Ch. 6 Sensation and Perception
Ch. 6 Sensation and Perception PSYCH 1101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Carstarphen on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Megan Lee Wilson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 232 views. For similar materials see Intro to general Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Sensation and Perception Chapter 6 1 Basic Concepts of Sensation and Perception a Sensation the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment Perception the process by which our brain organizes and interprets sensory input c Bottomup processing analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain s integration of sensory information d Topbottom processing information processing guided by higher mental processes 2 Transduction gt The process of converting one form of energy into another that our brain can use a Psychophysics studies the relationships between physical energy we can detect and its effect on our psychological experiences 3 Thresholds a Absolute thresholds the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light sound pressure taste or odor 50 of the time b Signal detection theory predicts when we will detect weak signals c Subliminal below one s absolute threshold for conscious awareness d Priming the activation of certain associations thus predisposing one s perception memory or response e Difference threshold the minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli f Weber s law this law states that for an average person to perceive a difference two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage 4 Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation a Perceptual set a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects what we hear feel taste see 5 Context Effects a given stimulus may trigger radically different perceptions partly because of our differing perceptual set a Example When holding a gun people become more likely to perceive another as gun toting phenomenon that has led to the shooting of unarmed people 6 Vision Sensory and Perceptual Processing a Wavelength the distance from one wave peak to the next b Hue dimension of color that is determined by wavelength of light what we know as color names blue green etc i The Eye 1 Light enters the eye through the cornea which bends light to help provide focus 2 Pupil a small adjusting opening 3 Iris a colored muscle that dilates or constricts in response to light intensity 4 Lens the transparent structure behind the pupil 5 Accommodation the process by which the eye s lens changes to focus near or far objects on the retina ii Information Processing in the eye and brain 1 Rods retinal receptors that detect black white and gray 2 Cones retinal receptors that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or on welllit conditions cones enable you to perceive color 3 Optic nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain iii Color Processing 1 YoungHelmholtz trichromatic threecolor theory the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors one most sensitive to red one to green one to blue which can produce the perception of any color 7 Perceptual Organization a Gestalt an organized whole Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes 8 Grouping The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups 9 Depth Perception The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional allows us to judge distance 1 Binocular cues depth cues such as retinal disparity that depend on the use of 2 eyes 2 Retinal disparity the greater the difference between the two images the closer the object 3 Monocular cues depth cues such as interposition and linear perspective available to either eye alone based on the image in either eye 9 Perceptual constancy perceiving objects as unchanging having consistent color brightness shape and size even as illumination and retinal images change recognizing objects without being deceived by changes in their color brightness shape and size a Color constancy perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing illumination alters the wavelength re ected by the objects 10 The Nonvisual Senses Audition the sense or act of hearing The amplitude of sound waves determine their loudness Frequency the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time Pitch a tone s experienced highness or lowness depends on frequency Place theory the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea s membrane is stimulated we hear different pitches because different 9909 sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea s basilar membrane Frequency Theory also known as the temporal theory the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone thus enabling us to sense its pitch 11 The Other Senses a b Kinesthesia the system for sensing position and movement of individual body parts Vestibular sense the sense of body movement and position including the sense of balance Sensory interaction the principle that one sense may in uence another as When the smell of food in uences its taste Embodied cognition the in uence of bodily sensations gestures and other states on cognitive preferences and judgements