Com105NotesModule2word.pdf FINE_ART 101
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This 13 page Reader was uploaded by Samuel Oppong on Monday October 20, 2014. The Reader belongs to FINE_ART 101 at Washington State University taught by Pamela Lee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 282 views. For similar materials see Fine Arts 101 in Fine arts at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/14
Identity Image Campaign Com 105 92914 1 Conduct an Identity Audit What identity perceptions images exist among key constituencies the general public etc RESEARCH research research Qualitative amp quantitative Analysis Interview with any group that can inform current image Artifact analysis including letter heads stationary commercials etc Be careful to asses what is not what the company wants to be 2 Set Identity Objectives Setting objectives is NOT an abstract and loosely defined end point Objectives are measurable and attainable outcomes from a particular acting ex image campaign Change needs to be driven by organization wide evolution and need 3 Develop Designs and Names Name change depends on several factors Local to national to international presence Needs to reflect and emphasize the reality and attributes of the company ex steaming coffee for Dunkin Donuts Avoid any possibility of trademark and name infringement consultants needed Design by designers about balance designers and managers instincts 4 Develop Prototypes Resistance is common in the prototype stage Primary research pays off both in perception because people perceive being involved in the process in reality because the data will help create a better image 395 Launch and Communicate Press conference PR should be creative invite reporters without giving away the purpose Provide a lot of examples of the logoname in variety of contexts CEO clearly explains the rationale behind the shift and what it means for the company Use advertising Webcasts or video news releases and satellite links blogs and social media networks 396 Implement the Program Can take years in large complains and a minimum of several months for small firms Develop identity standard for consistency Monitor the program and make judgements about when flexibility is allowed and when it is not 7 Images perceived by constituencies Before interaction constituencies perceptions are based on what they have read about the organization what they have been told about others interactions visual symbols they recognize After interaction quality of customer service encounter with brands consistency A company s image with its employees is particularly important because of the vital role employees play with the compacts other constituencies Starbucks case amp Walmart case hy does reputation matter Building a Solid Reputation The foundation of a solid reputation exists when an organizations identity and its image are aligned shape a unique identity project a coherent and consistent set of images to the public Reputation is built up over time and is not simply a perception at given point in time differs from image is a product of both internal and external constituencies differ from identity Why reputation matters It is evidenced by several prominent surveys and rankings If a company fails to look after reputational aspects of its performance then it will ultimately suffer financially it calls attention to a compacts attractive features and widens the options available to its managers It helps companies weather crises more effectively The changing environment for business has implications for reputation Measuring and Managing Reputation Examine perceptions of all constituencies Employees need to make sure that employees understand values of organization AND that organization avoids contradicting those values in their treatment of employees IBM case Customers need products to create a coherent business reputation that customers understand and identify with Corporate Philanthropy and social responsibility it is difficult because a company can over advertise phillip morris or under proctor and gamble other perils Risk Hazard Outrage The Public vs The Experts Hazard vs Outrage 93014 Risk Communication Alarming people Look here this is dangerous this could kill you Do something Reassuring People Don t worry The Public vs The Experts Why are people often frightened by risks the experts consider tiny IGMO s GMOP eliminated use of toxic pesticides to control insects that spread the virus benefits the env and the health of the farmers Seeds of Death GMO Food lt s worse than we thought Hazard vs Outrage To experts risk is magnitude x probability hazard Magnitude how bad is it when it happens Probability how likely is it to happen To publics risk is all the things that people are worried about that the experts ignore outrage Risk Hazard Outrage RfHO Perception problems the public often misperceives the hazard the experts often misperceive the outrage Experts two tasks in risk controversy explain better that the hazard is low listen better to hear that the outrage is high and take action to reduce it Components of Outrage 12 questions to ask in Risk Communication 93014 1 Is it voluntary or coerced The right to say no makes saying maybe a much smaller risk To reduce community outrage make the risk more voluntary 2 Is it natural or industrial A natural risk is more acceptable than a coerced risk less acceptable than a voluntary one Government and industry are more easily considered villains than nature To reduce the outrage avoid giving the impression that you believe is natural 3 Is it familiar or exotic Familiar risks are usually underestimated To reduce the outrage acknowledge that the risk is unfamiliar implement programs to make risk familiar discuss risks to calm people down 4 Is it not memorable or memorable the more memorable a risk is the more outrage it is going to generate Memorability personal experience media coverage symbolism Increased outrage justifies more media cover gt makes the risk more memorable gt more outrage gt more coverage gt more memorable To break the spiral acknowledge the memorable 5 Is it not dreaded or dreaded same risks different dread diseases ex cancer vs asthma different vectors of transmission ex contaminated water generates more dread than contaminated air waste To reduce outrage legitimate the dread ie talk about it it is not hazardous 6 Is it chronic or catastrophic The public is more concerned about catastrophic than chronic risk airplane crashes vs automobile crashes Societal value catastrophe is more serious than chronic risk individual risk we pay attention to probability societal risk we pay attention to magnitude to reduce the outrage make people familiar with acute risk their activities pose 7 Is it knowable or not knowable Knowability uncertainty biggest concern for the public the public prefers dangerous but well understood risks uncertainty may be used as an excuse for inaction about individually controlled risks a reason for worrying when a arise is societal and imposed by others Why Risk is Hard to Talk About Organizational biases Groupthink when there is enough support criticism is suppressed Can do culture focus on opportunities and successes Normalization of deviance incubates risks tolerance of minor failures treating early warning signs as false alarms Managing Strategic Risks Independent experts a risk review board promotes vigorous debates about project risks and has authority over budgets Facilitators a central group that collects info from operating managers to create a risk profile empower employees to voice and debate risk perceptions Embedded experts members within the organization who continuously monitor influence the business profile chief danger going native become deal makers instead of deal questioners Avoiding the function trap separating risks into silos inhibits discussion of how different risks interact ex VW Brazil strategy map gt risk event card Managing External Risk Identify the external risk assess the impact prepare to mitigate the effects Some external risks are sufficiently imminent to be managed Low probability and difficult to envision risks require analytical approaches tail risk stress tests suited for assessing one or two major changes Scenario planning for long range analysis War gaming assesses firm s vulnerability to disruptive technologies or competitors strategies overcome leaders overconfidence and confirmation bias The Leadership Challenge Risk management focuses on threats and failures vs opportunities and successes Managers are reluctant to spend resources on uncertain future Involves dispersing resources and investments counter to focus on success gtseparate the management of strategy risks and external risks Iorganizational Crisis any incident threatening an organizations reputation or procedures of operation an organizational problem exposed to public attention TYPES Victim Crisis low responsibility ex natural disasters rumors Accident crises low responsibility challenges from stakeholders technical error accidents or product harm Preventable Crises strong crisis responsibility human error accidents industrial accident caused by human error human error product harm product is defective or potentially harmful because of human error organizational misdeed management actions that put stakeholders at risk andor violate the law JetBlue was founded in 1999 as New Air by David Neeleman former southwest airlines employee Comfy seats all of that Increasing profits etc Gettings awards marked as successful 2007 expanding again Valentines Day Massacre bad weather planes stuck or airways multiple hours Snacks updates etc External problems internal procedure not prepared people couldn39t access internet for info or call without getting recording CEO decided JetBlue have own Bill Of Rights Promise customers vouchers depending on how many minutes customers had to sit on the plane Science Communication Science comprises biological life and physical sciences social and behavioral sciences medicine env sciences technology engineering Science communication is the coverage of these fields and the political economic and social aspects of science Most effective communication of current knowledge and risk Major objective avoiding public misunderstanding Tailoring messages to specific audience Addressing audience needs and interests Formula for Misunderstanding Sheer number of websites scientific journals scientific conferences scientist competing for attention Sheer speed of transmission of scientific information at the university level among scientists Sheer velocity of calculation mathematical conclusions speed at which scientists can run trials calculate results generate data and reach Sheer greed heightened opportunities and demands for ownership of information the practical applications Key Players In Science Communication Media Scientist Audience Media Coverage of Science Science communication rofessionals Little time is devoted to science news Preference for brevity and simpicityNews organization compete emphasize different aspects of the same story Few journalists have science background General reporters cover fast breaking news stories Media Covera e of Science Editors favor sensationalism Controversy deemed more newsworthy attracts readers Media miscommunication Reporters work from predefined frames manufactured controversy limits meaningful debate creates perception of divide in scientific community limits trust in the scientific community ex vaccines predifined frames false balance when a perspective supported by an overwhelming amount of evidence is presented alongside others with less support and no context gives impression of balanced coverage contributes to publics uncertainty Maverick against the scientific establishment Media overplay the level of scientific uncertainty Media often exclude context for scientific findings precluding audience from effectively processing information accurately determining their own knowledge Focuses on brevity and simplicity distorts scientific data ex climate change Science Communication Professionals serve as spokesperson coordinate events design strategies for dealing with media produce new releases brochures booklets etc orient reporters to ongoing research activities often have little or no formal training in science small budgets and few resources scientists see them as too close to the media journalists see them as flacks for scientific organizations Scientists science workforce is supported by large amount of public spending most working scientists have little responsibility for dealing directly with the public most are too busy to reach out to the public most lack language for communicating with the public most NSF grant proposals now include a communication component Public scientists are seen as less serious by their peers udiences National Science Foundatin 90 of adults are interested in science news Publics science attentive 20 of US American public science interested 44 high interest but lack functional understanding of science and technology could not pass even a minimal test of scientific literacy Science uniterested Seven Dimensions Of Crisis I Operations ll Victims Ill Trustcredibility IV Behavior V Professional expectations VI Ethics VllLessons Learned The operations dimension 7 steps to regain community support Cannot miss a step Cannot change the order 1 Candor 39 prompt verbal public acknowledgement that a problem exists 39 people the environment or the public trust areis affected something will be done to remediate the situation incorrect approach BurgerMax released self serving messages never publicly acknowledged its responsibility I Correct Approach It s our fault It shouldn t have happened 2 Explanation I promptly and briefly explain why the problem occurred 39 the known underlying reasons reease early partial information talk about what was learned from the situation and what you will change incorrect approachBurgerMax millions and millions of burgers safely served correct approach find the truth release the info incrementally 3 Declaration a public commitment and scission of specific positive steps to address the issues and incorrect approachBurger Max resolve the situation stonewalled with a scripted and irrelevant response failed to bring in independent experts Correct approach talk from victims point of view be explicit about doing what ever it takes for the victims 4 Contrition 39 Continue to express regret empathy sympathy even embarrassment 39 take appropriate responsibility for omission commission accident or negligence Incorrect approachBurgerMax took only conditional responsibly 39 used a news release to announce sympathy never admitted questions about food handling Incorrect approach GM NYT GM meeting Should the company recall hundreds of thousand of small cars because of a dangerous defect Despite years of internal studies field reviews and legal settlements they adjourned without recommending a recall The 325 page report turned over to federal regulators and lawmakers is a tale of nonchalance ignorance and incompetence with tragic consequences Correct Approach let employees speak for company involve employees with each victim family express unconditional sympathy 5 Consultation directly involve and request the participation of those most directly affected to help develop permanent solutions more acceptable behaviors anti risk principles 39 incorrect approach BurgerMax voluntary internals investigation to avoid scrutiny never asked for input from victims Correct approach announce a panel of independent experts to study recommend and report publicly 6 Commitment Publicly promise that to the best of the organizations ability similar situations will never OCCUT we can t promise no future mistakes Correct Approach establish permanent broadly representative advisory group Coca Coa in India Brief Integrative Case 21 Coca Cola Image Crisis wasting water contaminating water greedy and uncaring introducing sugary drinks to developing countries with poor dental amp health care other image problems How Coca Cola squeezes workers in itay s orange groves Mother Jones McDonads coca cola and other big advertisers are having to fend off gay rights activists who have hijacked their olympic promotions on social media NYT Publics students in the US UK and Canada environmental groups in India Risk preventable risks dumping waste Strategy risk Market expansion to a developing country Coca Cola did not anticipate local gov reactions to test results realize how fast news travels in modern India External risks water shortage Water challenge water demand in 2030 is expected to exceed current supply by 40 percents 45 to 82 gallons of water to produce 17 ounces of soda 80 gallons to make 14 a gallon a beer 37 gallons to produce the ingredients for one cup of coffee 132 gallons of water per 2 liter bottle of coca cola when you add water used to grow ingredients Outrage concerned vs voluntary industrial vs natural dread vs no dread vector of transmission catastrophic and chronic unfair vs fair untrustworthy Managing risks coca cola didn39t respond quickly enough to customer anxiety inititially failed all steps of operational dimension of crisis response independent experts were not independent slow with restitution social responsibility to repair reputation Russel Athletic major supplier of clothing and sportswear to college campuses workers in nov 2009 went on strike agreement allowed workers back to work compensating for lost wages agreed to collective bargaining Out sourcing has positives and negatives important business strategy economic advantage for western companies and consumers creates new jobs Sweatshop workplace with low wages harsh working conditions low wages long hours unhealthy conditions oppressive environment two views acceptable if laborers freely contract to work in these conditions sweatshops are oppressive unethical and patently unfair to workers US General Accounting Office env where fed laws are violated diff org have diff definitions for sweatshops Workers Rights Corp Russels decision to close the pantserious challenge yet faced Concepts Publics form around a problem specific to the problem all issue publics and hot issue publics Outrage fair or unfair morally relevant or irrelevant guilt and complicity magnify moral disapproval