Week of Notes for 9/28-10/2
Week of Notes for 9/28-10/2 CH 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rani Vance on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
BSC 116 Jennifer Howeth Week of Notes 928102 Intro into Invertebrates Mollusks include diverse taxa Class Ployplacophora chitons Class Gastropoda snails slugs Class Bilvalia calms mussels oysters Class Cephalopoda squid octopus and nautilus Many traits are shred among mollusks but 3 are found in all taxa 1 foot for crawling chitons burrowing bilvalia and swimming octopus 2 organs concentrated in Visceral mass not stretched over whole body like annelids 3 mantle cavity space under mantel behind the Visceral mass Other Traits mantle cavity space under mantle behind Visceral masses houses gills calcium carbonate shell exoskeleton except in octopus radula for feeding except in bilvalia gonochoristic separate sexes exceptions in most classes Ecdysozoa bilateral discovered by molecular phylogenetics is a new grouping of 8 phyla discovered recently based upon DNA all taxa molt their outer covering go thru ecdysis Two Diverse Phyla Phyla Anthropoda insects spiders crabs some in the lineage are extinct Phyla Nematoda 25000 known many waiting to be discovered no circulatory system Arthopods are covered by a joint exoskeleton covered by a cuticle nonliVing organic later proteinchitin over epidermis thick in some places rigid hardened with calcium carbonate thin and exible in other places provides points for muscle attachment anthropods are segmented like annelids pair of appendages appendages diversified for variety of functions hard waterproof exoskeleton facilitated the invasion of land 428 my exoskeleton creates new challenges gas exchange gills and book lungsspiders molt ecdysis in order for the species to grow open circulatory system with hemolymph similar to blood in closed circulatory system Anthropods represented by three subphyla subphylum Chelceriforms arachnids spiders ticks mites scorpions horseshoe crabs chellcerae clawlike appendages Subphylum Myriapoda centipedes and millipedes terrestrial only Subphylum Pancrustacea decapods lobsters crab shrimp crayfish isopods pill bugs and rollie pollies copepods Crustaceans dominate the ocean insects dominate terrestrial indirect development metamorphosis sexual internal fertilization wings are an extension of the dorsal cuticle some insects can be very helpful some harmful eat crops spread diseases eg malaria Nematods triploblast tinycylindrical but unsegmented pseudocoelomate parasitesagricultural we know much less about all free living species Vertebrates and Invertebrates are united in deuterostomia include taxa with deuterostome development echinoderms chordates lophophorates Modern has two phyla phylum Echinodermata starfish sea urchins phylum Chordata fish frogs chicken and fish Echinoderms spiny skin quasiradial symmetry bilateral larvae unique water vascular system with tube feet chemically mediated function in locomotion and feeding no organs for water balance exclusively marine asexual regeneration and sexual broadcast spawning 930 Early Branches of the Vertebrae Phylogeny All chorates share 4 diagonostic traits at some point in their development 1 notochord long exible rod of cells provides skeletal support something for muscles to pull against for swimming may be replaced by other skeletal elements 2 hollow dorsalnerve chord develops from ectoderm ultimately develops into the central nervous system 3 pharyngeal slits pharynx posterior to mouth water enters mouth passes thru slit suspension feeding in more derived chordates there are gills and jaws 4 postanal tail muscular tail extends past anus Two Chordate Clades All marine clades l lancelets cephatochordata cilia draw water into the mouth mucus secreted pharyngeal slits trapped food enters small suspension feeder capable of swimming partially buried 2 tunicated urochodata chordate character most apparent during larvae stage adults are sessile anchored to the ocean oor suspension feeders basketlike pharynx Sequence of traits evolved that allow us to trace the evolution of vertebrates Vertebrae jaws mineralized skeleton lungs lobed finsappendages legs amniotic eggs produce milk Two clades of jawless vertebrates cyclostomes l Hagfish myxini no jaw suck up worms and dead fish cartilage with no skull reduced vertebrae excrete slime to defend themselves against predators 2 Lampreys petromyzontida j awless with rasping tongue larvae look a lot like lancelets cartilaginous vertebrae most parasitic marine freshwater species Early Vertebrate Evolution Cartilaginous vertebrae and skull provides skeletal support and spinal chord Innovations mineralized teeth and armor plates led to mineralization dorsal and ventral fins semicircular ear canals for balance Conodants lacked jaws and an internal skeleton composed of cartilage mineralized dental hooks j awless armored vertebrates Gnathostomes vertebrates with jaws j aws evolved from skeletal support between gills gnathostomes have existed for 450 million years Innovations skeleton calcified with hard matrix of calcium phosphate increased forebrain lateral line system Extant Clades chondri chthyes sharks and sting rays unmineralized skeleton buoyancy based on the amount of oil stored in the liver osteichytes bony fish mineralized skeleton buoyancy using lungs and swim bladders Osteichthyans Gnathostomes with bony skeleton include bony fishtetra pods lungs are modified swim bladder gases move into and out of blood attened bony scales glands secrete slime Sacropterygians lobefinds pectoral and pelvic fins with rod shaped bones surrounded by muscle axial limbs support walking in the shallow parts of water Three extant clades Actinistia coelacanths Dipnoi lungfishes South America tetrapods four legs amphibians Tetrapods sarcopenteryglands evolved legs to provide supportlocomotion accumulation of features of 10 million years eg Acanthostega had limbs but were too weak to leave the water lots of fossils demonstrate the transition from water to land Amphibians oldest tetrapod lineage three orders 1 Order Urodela salamander 2 Order Ahura frogs and toads 3 Order Apoda aecllians no legs Amphibious live on land and in the water some fully aquatic some fully terrestrial often aquatic larval stage tadpole undergo metamorphosis eggs dry out quickly if not kept wet or moist external fertilization 102 Amniotic Egg this is a very important innovation that was stressed in class selfcontained aquatic environment MAJ OR innovation that allowed for tetrapods to transitions fully on land egg has four extraembryonic membranes not part of the body of the embryo grows from tissue layers out from the embryo able to survive without water analogous to a seed extant species that utilize this reptiles and egg laying mammals A key adaption to terrestrial life was the amniotic egg 4 extraembryonic membranes 1 amnion holds embryo in uid buffers from shock and drying out 2 chorion gas exchange 3 allantois creates compartment for waste also functions in gas exchange 4 yolk sac nutrient storage delivered via white blood cells albumen egg white greater nutrients than yolk shell hard like chicken egg or leathery like an alligator egg reptiles lay eggs externally but differ in hardness reptiles are much less reliant on an aquatic environment than their ancestors were most mammals have lost their shelled eggs and raise an embryo in the uterus amniotes developed other terrestrial adaptations skinless permeable to water and gases Extant Amniotes reptiles and synapsids What is a reptile arose 310 My things like tuataras lizards snakes turtles crocodiles body has a hard keratin shell or plates scales are used for protection generally oviparous lay eggs on land internal fertilization some viviparous embryo retained and developed in mother ectothermic body heated by environment BirdsMammals evolved from reptile ancestors reptilian characters ancestral rather than derived reptiles recognized by what they are not nonbird nonmammal endothermic mammals use metabolic processes to generate heat Tuataras Lizards Snakes extant lineages of lepdiosaurs tuataras 2 species remaining found in New Zealand squamates lizards and snakes 7900 species Turtles have been hard to place easy to recognize because of shell shell used to protection against predation sister to archosaurs sister to diapsids Archosaurs9 birds and crocodiles crocodiles and alligators tend to be aquatic birds sister to crocodiles represented by dinosaurs two major lineages of dinosaurs ornithischian extinct saurischian some extinct Birds evolved from saursischian theropods theropods bipedal carnivores like trex some species had feathers feathers keratin like scales of reptiles LightWeight for insulation feathers evolved much before ight Archaeopteryx 1St bird 150 My air foil Wings and longs tail capable of ight retained some dinosaur characteristics teeth forelimbs long tail Modern birds well adapted for ight modifications for ight no bladder small gonads air filled bones endothermic high metabolism to power ight keen Vision fine muscle control brain larger than other reptiles with similar body size Several Flightless Birds ratites ostriches emu penguins use Wings to swim and dive rather than y Clicker Question True or false deutrosomes occurs in vertebrates and invertabraes Answer True Clicker Question Jaw first occurred in which group Answer chondrichthyes Clicker Question Which group is NOT located in sarcoterygian Answer sharks Clicker Question Key innovation that best transitions sarcoterygian from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial one Answer amniotic egg