Chapter 7 Notes
Chapter 7 Notes BIOL 1030-003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Rosenfeld on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030-003 at Clemson University taught by Kristi J. Whitehead in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 7 Photosynthesis Using Light to Make Food SECTIONS 71711 Photosynthesis 0 Plants and Eukaryotic cells as well as most bacteria can do photosynthesis 0 Overall purpose taking energy from light to make food to then make sugar used in cellular respiration to make energy Sections 7 17 5 An Overview of Photosynthesis Electron transport chains are used in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration 0 General Groups of Organisms Where an organism gets its carbon from to build more molecules 0 Autotrophscarbon dioxide producers I Photoautotrophs most producers I Gets energy from light photosynthesis I Organisms that are capable of photosynthesis I Combines light energy with carbon from C02 they get from the environment turns into biomass 0 EX Forest kelp cyanobacteria 0 Figure 71ABC Page 108 I Chemoautotrophs I Gets energy from inorganic chemicals 0 Heterotrophsorganic molecules consumers captures C02 and turns it into biomass 0 Chloroplasts 0 The site of photosynthesis Where the process is carried out 0 Has a greenish color I Responsible for absorbing the sunlight to convert it to chemical energy 0 Not a substitute for mitochondria 0 Purpose of chloroplast is for photosynthesis that then sends the results to the mitochondria to get energy 0 C02 HZOIZILightIZIC6H1206 02 O Stoma stomata tiny pores in the leaf of a plant used for gas exchange I Thick uid I Need C02 enters stoma to release 02 leaves stoma Veins deliver water and nutrients Chloroplasts capture light through the pigments Figure 721 Page 109 Double membrane organelle Stacks of thylakoids to make a granum In the thylakoid space is Where the hydrogen ions build up OOOOOO 0 Figure 7 22 Page 109 0 Where does the Oz produced during photosynthesis come from O 0 Oxygen is produced through photosynthesis I Reactants 6 C02 6 H20 I Products C6leO6 6 2 Separate Experiments to trace photosynthesis using isotopes O Redox Process 0 O O 0 000 Photosynthesis loses and gains electrons Follow the hydrogens because the electrons stay with hydrogens Reduction and oxidation go together Where does the oxygen come from I Isotopes 16O and 18O differentiate I Oxygen in C02 is 18O first experiment I Oxygen in HzO is 18O second experiment I Oxygen comes initially from the water Figure 74 A Page 110 Cellular respiration is the same Stopped when the citric acid cycle is reached Figure 74 B Page 110 0 Overview of Photosynthesis O 0 Light reactions I Require light I Release 02 I Provide energy and electrons to run the dark reactions I Point where sunlight is converted into chemical energy I Happens in chloroplast thylakoids I Where water is going to be used and oxygen is released I Water comes insplit apartljfree up oxygenljreleased by the plantljfrees up electronsl reduces NADP to NADPH third electron carrier goes elsewhere for the energy to be usedADPPATP I Helps energize electrons free from water to help reduce NADP Dark ReactionsCalvin Cycle I Day or night I Doesn t require light I Uses NADPH and ATP from light reactions to make sugar from C02 biomass I Happens in chloroplast stroma I Powered Energy amp reducing by the light reaction I Takes COZIZIorganic compounds sugarglucosebiomass CARBON FIXATION I When carbon is in C02 form only autotrophs can use itfixes COZIZIorganic compoundsmore can use it heterotrophs I Figure 75 Page 111 Sections 7 67 9 Light Reactions 0 Sunlightenergy O Electromagnetic energyelectromagnetic radiation 0 Travels in 2 forms I Travels in waves I Travels in photons small packages of light that can be captured 0 Electromagnetic Spectrum 0 Various wavelengths we can have for light I Can we see I How much energy I Peak of oneljpeak of another I Closer the wavesmore energy I Gamma raysshort wavesElphoton of light would be rich with energy creates damage because waves are so strong I Radiobroad wavesElphoton of light would have less energy I Portion of spectrum makes up visible 380nm 750nm human eye can see 0 Sunlight is far from earth I Energy that comes from the sunljabout 42 actually reaches the earths surface I Absorbed by the earth s atmosphere or re ects back into space I Photosynthesis captures less than 2 of the energy from the sun wasted sunlight I Figure 76 A Page 112 0 Chloroplast 0 What happens to the light when is gets to the chloroplast O Pigmentsljabsorb lightljconverts to chemical energy 0 When light hits pigments in the chloroplast we can see I Absorbed stays in the pigment and can be used by photosynthesis I Transmitted through pigment and comes out the other side I Re ected hits surface of pigment and bounces off 0 Green I Transmitted or re ected because those wavelengths of light are not being absorbed by the chloroplast I Different plants re ect or transmit light differentlyljcolor I Figure 76 B Page 112 0 Chlorophyll 0 What color is not absorbed is the color the plant goes off 0 FallEIpigments shift as the season changeljonly carotenoids are leftljless movement in the veins cold 0 Plants can have more than one pigment I The color you see is a ratio of the pigments O Chlorophyll A I Re ects green I Absorbs blueviolet light I Cannot absorb green so it re ects green 0 Chlorophyll B I Re ects yellowgreen I Orange and blue I Cannot absorb green so it re ects green 0 Carotenoids I Absorbs a number of wavelengths that A amp B cannot absorb I Re ect yellow and orange I Role in photoprotection I Help absorb excess light energy that the chlorophylls cannot absorb and helps protect the cell from damage from the light I Absorbs green I Too much light can damage bonds 0 What happens when a photon of light is absorbed by the pigment I Energizes chlorophyll to bounce to an excited energy state I Can lose heat and light emission I Ex Black car is hot in the summer ask black absorbs a huge range of wavelengths and they all fall back down because there is no chlorophyll molecule to catch the electrona large amount of heat is released I In photosynthesis when an electron gets excited there is something to capture the energy I Figure 77 A Page 113 O Photosynthesis I Catching mechanism that catches the falling electrons I In thylakoid membrane I Needs membrane involvement at certain stages like cellular respiration I Photosystem 0 Series of light harvesting complexes 0 Surround a reaction complex 0 Light comes in a form of a photonabsorbed by pigmentpassed from pigment to pigmentstops at chlorophyllprimary electron acceptorcaptures the electron and the energystarts to put it into chemical energy 0 Continuous process 0 Way to capture excited electron I Figure 77 B Page 113 O Photosystems I Photosystem 11 comes first I Photosystem I was discovered first but comes second Photonsllphotosystem IIETCinvolvement of Photosystem Illsmall ETCelectron to NADPNADPH Cooperates in light reactions Works together Photosystem II 0 Light comes inlight energy pigment to pigmentpair of chlorophyll A molecules lexcites electroncaptured by acceptorreplace excited electronllwater splits to free electronsoxygen is free from waterformationenters into ETCcreates hydrogen gradientATP productionstage I 0 Figure 79 A1 Page 115 Photosystem I 0 Light energypigment to pigmentexcitedlcapturedelectron losed needs to be replacedreplaced With electron after it goes down ETC from photosystem IIDsmall ETCoxidizedreduced NADPHDNADP 0 Electron lost at both 0 Figure 79 A2 Page 115 BIG PICTURE 0 Figure 79 Page 115 0 REVIEW of Light Reactions 0 Chemiosmosis Absorb light energy NADPH and ATP is What you get out of light reactions Thylakoid membrane 0 Photosystem II 0 Photosystem I acts second founded first Energy passed until getting to reaction centergets excitedljcaptured by electron acceptor replaced electron from splitting of wateroxygen is produced comes from the waterreplace missing electronhigh energy electron that is captured travels down ETC releases energycreation of hydrogen gradientchemiosmosisIATP Light is being absorbed by pigments in photosystem I same as above replacement electron is low energy electron that is left on the ETC Single electron carrier NAD reduced to NADPH Use to reduce electron carriers so they can go elsewhere to act Figure 78 Page 114 0 Nothing new just locations 0 IN order to make ATP a hydrogen gradient is needed to make ATP and the hydrogen needs to move down the gradient to make ATP 0 In cellular respirationoxidative phosphorylation ETC and chemiosmosis Oxidation of organic compounds I Locationmitochondria 0 Inner and outer membrane ETC in inner membranehydrogen gradient in inner membrane space 0 In photosynthesisllphotophosphorylation ETC and Chemiosmosis I Where the energy comes from is the difference in names I Original source of energy is light to shoot up to high energy states I LocationThylakoids 0 ETC in thylakoid membrane hydrogen pumped into thylakoid spaceinner most space make ATP to pump back out through ATP synthase to get ATP production 0 NADPH and ATP go to dark reactions to help run them 0 Figure 790 Page 115 I Photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation 0 Original energy source and location is different I Products 0 NADPH provides electrons 0 ATP provides energy 0 Oxygen is a product Sections 710711 The Calvin Cycle Reducing C02 to Sugar 0 Dark Reactions I Need C02 ATP NADPH I Get outG3P glyceraldehyde3phosphate I Used by plant to make a number of things I 4 steps Calvin Cycle Figure 710 0 Carbon fixation 0 Where autotrophic can take carbon from C02 and fix it into organic compounds First place to see carbon put into an organic form 0 Ribulose bisphosphate 5C combines With C02 lC to make a 6 carbon compound3 PGA 6 carbon compound 0 that you make is unstable so When it forms it breaks into 2 3 carbon compoundsnow fixed into organic form 0 Reduction 0 NADPH is oxidized to NADP 0 Have to put energy in to proceed O Ends With G3P by oxidizing to NADP and reducing another organic compound 0 6 ATP and 6 NADPHll6 G3P 0 Release of G3P 0 Only 1 of the 6 actually gets release for the plant to make glucose or other compounds O Other 5 go to regeneration to keep cycle going 0 Regeneration of RuBP O 5 G3P regenerates to keep cycle going 0 Figure 712 Page 118
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