroyed crops cities etc to deprive enemy of resources 0 2030 million dead from war famine and disease compare with 620000 in American Civil War Major Themes 0 world system connects economies politics and lives around the globe 0 History cannot be understood in isolated national contexts New imperialism late 19th early 20th centuries involves industrial capitalist expansion supported by the state F ree tradequot
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'