Week 1 Lecture/Reading Notes
Week 1 Lecture/Reading Notes 10247 Anth
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Cruze on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 10247 Anth at University of Oregon taught by J Snodgrass in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Medicine in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Anthropology 175 Evolutionary Medicine Darwinian medicine Office Hours Monday 23 and Wednesday 230330 pm espresso room on 13th by appointment Office 354 Condon LECTURE 1 WEEK 1 Questions we will explore Why instead of the mechanics of how are we susceptible to disease Difference between body defense or symptom of the disease and how there is no one size fits all with treating and diagnosing virus and disease Conditions inside the womb and your mother s experience during pregnancy affect your permanent physiology and susceptibility to disease throughout your whole life exposure to smokingdrugs heavy metals diets lifestyle factors activity which then AFFECTING gtgtgtgt child s fertility birth size relatively small are individuals have increased risk of high blood pressuredisease The consequences of Mismatches environmental changes in relation with the less rapid genetic change in the last 50100 years rapid changes in lifestyle dietactivity have taken place but our genetics have not changed at the same magnitude affecting allergiescardiovascular disease mental health one issue is that we are living much longer changing the relationship between natural selection and morality Are we suffering from disease due to the fact that we depend on medicine instead of natural selection s strength to evolve us to be immune Biological causation proximate geneticsphysiologybiochemistry vs ultimate explanations evolutionary processesnatural selectionwhy questions paradigm to the evolution of our species we can begin to understand why we are so vulnerable to disease based off the history of the beginning of homo sapiens we evolved in an environment where calories were hard to get when didn t know when the next meal would be we have enormous highcalorie dense brains causing our bodies to learn to consume high calorie meals and store therefore we can get fat epigenetic you can transmit genes you can remove chemical signals adding and removing tags in genes for disease and virus with certain newer medicine Almost all humans 95 will experience low back pain in their lifetime knee problems as well Why walking on two legs it allows us to efficiently travel long distancesfree hands for carrying this is in the western worldagricultural societies is it affecting fertilitylifespan future conditions it will evolve based on the scenario of the future Bipedalism where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs An animal or machine that usually moves in a bipedal manner is known as a biped meaning quottwo feet39 google dictionary The timing of developmental stages are causes and indicators of disease or issues in the future We are very undeveloped after birth for a significant period of time this is a very unique condition for an animal longer period of postnatal dependence to mother at birth we are around 1516 o body fat quickly following that there is spike of storing body fat in the 6 months of life this is the time of weaningtransitioning between mother s milk to food People who have had birth help by presence during a birth of a child a calorie is not a calorie is not a calorie based off pathways and parts of the body that it targets In the united states increases in autoimmune diseases allergies asthma it is the lack of exposure that leads to increased risk 50 million in the us 1 in 5 with an allergy our immune system are tuned by environmental exposure the more antibiotics the more risk high dosage does not prepare your body LECTURE 2 WEEK 1 Anthropology there is a blurring of lines between sociologicallybiologicallyother science fields the study of humans using an integrative approach culture and society human universals amp variations culture and society in the past historic our evolutionary pastheritagecurrent biology Anthropology brings together different lines of evidence biological change understanding by combination of social and genetic factors racial differences affects our biology due to social factors societyaccess to healthcarelifestyle financial status and some genes much less important Biological Anthropology the study of human biology and behavior within the framework of evolution with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture focal areas human originsevolution AND contemporary human biological variation The Scientific Method the scientific method is one way of knowing a search for explanations through systems process is based on evidence empirical data observation generalization finding patterns relationships testing and continued testing self correction Basic principles nature is governed by natural laws discovered through inquiry and rational thought humans are part of nature and subject to nature s laws most science is discovered due to a different approach a perspective that is new most major discoveries are by scientists in their 20s or 30s data collection systematic amp explicit able to replicate and get same results hypothesis not ungrounded speculation a statement about what might be true must be falsifiable can be proven wrong with observation theory well tested model that has survived repeated attempts to prove it false evolution is a theory the theory of plate tectonicsetc A key distinction Basic research to expand our knowledge of how the world works vs Applied Research trying to solve a practical problem you need the basic research in order build upon and do applied research ex Germ theory of disease many disease are caused by the presence and actions of certain microorganisms ex bacteria a guiding theory that underlies much of contemporary biomedicine Often science makes progress due to technological change ex microscopes PreDarwinian Understanding of the New World Great Chain of Being Scala Naturae basic idea that dates back to 4th Century BC all organism exist in a universal hierarchical ladder rankings linear simple to complex continuityunchanging ltFixity of Speciesgt concept of missing link new fossils fall in between the linkage somewhere with the idea that those links are also going up this missing link is not a big link that explains everything ex monkeys to humans reality is that there are tons of missing links and no great missing link that explains much more Larmarck Early evolutionary thinking predarwin 17441829 postulated interaction of organism amp environment inheritance of acquired characteristics usedisuse ex the giraffe needs to stretch his neck in order to reach leaves on trees therefore giraffes overtime pass a trait of longer necks to offspring THIS IS WRONG Suggested reading evolution for everyone david wilson WEEKf READINGS Gibbons Science Magazine our ancestors ate meat no milk less carbohydrates Modern diet rich in fat sugar and salt Is there a single Paleolithic diet that is going to be a magic bullet for everyone asked biological anthropologist William Leonard Or do we have to tailor diets specifically to regional populations Researchers concluded that many factors including genes sex ancestry and fetal and childhood conditions influence how we digest foods and store fat Physiological stress in mothers can leave lingering imprints on descendants for generations History hunter gatherers relied on big animal meats gt shift to fish gt about 10000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and later animal move to agriculture introduced staples of the Western diet cereal grains sugars and milk after weaning Agricultural revolution favored People who have gene variants that helped them digest milk alcohol and starch One gene variant for example makes living Saami less likely to get uric acid kidney stones common in people who eat highprotein diets than are people whose ancestors were vegetarian Hindus and lack this gene variant says geneticist Mark Thomas Indigenous people adopting Western diets is causing health issues an epidemic of obesity is now spreading into ethnic groups Trend people evolved in warm lowland environments where food may be scarce gt have slow metabolisms for their body size as adaptations to famine or heat stress ex the Pima and the Tsimane of lowland Bolivia people frigid or highaltitude climates gt have high metabolisms probably to convert fat into energy efficiently ex the Evenki or the Quechua of Peru Despite their differences all of these groups risk disease when they switch to the Western diet Human stature often tracks the nutritional status of mothers and it can take generations for descendants to recover ex indian mothers during famine had babies with low birth weights gt now present day diets rapidly store fat during first years and cause diabeteshealth related disease One way to prevent obesity and disease is to improve the diet of pregnant mothers and young children are different biology and history creates an issue making a perfect diet to fit all people Jurmain 2011 earliest human ancestors 6 to 8 million years ago evolved from that ancestors with not from chimpanzees humans separated from monkeylike ancestor 20 million years ago species went separate ways each living species is the product of processes millions of years old evolution is a theory has not be disproven explains biological changes in species Charles Darwin was the first to explain basic mechanics of the evolutionary process despite that other cultures such as the Chinese and Arab had theories similar but not constructed quite yet natural selection single most powerful force of evolutionary change alfred wallace also came to this conclusion at the same time Fixity of Species Throughout the middle ages it was a common belief in the european world view that life and relationships never changed God created the world as it existed presentday Argument from design God created the world purposefully so the design had a function ex eye to see limb to move Ussher 1581 1 656 believed the origin of the world was created in 4001 BC Shubin 2009 This Old Body Piscine Inheritance in fish the sexual organs gonads form high up in the body near the liver in mammals the gonads descend quite important for health of sperm explanation sperm needs to develop in a cooler environment aka in the middle part of the body issue this loop travel from the sac to the urethra causes weakness in the body near the apex resulting in hernias this issue is due to the fish ancestor in our past and our different mammal present Hiccups spasms in the chest and throat that can last minutes or in rare cases years this is due to our relation with fish and amphibians we inherited the major breathing nerves we have from fish Phrenic extends base of skull and travels through chest cavity and diaphragm any irritation or interrupts with this course causes hiccups explanation fish have gills in neck a more suitable travel area for this course for humans would be near diaphragm we inherited the hiccup from amphibians that shoot water out of their gills when they breathe Due to our inherited traits such as fish and amphibians it is not a surprise we suffer from joint pain carpal tunnel lnuit Study Omega 3 Fatty Acids lnuit people only ate sea creatures mainly whales and fish no farming of grainfruit vegetables Did not suffer many heart attacks 1970s Danish researchers suggested Omega 3 Acid was protective to heart disease Today 10 of Americans take fish oil supplements DESPITE studies have failed to show protective qualities lnuit evolved from ancestors with adaptations for metabolizing Omega 3 fatty acids ex of adapting genes for food being able to digest milk is mainly a north europe east africa trait ancestors in other regions lactoseintolerant Found in almost every tested lnuit descendant Dr Nielson and team discovered a unique construction of enzymes fatty acid desaturates which help regulate different fats in the body aka Omega 3 this adaptation changed the blood level of fatty acids back to a healthy balance the Inuit were average an inch shorter and ten pounds lighter than those who did not have the gene natural selection may not have favored FADS but actually a different gene with important advantages that had FADS passed with it WEEK 1 LAB READINGS Bering 2012 How are They Hanging Handicap Hypothesis that if an animal can survive with a maladaptive trait somewhat vulnerable ex hanging testicle instead of inside of the body it has superior genes and is good for mating there is little evidence this is the case for males species with normal colored balls sperm production and storage is best in tooler temperatures may be key testicles go up into body and down depending on external temperatures the only thing that makes sense is the scrotum complements the female body s anatomy scrotum prevents premature ejaculation by keeping the sperm below body temperature testicles get closer to the body when close to them protection stays clear of swinging during sex activation upon semination it is a curious thing the testicles are outsideunprotected carrying the essentials for human life Firestein 2012 sciam What Science Wants to Know ignorance will always grow faster than knowledge everyday there is far more we know we don39t know Thoroughly conscious ignoranceis the prelude to every real advance in knowledge james maxwell if you see a scientist do not ask them what they know but what they WANT to know The Scientific Method make observation ask questions develop hypotheses want to prove hypothesis wrong test hypothesis by conducting research draw conclusions to support or refute the hypothesis report the results by sharing data replicate resultsrefine explanations and correct errors Theory a broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that have been substantially verified through the testing of hypothesis welltested explanation
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