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Fall 2013 English 100 Instructor Peters University of Hawai i at Manoa Introduction Blame It on Feminism ii SUSAN FALUDI Susan Fnlmii is if Piilitzer Prizewiiiiiiiig iniiriiiilist for the Wall Street Jour nal She has seryeii as a staff writer for M5 and has contributed to numer ous iiiagriziiies Site is the miilior ofliacklash The Undeclared War Against Women 1991 39 3917 lii this eicei39pi Frllllrff argues unit the iiiediiiis teiideiicy to blriiiie the fenii39m39si inriieiiienr for iiimgimiry p L39flOfOl39fC f mid social ills that plague ill0tf39f39H wonieii is 0llfl39 It ffifilfi39rffS5391JfS39l f effort to iiiictei39iiiiiie tlie stmeile for eqiiriiity fl is not eqiiiility that iiirikes woiiien niisernbie but quotthe risiiig pres sure to linli and even to reverse ii39fJlli nquotS quest for eqiiali39ryquot This excerpt is from Backlash 39 To be a woman in America at the close of the 20th century what good for tune That39s what we keep hearing anyway The barricades have fallen politi cians assure us Women have quotmade itquot Madison Avenue cheers Women39s fight for equality has quotlargely been won Time magazine announces Enroll at any university ioin any law firm apply for credit at any bank Women have so many opportunities now corporate leaders say thatwe don39t really need equal opportunity policies Women are so equai now lawmakers say that we no longer need an Equal Rights Amendment Women have quotso muchquot former President Ronald Reagan says that Athe White House no longer needs to appoint them to higher office Even American Express ads are saluting a woman39s freedom to charge it At last women have received their full citizenship papers And yet Behind this celebration of the American woman s victory behind the news cheerfully and endlessly repeated that the struggle for women39s rights is won another message flashes You may be free anduequal now it says to women but you have never been more miserable 39 This bulletin of despair is posted everywhere at the newsstand on the TV set at the movies in advertisements and doctorsfoffices and academic iournals Professional women are suffering quotburnoutquotand succumbing to an quotinfertility epidemic Single women are grieving froma quotman shortagequot The New l39iirilt Times reports Childless women are quotdepressed and confusedquot and their ranks are swelling Newsiveeilt says Unwed women are quothystericalquot and 448 pin D quotquot 5f l39 in Me find Women higher whv is their emo 39 39 tional state so low If f wome 0quot lg C 39f7P9551blY be the matter now n reva 39 l3 1 mg wisdom of the past decade has su control of their fe t39l39t fessional Cll EaTnSI E1ll frrigty to destroy it They hav women39s movement as we ar e t worst enem Old me and again quotIn dispensin 39 I 39 8 NS Spoils women 139 39 high incomes our Own Cigayette the Ospt ratfI0 has given my generation centers Personal lines of credit free love and Sfeng parenthood rape Crisis Charm ayoun r ma e gynecologistsquot Mona J g law stude t 39 The Feminist Mistake quot quotffi rmfntes In the N quotquot R quot39 quotquotquot m an article titled e um it has effective has proved women39s own to the women39s movement 10 l I 4 39 contends in a Time Cover story 1f3l Sb lS ivE tUI iillilteg Elizabeth Mehren been duped by femimsm quotWe men i39e er she says have believed the them 39 quot I Ebenng dubs feminism quotth ric n Ni1 lr5lV C k Writer Kay e Great Experiment That Failed a quot nd asserts women in my generation its perpetrators are the casualtiesquot Even ihe merp O 1h c39lIVir1g lost us women ground instead ofgaining it I nt e ast decade ublicatquot 39 the Ncitimi have issuedpa steadiluiltsrefgnim ih e1cf39m Ymk Tums to Vmmy Fair to o in ictments against the w 39 movement with such headl 39 Omens ABOUT WOMI39N39S LIB They holdnfri irfivHE39N Efdmlw Mud or quotIE AWFUL TRUTH for nearly every Woe besemng womezaigpolor womeln s equality responsible I n menta depression to meager able the author reasons women 39 39 39 5 ii ht graphic murders on screen 3 S actmsts made It an quotgm to Show sou rltt39mrrrrgs I At the same time other outlets of popular culture have been forging the same connection in Hollywood films of which Fara Attraction is only the most famous emancipated women with condominiums of their own slink wildeyed between bare walls paying for their liberty with an empty bed a barren womb quotMy biological clock is ticking so loud It keeps me awake at nightquot Sally Field cries in the film Surremier as in an all too common trans formation in the cinema of the 3980s an actress who once played scrappy working heroines is now showcased groveling for a groom In primetime television shows from quotthirtysomethingquot to quotFamily Manquot single profes sional and feminist women are humiliated turned into harpies or hit by nervous breakdowns the wise ones recant their independent ways by the closing sequence in popular novels from Gail Parent39s A Sign of the Eighties to Stephen King39s Misery unwed women shrink to sniveling spinsters or inflate to firebreathing she devils renouncing all aspirations but marriage they beg for wedding bands from strangers or swing sledgehammers at reluctant bach elors We blew it by waitingquot aquot typically remorseful careerist sobs in Freda Bright39s 5r39ngrrlar Women she and her sister professionals are quotcondemned to be childless forever Even Erica Jong39s highflying independent heroine liter allycrashes by the end of the decade as the author supplants Fear of I lying s saucy lsadora Wing a symbol of female sexual emancipation in the 3970s with an embittered careeristturnedrecoveringquotcodependentquot in Any Woman39s Blues a book that is intended as the narrator bluntly states to demonstrate what a deadend the socalled sexual revolution had become and how desper ate socalled free women were in the last few years of our decadent epochquot Popular psychology manuals peddle the same diagnosis for contemporary female distress quotFeminism having promised her a stronger sense of her own identity has given her little more than an identity crisisquot the bestselling ad vice manual Being it Wmmm asserts The authors of the era s selfhelp classic Smart WomenFoolish Choices proclaim that women39s distress was quotan unfortu nate consequence of feminismquot because it created a myth among women that the apex of selfrealization could be achieved only through autonomy independence and careerquot In the Reagan and Bush years government officials have needed no prompting to endorse this thesis Reagan spokeswoman Faith Whittlesey de clared feminism a quotstraitiaciltetquot for women in the White House39s only policy speech on the status of the American female populationentitled Radical Feminism in Retreatquot Law enforcement officers and judges too have 39 pointed a damning finger at feminism claiming that they can chart a path from rising female independence to rising female pathology As a California sheriff explained it to the press quotWomen are enioying a lot more freedom now and as a result they are committing more crimesquot The US Attorney General39s Commission on Pornography even proposed that women39s profes sional advancement might be responsible for rising rape rates With more women in college and at work now the commission members reasoned in their report women just have more opportunities to be raped ll 39 Cost of Loving Women and the New Fear 0 dinners and closet drinking The triumph of equality Dil39eI39fi ii1M39Htll39itf Worrren 451 Some academics have signed on to the consensus too and they are the quotexperts who have enioyed the highest profiles on the media circuit On network news and talkLshows they have advised millions of women that feminism has condemn 39 them to quota lesser lifequot Legal scholars have railed against the equality trapquot Sociologists have claimed that feministinspiredquot legislative reforms have stripped women of special quotprotectionsquot Economists have argued that wellpaid working women have created quota less stable Ameri can familyquot And demographers with greatest fanfare have legitimated the prevailing wisdom with socalled neutral data on sex ratios and fertility trends they say they actually have the numbers to prove that equality doesn39t mix with marriage and motherhood Finally some quotliberatedquot women themselves have joined the lamenta tions In confessional accounts works that invariably receive a hearty greet ing from the publishing industry quotrecovering Superwomenquot tell all in The flntinmry Megan Marshall a Har vardpedigreed writer asserts that the feminist quotMyth of Independencequot has turned her generation into unloved and unhappy fasttrackers dehuman ized by careers and quotuncertain of their gender identityquot Other diaries of mad Superwomen charge thatquotthe hardcore feminist viewpointquot as one of them puts it has relegated educated executive achievers to solitary nights of frozen they report has merely given women hives ston ch cramps eyetwitching disorders even comas But what equalityquot aiiae all these authorities talking about if American women alreso equal why do they represent twothirds of all poor adults Why are nearly 75 percent of fulltime working women making less than 20000 a yearnearly double the male rate Why are they still far more likely than men to live in poor housing and receive no health insur ance and twice as likelyto draw no pension Why does the average working woman39s salary still lag as far behind the average man39s as it did twenty years ago Why does the averiiige female college graduate today earn less than a man with no more than39a high school diploma just as she did in the 3950s ol graduate today earn less than a and why does the average female high scho t Why do American women in fact facequot one of the male high school dropo worst genderbased pay jps in the developed world lfW0m911 haw quotF11 he itquot then why are nearly 80 percent of working women still stuck in tra itional quotfemalequot jobs as secretaries administrative supportquot workers and s lesclerks And conversely why are they less than 8 percent of all federal an state judges less than 6 percent of all law partners and less than one half 0 percent of top corporate managers Why are there only three female state vernors two female US senators and two Fortune 500 chief executives W are only nineteen of the four thousand corporate officers and directors wo39n39ren and why do more than half the boards of For tune companies still lack quoteven one female member If women quothave it all7 then why don39t t hey have the most basic require ments to achieve equality in the work force Unlike virtually all other indus l R 3 p C Iv 4 v r39i 39 15 39v F 15 2 Ii r39rrdr39ins trialized nations the US government still has no faintlyleave and child care programs and more than 99 percent of American private employers don39t offer child care either Though business leaders say they are aware of and de plore sex discrimination corporate America has yet to make an honest effort toward eradicating it In a 1990 national poll of chief executives at Fortune 1000 companies more than 80 percent acknowledged that discrimination impedes female employees progress yet less than 1 percent of these same I companies regarded i ciiiedyi39iig sex discrimination as a goal that their person nel departments should pursue In fact when the companies human re source officers were asked to rate their department s priorities women39s advancement ranked last If women are so quotfreequot why are their reproductive freedoms in greater jeopardy today than a decade earlier Why do women who want to postpone childbearing now have fewer options than ten years ago The availability of different forms of contraception has declined research for new birth con trol lias virtually halted new laws restricting abortion or even iiifomirrtiriii about abortion for young and poor women have been passed and the LlS Supreme Court has shown little ardor in defending the right it granted in 1973 p Nor is women s struggle for equal education over as a 1989 study found tliree fourths of all high schools still violate the federal law banning sex dis crimination in education In colleges undergraduate women receive only 70 percent of the aid undergraduate men get in grants and worl study jobs and women39s sports programs receive a pittance compared with men39s A review of state equaleducation laws in the late 3980s found that only thirteen states had adopted the minimum provisions required by the federal Title IX law and only seven states had antidiscrimination regulations that covered all ed ucation levels Nor do women enjoy equality in their own homes where they still shoul der 70 percent of the household duties and the only major change in the last fifteen years is that now middleclass men tliiiik they doirriore around the house in fact a national poll finds the ranks of women saying their hus bands share equally in child care shrunk to 31 percent in 1987 from 40 per cent three years earlier Furtliermore in thirty states it is still generally legal for husbands to rape their wives and only ten states have laws mandating ar rest for domestic violence even though battering was the leading cause of injury of women in the late 80s Women who have no other option but to flee find that isn39t much of an alternative either Federal funding for battered women39s shelters has been withheld and one third of the 1 quotmillion battered women who seek emergency shelter each year can find none Blows from men contributed far more to the rising numbers of bag ladiesquot than the ill effects of feminism In the 3980s almost half of all homeless women the fastest growing segment of the homeless were refugees of domestic violence The word may be that women have been quotliberated but women them selves seem to feel otherwise Repeatedly in national surveys majorities of women say they are still far from equality Nearly 70 percent of women polled 18 19 20 21 is responsible for making women migefabje b in the 19990 Virginia Slims poll DfL 39fI in Meir curd Wbiiieii 453 by the New York Times in 1989 said the movement for women39s rights had only just begun Most women in the 1990 Virginia Slims opinion poll agreed with thg statement that conditions for their sex in American society had im proved a little not a lot In poll after poll in tion without government interference they ing maternity leave they needed decent chil of these So how exactly have we won the war for women39s rights Seen against this background the much ballyhooed claim that feminism AS we Shall See in the Cm ecoines absurdand irrelevant pters to follow the afflictions ascribed to feminism are all myths Frorii quotthe man shortage to quotthe infertility epidemicquot male burnout to toxic day care their origins not in the actual conditions of women closed system thatstarts and ends in the media popular culture and adver tisiiig an endless feedback loop that perpetuates and exaggerates its own false images of womanhood Women themselves don39t single out the w ifurce of th ilf T391 5eTY the C0HtTarY in national surveys 75 to 95 percent of omencre it t e feminist campaign with miprovmg their lives and a similar proportion say thatthe women39s movement should keep pushing for change Less than 8 percent think the women s movement might have actually made their lot worse omen s movement as the ii women in l989 about quotthe most important problem facing women todayquot job discrimination was the overwhelming winner none of the crises the me dia and popular culture had so assiduously promoted even madethe quotcharts 39 women were most upset by their lack of money followed by the refusal of their men to shoulder child care and do mestic duties By contrast when the women were asked where the quest for a husband or the desire to hold a less pressuredquot job or to stay at home ranked on their list of concerns they placed them at the bottom Iis the last decade ran its course womeri39s unhappiness with inequality on y mounted In national polls the ranks of women protesting discrimina 23 24 454 Rt ilrIi39iig5 tory treatment in business political and personal life climbed sharply The proportion of women complaining of unequal employment opportunities jumped more than ten points from the 3970s and the numzber of women coin plaining of unequal barriers to job advancement Cllfnb lEVETI higher By the end of the decade 80 percent to 95 percent of women saidthey suffered from job discrimination and unequal pay Sex discrimination charges filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission rose nearly 25 percent in the Reagan years and charges of general harassment directed at working women more than doubled In the decade complaints of sexual harassment nearly doubled At home a much increased proportion of women complained to pollsters of male mistreatment unequal relationships and male efforts to in the words of the Virginia Slims poll quotkeep women down The share of women in the Roper surveys who agreed that men were quotbasically kind gen tle and thoughtful fell from almost 70 percent in 1970 to 50 percent by 1990 And outside their homes women felt more threatened too in the 1990 Virginia Slims poll 72 percent of women said they felt quotmore afraid and un easy on the streets todayquot than they did a few years ago Iest this be attrib uted only to a general rise in criminal activity by contrast only 49 percent Of men felt this way While the women39s movement has certainly made women more cog nizant of their own inequality the rising chorus of female protest shouldn39t be written off as feministinduced oversensitivity The monitors that serve to track slippage in women39s status have been workinglovertime since the early 3980s Government and private surveys are showing that women39s al ready vast representation in the lowliest occupations is rising their tiny pres ence in higher paying trade and craft jobs stalled or backsliding their minuscule representation in upper management posts stagnant or falling and their pay dropping in the very occupations where they have made the most quotprogressquot The status of women lowest on the income ladder has plunged most perilously government budget cuts in the first four years ofthe Reagan administration alone pushed nearly 2 million femaleheaded families and nearly 5 million women below the poverty line And the prime target of government rollbacks has been one sex only onethird of the Reagan budget cuts for example came out of programs that predominantly serve women even more extraordinary when one considers thatall these programs coni biiied represent only 10 percent of the federal budget The alarms aren t iust going off in the work force In national politics the already small numbers of women in both elective posts and political appoint ments fell during the 3980s In private life the average amount that a divorced man paid in child support fell by about 25 percent from the late 70s to the mid3980s to a mere 140 a month Domesticviolence shelters recorded a more than 100 percent increase in the numbers of women taking refuge in their quarters between 1983 and 1987 And government records chronicled a spectacular rise in sexual violence against women Reported rapes more than doubled from the early 70s at nearly twice the rate of all other violent crimes and four times the overall crime rate in the United States While the 26 27 39 rau i i Dir39ei si39i v iii fen rmii Wuiiieii homicide rate declined sexrelated murders rose 160 percent between quot1976 and 1984 And these murders weren39t simply the random impersonal by product of a violent society at least onethird of the women were killed by their husbands or boyfriends and the majority of that group were murdered just after declaring their independence in the most intimate manner by fil ing for divorce and leaving home By the end of the decade women were starting to tell pollsters that they feared their sex s social status was once again beginning to slip They believed they were facing an quoterosion of respect as the 1990 Virginia Slims poll summed up the sentiment After years in which an increasing percentage of women had said their status had improved from a decade earlier the propor tion suddenly shrunk by 5 percent in the last half of the 3980s the Roper Orga nization reported And it fell most sharply among women in their thirties the age group most targeted by the media and advertisersdrop ping about ten percentage points between 1985 and 1990 Some women began to piece the picture together In the 1989 N Times poll more than half of black women and onefourth of w put it into words 39l hey told pollsters they believed men were retract the gains women had made in the last twenty years quotI wanted more autonomy was how one woman a thirtysevenyearold nurse put it And her estranged husband wanted to take it awayquot 39 The truth is that the last decade has seen a powerful counterassault on women39s rights a baci clash an attempt to retract the handful of small and hardwon victories that the feminist movement did manage to win for women This counterassault is largely insidious in a kind of popculture ver sion of the Big Lie itstands the truth boldly on its head and proclaims that the very steps that have elevated wornen s position have actually led to their downfall The backlash is at once so and proudly backwardlt de ew York iiite women now trying to phisticated and banal deceptively quotprogressivequot ploys both the new findings of quotscientific re search and the39dimestore moralism of yesteryear it turns into media sound bites both the glib pronouncements of poppsych trendwatchers and the frenzied rhetoric of New Right preachers The backlash has succeeded in framing virtually the whole issue of women s rights in its own language Just as Reaganism shifted political discourse far to the right and demonized liber alism so the backlash convinced the public that women s liberation was the true contemporary American scourge the source of an endless laundry list of personal social and economic problems But what has made women unhappy in the last decade is not their equality which they don t yet have but the rising pressure to halt and even reverse women39s quest for that equality The quotman shortage and the quotinfertility epidemicquot are not the price of liberation in fact they do not even exist But these chimeras are the chisels of a society wide backlash They are part of a relentless whittlingdown process much of it amounting to out right propaganda that has served to stir women39s private anxieties and break their political wills Identifying feminism as women s enemy only furthers quot4550 28 29 30 31 32 456 i I Rgeirrlirrgs the ends of a backlash against women s e attention from the backlash s central rol their own cause Some social observers may well ask whether the current pressures on women actually constitute a backlash or just a continuation of American so cietv39s longstanding resistance to women39s rights Certainly hostility to fe male independence has always been with us But if fear and loathing of feminism is a sort of perpetual viral condition in our culture it is not always in an acute stage its symptoms subside and resurface periqdically And it is these episodes of resurgence such as the one we face now that can accurately be termed hacklashesquot to women39s advancement If we trace these occur rences in American history as we will do in a later chapter we find such flareups are hardly random they have always been triggered by the percep tion accurate or not that women are making great strides These outbreaks are backlashes because they have always arisen in reaction to women s quotprogressquot caused not simply by a bedrock of misogyny but by the specific efforts of contemporary women to improve their status efforts that have been interpreted time and again by men especially men grappling with real threats to their economic and social wellbeing on other fronts as spelling their own masculine doom I The most recent round of backlash first surfaced in thelate 3970s on the fringes among the evangelical right By the early 3980s the fundamentalist ideology had shouldered its way into the White House By the mid3980s as re sistance to women39s rights acquired political and social acceptability it passed into the popular culture And in every case the timing coincided with signs that women were believed to be on the verge of breakthrough Just when women39s quest for equal rights seemed closest to achieving its obiectives the backlash struck it down Just when a gender gapquot at the vot ing booth surfaced in 1980 and women in politics began to talk of capitaliz ing on it the Republican party elevated Ronald Reagan and both political parties began to shunt wo1nen39s rights off their platforms Just when support for feminism and the Equal Rights Amendment reached arecord high in l98l the amendment was defeated the following year Just when women were starting to mobilize against battering and sexual assaults the federal government stalled funding for batteredwomen39s programs defeated bills to fund shelters and shut down its Office of Domestic Violence only two years after opening it in quot1979 Just when record numbers of yourrger women were supporting feminist goals in the mid3980s more of them g fact than older women and a majority of all women were calling themselves feminists the media declared the advent of a younger quotpostfeminist generationquot that sup posedly reviled the women s movement lust when women racked up their largest percentage ever supporting the right to abortion the US Supreme Court moved toward reconsidering it in other words the antiferninist backlash has been set off not by women s achievement of full equality but by the increased possibility that they might win it It is 1 preemptive strike that stops women long before they reach the quality simultaneously deflecting e and recruiting women to attack 33 353939j mer 39 quotquot 34 fquot Diversr39tv in Men and Women 457 finish line A backlash may be an indication that women really have had an effectquot feminist psychologist Dr Jean Baker Miller has written quotbut back lashes occur when advances have been small before changes are sufficient to help many people It is almost as if the leaders of backlashes use the fear of change as a threat before major change has occurredquot in the last decade some women did make substantial advances before the backlash hit but mil lions of others were left behind stranded Some women now enjoy the right to legal abortion but not the 44 million women from the indigent to the military work force who depend on the federal government for their medical care Some women can now walk into highpaying professional careersbut not the more than 19 million still in the typing pools or behind the depart ment store sales counters Contrary to popular myth about the quothaveitallquot babyboom women the largest percentage of women in this generation re main typists and clerks As the backlash has gathered force it has cut off th and the few women who have advanced seek to tic that they aren39t so interested inadvancement after all Some of them parade their defection from the women s movement while their working class peers founder and cling to the splintered remains of the feminist cause While a very few affluent and celebrity women who are showcased in news articles boast about having found my niche as Mrs Andy Mill and going home to quotbake bread the many workingclass women appeal for their eco nomic rights flocking to unions in record numbers striking on their own for pay equity and establishing their own fledgling groups for working women s rights In 1986 while 41 percent of upperincome wome claiming in the Gallup poll that they were not feminist lowincome women were making the same claim Women39s advances and retreats ar battles won battles lost points and metaphor of combat is not without the same sort of martial accountin But by imagining the conflict as t of the line we miss the entangl between women and the male nature of a backlash which by other force a In times when feminism is at a low ebb women assume the reactive e privately and most often covertly struggling to assert themselves e few from the many prove as a social survival tac 139 were s only 26 percent of e generally described in military terms territory gained and surrendered The its merits in this context and clearly g and vocabulary is already surfacing here wo battalions neatly arrayed on either side ed nature the locked embrace of a quotwar culture they inhabit We miss the reactive definition can exist only in response to an rol againstithe dominant cultural tide But when feminism itself becomes the tide the opposition doesn t simply go along with the reversal it digs in its heels brandishes its fists builds walls and countercurrents and treacherous undertows The force and furor of the backlash churn beneath the surface largely in visible to the public eye On occasion in the last decade they have burst into b View We have seen New Right politicians condemn women39s independence dams And its resistance creates 37 38 39 40 458 Rmidiiigs antiabortion protesters firebomb women39s clinics fundamentalist pl39EaChEIS damn feminists as whores and witchesquot Other signs of the backlash s wrath by their sheer brutality can push their way into public consciousness for a tiI39l39l 39the sharp increase in rape for example or the rise in pornogra phy that depicts extreme violence against women I F More subtle indicators in popular culture may receive momentary and often bemused media notice then quickly slip from social awareness A re port for instance that the image of women on primetime TV shows has sud denly degenerated A survey of mystery fiction finding the numbers of ferriale characters tortured and mutiliated mysteriously multiplying The puzzling news that as one commentator put it quotSo many hit songs have the Bword bitch to refer to women that some rap music seems to be veering towafd rape musicquot The ascendancy of virulently misogynist comics like Andrew Dice Clav who called women quotpigs and quotslutsquot and strutted in films in which women were beaten tortured and blown up or radio hosts like Rush Limbaugh whose broadsides against feiniNazi feminists made his syndi cated program the most popular radio talk show in the nation Or word that in 1987 the American Women in Radio 8 Television couldiit award its an nual prize for ads that feature women positively it could find no ad that qualified 39 j These phenomena are all related but that doesn39t mean they are some how coordinated The backlash is not a conspiracy with a council dispatch ing agents from some central control room nor are the people who serve its ends often aware of their role some even consider themselves feminists for the most part its workings are encoded and internalized diffuse and chameleonic Not all of the manifestations of the backlash are of equal weight or significance either some are mere ephemera generated by a culture machine that is always scrounging for a freshquot angle Taken as a whole how ever these codes and caiolings these whispers and threats and myths move overwhelmingly in one direction they try to push women back into their quotacceptable IOl S Wh tll I39 as Daddy39s girl or fluttery romantic active nester or passive love object 1 Although the backlash is not an organized movement that doesn t make it any less destructive In fact the lack of orchestrationthe absence of a sin gle stringpuller only makes it harder to see and perhaps more effective A backlash against women s rights succeeds to the degree that it appears not to be political that it appears not to be a struggle at allquot It is most powerful when it goes private when it lodges inside a woman s mind and turns her vision inward until she imagines the pressure is all in her head until she begins to enforce the backlash too on herself In the last decade the backlash has moved through the culture s secret chambers traveling through passageways of flattery and fear Along the way it has adopteddisguises a mask of mild derision or the painted face of deep concernquot its lips profess pity for any woman who won39t fit the mold while it tries to clamp the mold around her ears It pursues a divide andconquer strategy single versus married women working women versus homemakers ll 42 41 43 A American women hav Di39iersi39Ij in ilxfcn amI Women 459 middle versus worllting class It manipulates a system of rewards and punish ments elevating women who follow its rules isolating those who don t The backlash remarkets old myths about women as new facts and ignores all ap peals to reason Cornered it denies its own existence points an accusatory finger at feminism and burrows deeper underground Backlash happens to be the title of a 1947 Hollywood movie in which a man frames his wife for a murder he39s committed The backlash against womeri s rights works in much the same way its rhetoric charges feminists with all the crimes it perpetrates The backlash line blames the women s movement for the quotfeminization of poveityquot while the baclltlash s own insti gators in Washington pushed through the budget cuts that helped impover ish millions of women fought pay equity proposals and undermined equal opportunity laws The backlash line claims the women39s movement cares nothing for children39s rights while its own representatives in the capital and state legislatures have blocked one bill after another to improve child care slashed billions of doilars in federal aid for children and relaxed state licens ing standards for day care centers The backlash line accuses the women s movernerit of creating a generation of unhappy single and childless women but its purveyors in the media are the ones guilty of making single and child less women feel like circus freaks To blame feminism for women39s quotlesser life is to miss entirely the point of feminism which is to win women a wider range of experience Feminism remains a pretty simple concept despite repeated and enormously effec tive efforts to dress it up in greasepaint and turn its proponents into gar goyles As Rebecca West wrote sardonically in 1913 quotI myself have never been able to find out precisely what feminism is I only know that peoplecall me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat 39 The meaning of the word quotfeminist appeared in a book review in the Atltc woman who has in her the capacity derice It is the basic proposition that as Nora put it in lbsen39s A Doll39s House a century ago quotBefore everything else I m a human beingquot It is the simply worded sign hoisted by a little girl in the 1970 Women39s Strike for Equality l AM NOT A BltBlE DOLL Feminism asks the world to recognize at long last that women aren39t decorative ornaments worthy vessels members of a special interest group They are half in fact now more than half of the national population and just as deserving of rights and opportunities just as capable of participating in the world s events as the other half Feminism s agenda is basic It asks that women not be forced to choose between public justice and private happiness It asks that women be free to define themselves instead of having their identity defined for them time and again by their quot has not really changed since it first iirieimi of April 27 1895 describing a of fighting her way back to indepen culture and their men The fact that these are still such incendiary notions should tell us that e a way to go before they enter the promised land of equality 47 48 460 J 39 I c39xnlfrrcx Questions th nediais bacilt1ashquot Can Describe In your OiN11 ixortls uhat laludi mearis bi 3 n p ma 3 Wu thin of recent examples of this backlash in the newspape or in news g zines 7 39 f 39 e tation 0 women What does laludi mean vshcn she Sa39S39SthE1t the medila s rep3rltst1hen She Says that as miserable constitutes quotpropaganda What CIOLS s e me 3 the rhetoric of those against women39s rights charges feminists gtf Vith all the CIIFHCS it pmpetuates 1 1 39 lief How to its amne a cm nt uonicn 5 magazine titzgirc lIcmmur iItittl39cIll39igC a imman can 39 1 advertisements articles and ieatures dehne xx rat is mean tmn k these magazines v39 39 I 39 you iind evidence of backlash How mllucntlil 0 0 are on the reatler s ideas or feminism I I 1 How do you think i aludi would react to Gorn1an s essay What Slmllarltle mi differences can you note 39 39 39 39w 39v3939 39 J 39iquot 39 39 p R 1 M I Want a Wife JUDY SYFERS Indy Syfers has an rmdergradzmte degree in painting from the Urriversitv of Iowa and has been an active voice in the women39s movement for years In this essay Syfers gives an exlzcmsting catalogue oft wife39s quotduties quot and ccmclude39s with an exasperated My God who wouldn39t want a wr39fequot39 This essay was originally printed in the first issue of Ms in 1971 I belong to that classification of people known as wives I am A Wife And not altogether incidentally I am a mother Not too long ago a male friend of mine appeared on the scene fresh from a recent dIVOI39CE He had one child who is of course with his ex wife He is I would like to go back to school so that I can become economically inde pendent support myself and if need be support those dependent upon me I want a wife who will work and send me to school And while I am going to may mean a small cut in my wife39s income from time to time but I guess I can tolerate that Needless to say my wife will arrange and pay for the care of the children while my wife is working I yyant a wife who will take care of my physical needs I Want a wife who will keep my house clean A wife who will pick up after my children a wife minute I need it I want a wife who cooks the meals a wife who is a good cook I want a wife who will plan the menus do the necessary grocery shop ping prepare the meals serve them pleasantly and then do the cleaning up while I do my studying I want a wife who will care for me when I am sick IE1 4 72 Rt rltffllgS seemed to threaten their values of peace and social concerns did not operate as strongly in 3984 against Reagan as it did in 3980 despite the presence of Fer raro on the ticket Did the onslaught of the bishops and the attempt to tar nish her for collusion in her husband39s brutally exposed business dealings rule her out as an embodiment of women s hopes Did she fail to raise that quotdifferent voice for women in that disastrous campaign Or did the male backlash against Democratic values prevail also or sufficiently among women to offset what had seemed to be her stunning significance There is no substitute for having women in political offices that matter Women are discovering that they have to fight as men do in primaries where victory is not certain and not just wait for an quotopen seatquot 8 10 Move beyond single issue thinking Even today I do not think women39s rights are the most urgent business for American women The im portant thing is somehow getting together with men who also put the values of life first to break through the paralysis that fundamentalist backlash has imposed on all our movements It is not only feminism that is becoming a dirty word in America but also liberalism humanism pluralism environ mentalism and civil liberties The very freedom of political dissent that en abled the women39s movement to start here has been made to seem unsafe for today39s young men as well as young women I think the yuppies are afraid to be political Women may have to thinkbeyond women39s issues to ioin their ener gies with men to redeemour democratic tradition and turn our nation s power to the interests of life insteadof the nuclear arms race that is paralyz ing it I39ve never for instance seen the need for a separate women39s peace movement l m not really sure that women by nature are more peaceloving than men They were simply not brought up to express aggression the way men do they took it out covertly on themselves and T their men and chil dren psychologists would say But the human race may not survive much longer unless women move beyond the nurture of their own babies and ca reers to political decisions of war and peace and unless men who share the nurture of their children take responsibility for ending the arms race before it destroys all life Questions 1 According to Friedan what was the first stage of feminism fighting for Why do women need to proceed to a second stage What is this second stage 2 Friedan seems to feel that the first stage of feminism the fight for equality has been accomplished Would Faludi agree with her stand 39 3 Can you think of ways in which the feminist movement has affected your life What are the positive effects The negative effects 4 What role should men play in the second stage Do you think men will be willing to participate 5 Compare the issues that Friedan addresses with those discussed in the Faludi se lection Where are the major differences and similarities 41 42 43 tu 4 1 mu ano w 39 men as giving gifts Because women39s socializatio i see him wading throu We Should Embrace Traditional Masculinity WARREN FARRELL Warren I azell is the only male to be elected three times to the board ofali rec tors oftlie ational Organization for Women NOW He coinplered In PhD at lvew York University in 1974 and has triuglit at Riitgers University and Brooklyn College He has also been a special assistant to the presirleiit of New Yorktliiiversity His books iiiclmie The Liberated Marv Beyond Mas culinity and Why Men Are the Way They Are Farrell argues that traiiitional masculinity is often niisiiiterpreted by women anaquottliat they have attacked izeiider behavior somewliat uiifairlv He asserts that male socialization actually leaves men both pliysically anti enro tionally quotviiliierablequot This selection isfrom To Be a Man 1991 3 p r p to the ext A d cu inity ecause masculinity has been taken rerne n taken to the extreme it creates anxiety War and Suicide not taken to the extreme i tossed out with the bathwater P 39 And ggnogolgqee hlfin h enf anggred species But the good about men 18 not g goo IS eing endangered it needs special attention And so for a rare in 39 d I ornent in recent history here is special attention to what39s goo a out male socialization homicide rape t has many virtues not to be GivingGeiierosity Why do we think of women as giving of themselves and n teaches direct ivin as listen 39 r g 3 he d081f1l111f TnltC0kSOfgnen S Ii1 alS and doing more of his wash than lung 50 his Chid Ca itttgtvjs yuworking in a coal mine and contracting black at the mine whe en 21 fin CO ege as he never COuld but his giving is done womews Mn 139 vie ont see it The result of his giving is a check with 39 8 8 We appreciate more than the result we appreciate the process We 599 her Cook the meal SEWE ill and usually clean it up We don39t gh water in a dark and dam 39 39 39 truck at 2 AM on his f p mme Shaft or dnvmg 3 no t t W ourth cup of coffee behind schedule in traffic and with irrie o nap e see him at home withdrawing from the coffee fell if 391maY 5le1T1dbmu h of his life earning money to finance a home his wife T1 0V9 WIT ut we dont think of him as giving when he s away from 473 4 74 Rmdi39nss dishes Sometimes a man39s giving is reflexive and rolebased suchjas when he 1398 flexively picks up a tab at a restaurant We forget this is alsogiving fifty dol lars for dinner and drinks may represent a day39s work in aftertax income Theater tickets gas and babysitters are another day39s work We don t think of home nearly as much as we think of her as giving when sne cleans up his liis picking up these tabs as being as giving as when a woman spends two days preparing a special meal for him Both forms of giving are rolebased hers are just more direct s I iii39riiess The best thing emerging from sports games work rules win ning and losing is fairness Not necessarily honesty fairness In Little League when l trapped a ball in my glove just after a bounce the umpire credited me with catching a fly I volunteered to the umpire that l hadn t The umpire embarrassed changed the decision The angry coach bawled me out The other coach bawled out my coach for bawling me out They dis agreed on honesty But neither would have disagreed with the fairness of a neutral umpire making the decision Male socialization teaches the value of a careful system of rules within which anyone can work to gain advantage and some of which can be gotten around with possible consequences Once mastered the rules give everyone a much more equal chance than they would have had without the rules To men mastering these rules feels like survival survival of themselves and their family A lifetime of practicing these rules gives many men a sixth sense for fairness Groups of men and women who have disregarded these rules as too male or quottoo establishment as did the Students for a Democratic Soci ety in the sixties and seventies soon evolve into backstabbing elites which self destruct Mole Action Nurturing Carl wasn39t great at expressing feeling And he didn39t under stand fully that sometimes Cindy just needed a listening ear His way of sup porting her was to volunteer to help Cindy with thelproblern that was making her upset For Carl taking Cindy seriously meant taking Cindys problem seriously and taking Cindy39s problem seriously meant trying to find a solution To him this was an act of love Anything less like just standing around when she was hurting was an act of cruelty quotlfCindy s bleeding he39d say quotfind a solution Don t just stand there withthat sickening stip 39 39 o jn 39 portive smile on your face while the woman I love is bleeding to death Solu tioiis are male mH39Iill39liIC 39 Lem39iersliip Accusations that quotmen have the powerquot have appi1r 1Cl39lTll1OT frequently in the past decade and a halt than appreciation for t e 1 ions of hours sacrificed by men to give themselves the leadership training to get that power Or the benefits of the leadership itself for example few articles 39 3 quot 0 we 391 i A r gr i V vey11 f R c393939 quot3939 Dir39ersi39tv ir Men and Warner 47 5 explain how male socialization has trai sands of businesses that are now nities for leadership that might n ned millions of leaders to lead thou providing millions of women with opportu ot exist were it not for male leadership Outrageoiisiiess While women are socialize ing quotgood girls or not offendin female attention by standing ou d to get male attention by be g male egos men are being socialized to get t One way a man can stand out is to be out rageous The best part of outrageousness is the barriers it breaks to allow all of us more freedom to experiment with discovering more of ourselves The Bea tle s hair considered outrageous at the time permitted a generation to exper iment with their hair Elvis the Pelvis allowed a generation to experiment with their sexual selves the Wright Brothers were told it was scientifically im possible to fly and suicidal to try and Salvador Dali Picasso and Coperni cus looked at the world in ways considered outrageous in their time in retrospect we can see that they freed us to live in a way we could not have dreamed of before Male Psychology To Keep Emotions Under Control Although in relationships this tight lid leads to a male volcanoquot after months of repressed emotions the flip side is our dependence on this male trait in crisis situations Dirk recalls a headon collision quotFive cars crashed There was glass and blood everywhere Four of us guys ran from carto car following the screams and preparing tourniquets We stopped two cars to recruit passengers to redirect traffic called the police and removed a woman and her son from a car that burst into flames a minute later The newspapers reported the accident But no headlines read Men Con trol Their Emotions in Order to Save Lives of Women and Childrenquot They ran a picture not of four men standing next to the women and chil they saved but of the five cars that collided dren Ego Strengtii When women reevaluate what goes wrong in a relationship the unspokenassumption is that this takes ego strength When men compete fiercely to be number one we see it as a reflection of their fragile egos which it can be and call it strategizin g mtlier than recogiiiziiig the ego streiigrli required to comiiict ri selfreevalurrtion iiiriiieiiiateli after a loss A man needs to ask What did I do wrong And then when he finds the answer rather than creit himself with his introspection he must focus immediately on correct ingquot quotitquotbefore the next game To Express ringer quotOne minute we were shouting and calling each other names A minute later we were concentrating on the next playquot The male tendency to take sports seriously combined with the willingness to express feelings intensely leads many adult men to say 39I lose my temper for a minute then it39s done With The positive side of male anger is the quick I 473 Reriiffiigs My study of malefemale languagepattern differences reflects the male training to take responsibility Men are much less likely to use phrases like quotThis happened to mequot and much more likely to use phrases like quotI did thisquot What Males Can Do Sense of ffimcy in the process of learning to take risks men get especially strong training in learning what is and what is not effective a sense of effi cacy In the process of trying a wide variety of jobs we learn what we are ef fective at We are socialized with a different attitude toward lost investments as experiences that finetune us to the questions we must ask to prevent the next loss We see the loss as an investment in investing Tin kering for hours under a hood teaches him by trial and error how to be effec tive with a car 1 said teaches him it hasn39t taught me Once again this is reflected in male female language differences Men are much less likely to say Maybe we can get Bill to do thatquot and much more likely to say Maybe if I try p 39 Doiiig Rirtlier Tlrrm Coriipiaiiiiiig To become effective men learn to make the unarticulated distinction between two types of complaining quotl m help less versus quotThis is the complaint now here39s the solutionquot Men are not tol erant enough of other men complaining I39m helplessquot But the best part of this intolerance is the pressure it exerts on a man to getrid of the problemquot that created the complaint Piishing the Li39mits ofOiie s Talents Doing may be better than complaining but doing is not enough A man s pressure to earn as muchquot as he can with his talents means a constant pushing of the limits of each and every talent to dis cover which one can support him best When people hear quotpushing the lim its of one s talents they think of talents as raw capability they feel that job advancement involves an expansion of talents and an application of talents toward an appropriate job and frequent promotions Successful people learn that pushing the limits of one s talents also means balancing the politics of everyone else39s egos while making themselves shine balancing facade with personal integrity and selling themselves repeatedly w39itti39out appearing as if they re selling The struggle to master the complex politics of advancement is the real pushing of the limits of one s talents The recent focus on discrimination has made us feel that the formula for success is qualifications plus lack of discrimination That onetwo approach has limited our appreciation of the extraordinary subtlety and range of tal ents required for advancement i Male Flexibility Sense of Humor Whether it s Woody Allen39s ability to laugh at the schlemiel in himself or George Carlin s ability to laugh at masculinity itself 26 5 p 3 1 39 27 28 29 30 at 2 r 32 3 n s 1 runr39quotr r rt i w L3939 39 39 2 Does Farrell convince Diversity in Men and Women 479 one of the best things that eme f the ability to laugh both at Ourrges mm mm 5 trammg to See Me as a game Eyen the most traditional and Bill Murray in Stripes mocking t larly mocking the traditional motherhood serious of male systems are mocked such as he military It is difficult to find movies stint female role for example a movie mocking Chrmige Without Blame Althou 8h men have made fewer Chan es th women h t h 3 3 out mowlfmgmc 311895 they h3V made as in fathering have occurred with s that blamed women Fifteen years ago few men were sens tive t 39 3 fIJ139gasrns orclitorises Few had heard of the ERA Few fatherstobe l01Ii t err wives in the delivery room in the preparation for the birth of the Tr1quot1 illfA1te50Ct31I11 Ihen had changed in all these ways 9 Lb g 0 at occurred happened without attacking women with luah t PP 51te Th9tOf1C such as Women hold a monopoly of power over t e 39ldquot quotw c 1 or omen havea fragile mothering ego perpetuated by a quiet matriarchy that sends men into the field to die while women consp t sleep in warm beds athorriequot Nor d39d T lre 0 Psychological abuse 1 men respond to blameby labeling It Wh T k en we hear thephrase the battle between the sexes there is an un spo en assumption that both sexes have been blaming equally The battle though could easily be called quotthe female 39 attack on men quot not quotthe mal t tackonwo quot39 239 ea39 men Fher is a distinction between responding to blame and ini nafmg 1t Men EVE Changed 1955 but they have also blamed less Questions According to Farrell what is good about male socialization you that feminist attacks on t d39t39 39 fair why or why not ra i ional masculinity are un How would Faludi react to Farrell s position Whose position do you favor own roles in the game and at the game itself T August 3 2010 A Labor Market Punishing to Mothers E y DAVID LEONHARDT Washington The last three men nominated to the Supreme Court have all been married and among them have seven children The last three women Elena Kagan Sonia Sotomayor and Harriet Miers who withdrew have all been single and without children This little pattern makes the court a good symbol of the American job market Women and men with similar quali cations age education experience are much more likely to be treated similarly today than in the past The pay gap between them while still not zero has shrunk to just a few percentage points Yet once you look beyond the tidy comparisons of supposedly identical men and women the picture is much less sunny There are still only 15 Fortune 500 companies with a female chief executive Men dominate the next rungs of management in most fields too Over all fulltime female workers make a whopping 23 percent less on average than fulltime male workers What s going on Men and women are not identical of course Many more women take time off from work Many more women work part time at some point in their careers Many more women can t get to work early or stay late And our economy exacts a terribly steep price for any time away from work in both pay and promotions People often cannot just pick up where they have left off Entire career paths are closed off The hit to earnings is permanent The fact that the job market has evolved in this way is no accident It s a result of policy choices As Jane Waldfogel a Columbia University professor who studies families and work says American feminists made a conscious choice to emphasize equal rights and equal opportunities but not to talk about policies that would address family responsibilities In many ways the choice was shrewd The feminist movement has been fabulously successful fighting for antidiscrimination laws that require men and women to be treated equally These laws have not eliminated the blatant sexism of past decades think Mad Men but they have beaten back much of it As a result outright sexism is no longer the main barrier to gender equality The main barrier is the harsh price most workers pay for pursuing anything other than the old fashioned career path Women do almost as well as men today Ms Waldfogel said as long as they don t have children The data make this case So does the disproportionate number of prominent women who do not have children Ms Kagan Ms Sotomayor Janet Napolitano and Condoleezza Rice among others Obviously many other successful women including Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg have children Through a combination of talent hard work and good fortune they have managed to beat the odds But that is indeed what they are doing beating odds stacked against them Most parents are simply not able to have it all regardless of where they are on the income spectrum A recent study of business school graduates from the University of Chicago found that in the early years after graduating men and women had nearly identical labor incomes and weekly hours worked Men and women also paid a similar career price for taking off or working part time Women however were vastly more likely to do so As a result 15 years after graduation the men were making about 75 percent more than the women The study done by Marianne Bertrand Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz did nd one subgroup of women whose careers resembled those of men women who had no children and never took time off On the other end of the spectrum lowincome women generally do not have a choice between career and family Many are single parents Their chances of escaping poverty are hurt by the longterm costs of taking time off after childbirth and having little exibility in their schedules Taking the next step toward workplace equality probably has to start with an acknowledgment that most parents can t have it all at least as long as parttime work exible schedules and long leaves do so much career damage A growing number of parents already seem to have come to this conclusion That s one reason for the rise in the number of mothers who have dropped out of the labor force Lacking good parttime job options more are choosing fulltime parenting Last year 402 percent of married women with children under 3 years old were outside the labor force up from a low of 386 percent in 1998 The increase according to a Bureau of Labor Statistics analysis occurred across all educational levels and for most groups by about the same magnitude By contrast women without children at home have continued to join the work force in growing numbers Unfortunately this problem isn t one that lends itself to a sweeping policy solution There are steps that can help Universal preschool programs like the statewide one in Oklahoma would make life easier for many working parents Paid parental leave policies like California s modest version would make a difference too With Australia s recent passage of paid leave the United States has become the only rich country without such a policy Giving parents here a full year of leave for each child would cost about 25 billion a year or less than 02 percent of gross domestic product Ms Waldfogel says Given scal realities a more realistic immediate idea may be the recent British law giving workers the right to request a switch to a parttime or exible schedule Employers can still say no but the establishment of a formal right seems to have made a difference So far about 90 percent of requests have been approved Yet policies like these are not enough In the European countries with much more generous parental leave laws women remain far behind men on career ladders The best hope for making progress against today s gender inequality probably involves some combination of legal and cultural changes which happens to be the same combination that beat back the old sexism We ll have to get beyond the Mommy Wars and instead create rewarding career paths even for parents fathers too who take months or years off We ll have to get more creative about parttime and exible work too If you want a preview you can look at the few professions in which large numbers of highly skilled women have been able to force change Obstetrics used to be a eld that required doctors to be on duty at all hours Today group practices allow obstetricians to share the 3 am deliveries and in the process have a life outside of work Optometry and veterinary medicine have their own versions of this story With both government and corporate budgets tight it s easy to be pessimistic but I think history argues for optimism This country doesn t always move quickly or evenly toward equality Yet it does tend to move in one broad direction For almost 200 years the Supreme Court did not have a single woman on its bench Sometime later this week it is likely to have three July 21 2010 Don t Write Off Men Just Yet By NICHOLAS D KRISTOF The yang of America s labor force is this over a 40year career a man earns 431000 more than a woman on average according to the Center for American Progress The yin of America s labor force is this in this decade for the rst time in American history men no longer inevitably dominate the labor force Women were actually the majority of payroll employees for the ve months that ended in March according to one measure from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics That s mostly because about threequarters of Americans who lost their jobs in the Great Recession were men Now men again fill a slight majority of payroll jobs because they are more likely to work in summer jobs such as construction America may now teeter back and forth with men predominant in the summers and women in the winters With women making farreaching gains there s a larger question Are women simply better suited than men to today s jobs The Atlantic raised this issue provocatively in this month s issue with a cover story by Hanna Rosin bluntly entitled The End of Men What if the modem postindustrial economy is simply more congenial to women than to men Ms Rosin asked She adds The postindustrial economy is indifferent to men s size and strength The attributes that are most valuable today social intelligence open communication the ability to sit still and focus are at a minimum not predominately male In fact the opposite may be true It s a fair question and others also have been wondering aloud if a new age of femininity is dawning After all Ms Rosin notes that Americans who use hightech biology to try to pick a baby s sex seek a girl more often than a boy And women now make up 51 percent of professional and managerial positions in America up from 26 percent in 1980 It s also true that while men still dominate the American power elite they also dominate the bottom rungs of the ladder By some counts America s prisoners are 90 percent male and most estimates are that homeless people are disproportionately male If school performance predicts career success then women may do even better a few decades from now for girls clearly excel in school as never before The National Honor Society for top high school students says that 64 percent of its members are girls The Center on Education Policy cites data showing that boys lag girls in reading in every American state Yet count me a skeptic My hunch is that we re moving into greater gender balance not a fundamentally new imbalance in the other direction Don t hold your breath for the end of 99 men One reason is that women s gains still have a catchup quality to them Catchup is easier than forging ahead Moreover the differences in educational performance are real but modest In math boys and girls are about equal In verbal skills 79 percent of elementary schoolgirls can read at a level deemed pro cient compared with 72 percent of boys according to the Center on Education Policy At the very top boys more than hold their own 62 percent of kids who earn perfect 2400 scores on the SAT are boys Some education experts like Richard Whitmire author of Why Boys Fail argue that the success of girls has to do in part with how schools teach children Tweaking curriculums by exposing kids to more books full of explosions might lead boys to do better in reading and if boys continue to lag therequotll be more of a push for boy friendly initiatives I think we exaggerate the degree to which the sexes are mired in con ict As Henry Kissinger once said Nobody will ever win the battle of the sexes There s too much fraternizing with the enemy We men want our wives and daughters to encounter opportunity in the workplace not sexual harassment women want their husbands and sons to be in the executive suite not jail Nearly all of us root for fairness not for our own sex The truth is that we men have typically bene ted as women have gained greater equality Those men who have lost their jobs in the recession are now more likely to have a wife who still has a job and can keep up the mortgage payments And women have been particularly prominent in the social sector devising new programs for the mostly male ranks of the jobless or homeless So forget about gender war and zerosum games Odds are that we men will find a way to hold our own with the help of women And we ll benefit as smart and talented women belatedly have the opportunity to deploy their skills on behalf of all of humanity including those of us with Y chromosomes SHOOTING AN ELEPHANT George Orwell George Onrell 39l90339 l95lJ was the pen ncnne of Eric Blair the son ofcr British customs officer serviiig in Bengiil lndici As a ho he was sent home to prestigious schools where he learned to dislike the rich and poii erful After fin ishing scliool at Eton he served as on ofli39t39er oftlie British police in Biirniri wliere he hecunie disillusioned with impe rialism He later studied conditions rnnong the urban poor and the coal miners of Wigciii at city in northwestern En glcind wliicli strengthened his socialist beliefs He was wounded in the Spanish civil war defending the lost cause of the left against the fascists Under the name Orwell he wrote accounts of all ofthese errperienees as well asthe anti Stalinist fable 39nimal lrdflii and the novel 1984 hi the fol lriwing essay first publislied in 1936 Onrell ottcrclzs the P0llllCS of iinperiulisni In t loulniein in Lower Burnia I was hated by large niimibers of people the only time in m39 life that l liave been important enough for this to happen to me 1 was subdivisional police officer of the town and in an aimless petty kind of winquot antiEuropean feeling was 39erf bitter No one had the guts to raise a riot but if a liuropean woman went through the bazaars alone somebodx would probably spit betel juice over her dress As a police otficer I was an obvi ous target and was baited whenever it seemed safe to do so 39lien is nimble Burinan tripped me up on the football field and the referee aiiottier Burinanl looked the other uii the quotcrowd yelled with hideous laugliter This happened more than once lo the end the sneering yellow faces of young men that met me everwliere the insults hooted after me when I was at a safe distance got badly on my nerves The young Buddhist priests were the worst of all There were several thousands of them in the town and none of them seemed to have an thing to do except stand on street corners and leer at Europeans All this was perplexing and upsetting For at that time I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing and the sooner I chucked up my job and got out of it the better 39l lieoieticallx39and secretly of course l was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors the British As for the job 1 was doing I hated it more bitterly than I can perhapsrnake clear In a job like that you see the dirty work of Iimipire at close quarters The wretched pris oners liudrlliiig in the stinking cages of the lockups the grey cowed faces of the longterm convicts the scarred buttocks oi the men who had been llogged 1 D4 the elephant39s doings It was not of course SHO039t ING AN Ii1i3PiiaN39i39 itldbanboriJ all tltiese oppressed me with an intolerable sense ofguilt Bur enonni P 39 t I P g H 0 J rspcctie I was ioung and illeducated and I had had n aln ii1 t 3391lIET139 PE390dlld l11S in the utter silence that is imposed on even 1i ngg5 1 EtS did I know that it is 1 Irlgat aetll lgltpii tlli1at the British Lnipire is rlving still less to supplant it I I kPwWaSetg1atri tcr t an lthbe l39Ol11gEI emliires that are going 1 served and H rage ainst the equot39asstnlt eltween iii hatred of the empire 01 bl I Spiritc itt e beasts who tried to make inv 1 IIUPOSSI 6 Mth one part of ms mind I thought of the British R 39 unbreakable l39391 aT1Tl as soinethiii 39 39 El as an g clamped down in siec lquot 3 l70 the 391 Of PTOSTTENE peoples with another part I thouglituthlitwlhizuclolllinl 10 quot 391 lb World woulr 39 be to drive a bavonet into a Buddl quott L Um est ings like these are the normal bvproduct of im eriili bk pneats guts hid Official liyou can catcli him oft dutv P Sm as ml AngloIndian One day s39o1i1etliing happened which in a round pigl II was a tiny incident in itself but it gave me 3 dlispotiiogg of the treal I1tltLlI39l ot imperialisin th 39 vernmen 5 act Lari one inor 39 t 39 tion the other end of the toiinrarig nie lllquotlZJ ll39lj SLllInSP cEl0T l ilpohte Sm IE HI 39 phant was ravagnig the bazaar Would I please come and do ssm tlllt 1 ale it l did not know what I could do but I wanted to see l tmm lung ablmt and 1 got on to H 0 I T s u 39 11 was iappenm and much too sniiillltlii a5Ilall Il0uti Ibtotol tllm nl eilan UM lH Wmchester 39 139 1 U ioug it t ie noise in l t b ful in terrorein Vario B lg E US us urmans stopped me on the ii39gi amt mid me about Ct 21 39i L e epiant int a tame uliicli had one ii t It l H 39 one when tlieirittack lfiiiiist Eli cthdmttld up all tame Cllcphams alWa39VS are U 011 It previous in it it had hroki 39 chain and esca ed lt l g E an H5 39 l P 39 5 quot13 011L the 0I1l person is ho could manage it islien it was in tlat state had set out in pursuit but had taken th l 39 3935 OW t quot39lquot l10UT5quot lUl1I I1t39 39 awa39 and in the l10ri1lI1gEll eI0lg l Hetclmclll aml den tea cared i t H T I I e ep ian ia suc uit I 11311 I I 1 own he Burmese population had no weapons and em Elli ie p ess against it lt had alreadv destroved soniebodiquot39s l391I139ll0O hut I e a cow and raid l 39 quot quot C met the municipal rul 39lCiS9TJll nll391llii stalls and cleioiired the stock also it had his heels had turned th c an ci391 I39t the din39er l1111pC l out and took to The e an oier an inflicted 39l0lE 39l1C S npoii it 39 lt139m39 S subinspector and some Indian constables were waiting for me in the quarter where the elephant had been seen it was 391 39t39 39 lifffr 3 labi39rintli of squalid bamboo huts thitched with pal c f I P39ODr39 quail over a stee hillsid l C m ca quot wlmmg 3 P e remember that it as a cloudy stiiffy mommg at the be about wag39 was enligliten better glimpse than I had e real l39l0l l39 S for which g I 39 the British Rar the lIl1 Lquotl ll orernn 39 39 39 ient l isaeciila sacculoruni foien er slid ever lliclill mg British Ind and Bumm ml in terrorem for fright lti39ls 39 l i quotmustquot frenzied slate of 539he hnll ele l 39 I p GEORGE ORW1LL ginning of the raiiis We began questioning the people as to where the ele phant had gone and as usual failed to get any definite inforinatioii That is in variably the case in the East a story alwavs sounds clear enough at a distance but the nearer you get to the scene of events the vaguer it becomes Some of the people said that the elephant had gone in one direction some said that he had gone in another some professed not even to haveheard of any elephant I had almostquot made up inv mind that the whole stor39 was a pack of lies when we heard 39ells a little distance away There was a loud scaritlaflized crv of Go awa39 child Co awav this instantquot and an old woman with a switch in her hand came round the corner ofa lint i0lCIII39SI10OII lg awa39a crowd of naked children Some more women followed clicking their tongues and eirclaiming evidently there was something that the children ought not to have seen I rounded the lint and saw a man39s dead body sprawling in the39mud He was an Indian a black Dravidian coolie6 almost naked and he could not have been dead inanv minutes The people said that the elephant had come SUlICIl upon him round the corner of the lint caiight him with its trunk put its foot on his back and ground him into the earth This was the rainy season and the ground was soft and his face had scored a trench a foot deep and a couple of tt39l39 long He was lying on his belly with arms crucified and head sharply twisted to one side His face was coated with mud the eyes wide open the teeth liarcd and grinning with an expression of nneridnrable agony Never tell me by the wav that the dead look peaceful Most of the corpses I have seen looked dcvilish The friction of the great beast39s foot had stripped the skin from his back as neatly as one skins a rabbit As soon as I saw the dead man I sent an orderl39 to a friend39s house nearby to borrow an elephant rifle I had al readv sent back the ponv not wanting it to go mad with fright and throw me if it smelt the elephant P The orderly came back in a Few minutes with a rifle and five cartridges and meanwhile some Burrnans had arrived and told us that the elephant was in the paddy fields below only a few hundred yards away As I started forward practi cally the whole population of the quarter flocked out of tlie houses and fol lowed me 39lquotliev had seen the rifle and were all shouting e39eitcdlv that I was goiiig to shoot the elephant They had not shown much interest in the ele pliant when he was merely ravaging their homes but it was tiiffereiit now that he was to be shot It was a hit of fun to them as it would be to an English crowd besides tlie39 wanted the meat It made me vaguelv un39eas39 I had no in tention of shooting the elephaiit 1 had inerelv sent for the rifle to defend my self if necessai 39 ancl it is always unrierving to have a crowd following on I marched down the hill looking and feeling a fool with the ri e over tT139 shoul der and an evergrowing 11Tt1quot of people jostling at my heels At the bottom when on got axvav from the huts there was a metalled road arid beyond that a i Dririidi39aii cuolier a cooiic is an unskilled laborer travidian refers to a large group from south and central India lids iris VI SHOOTING AN ELEPHAiquott mir39 waste of paddy fields a thousand vards across not vet IOL1 died b t from the F t 39 l pds quot 39 I E 39 U soggI irs rains and dotted with coarse grass The elephant was siwtiing eight E 39ads from the road his left side towards us He took not the slightest no ticeo t e r0 d quot 39 39 a t H 0M vi 5 approach He was tearing up bunches of grass beating them galirlis is nees to clean them and stuffing them into his mouth rad I 39It 39 ia ed on the road Is sppn as I saw the elephant I knew with perfect U 3et1In1 It is serious piattelr to shoot a working i 5 I0 mg 3 USE EIHC cost v piece of machin d b 9quot if 0 10l15l ORE Ought ntclit I0IOlI if llt cin pDSSlIIquot be avoided And at 16 e ep tan oo quotcc no more dan ierous tha i 39 quot I I 39 I 39 I n E I I a con ioug it then and I think now that his attack of must was already pass liarmlesslv about 39 39 hout came back and caught him Moreover I di 39 mm the ma I decided that I would watch him for a lit J not turn savage again and then go home But at that rrioinent Iglanced around at the crowd that Ind follow d I was an immense crowd two thousand at the least and growiiig everv r1ii1iiI 1i 1 39 w ggs laid for is lolngldistazgce on either side I looked at the sea ot vcllow fun ail Certain t 2113 C p igs aces all happv and eircited all over this bit of 39 2 39 a re e ep ant was going to be shot Iquothev were watching me as thev would watch a coninrer about to perform a trick Thev did not lik I b t qft t I I I E u in 1 he rmgical rifle in my hands I as rnomentarilv worth watching And tle while to make sure that he wills pressing me forward irresistibly And it w c 0 c 39 there mm the ri e in W hands that I as a its I39l1Qll391IC 3915 I stood of the white39man39s do 39 39 39 tl Iquot rsttgmsped the honmlnessi the mihhi WW0 In 16 Last ere was I the white man with his 8 5t3 I from Of the unarmed native crowd seeininglv the leading but in realitv I was onlv an absu d t by the will of those vellow faces behind I perceived liIiJ ocll1l I1IItS tlt f1I Itl1EIidl1 rI0 i E r a 1 him He wears a mask and his face l thI 8quotn0 that quot35 ltTtPf359iile The crowd would laugli at W10I life C quot l39 white man39s lifein the Fast laughed at I 39 But I did not want to s of grass against his knee hoot the elephant I watched liiin beating his bunch s with that preoccupied grandmotherlv air that ele I0 I not in the least want to shoot 39 GI RGt39 ORWELL I pliauts have It seemed to me that it would be iuurder to shoot him At that age I was not squeaniisli about killing animals but I had never shot an elephant and never wanted to Somehow it always seems worse to kill a large animal Besides there was the39beast39s owner to be considered 39live the elephant was worth at least a hundred pounds dead he would only be worth the value of his tusks five pounds possiblv But I had got to act quiclcly I turned to some experiencedlooking Burinans wlio had been there when we arrived and asked theiu how the elephant had been leliavirig 39l Iiev all saidthe same thing he took no notice of you if you left him alone but he might charge if you went too close to him It was perfectly clear to me what I ougIit to do I ought to walk up to within sav tweiitji five yards of the elephant and test his behavior If he charged I could shoot if he took no notice of me it would be safe to leave him until the niahout came back But also I knew that I was going to do no such thing I was a poor shot with a rifle and the ground was soft mud into which one would sink at every step If the Clt 39lRl1I charged and I missed hini I should have about as mucli chance as a toad under a steamroller But even then I was not thinking particularly of mv own skin only of the watchful jrellow faces behind For at the inoment with the crowd watching me I was not afraid in the ordi iiarv sense as I would have been ifl had been alone A white man niustn t be frigliteiied in front of quotnativesquot and so in general he isn t friglitened The sole thought in H1 mind was that if anything went wrong those two thousand Bur nians would see me pursued caught trampled on and reduced to a grinnin corpse like that Indian up the hill And if that happened it was quite probable that some of them would laugh That would never do Tliere was only one al I 39 tentative I shoved the cartridges into the iiizigaziiie and lay down on the road to get a better aim The crowd grew very still and a deep low happv sighas of people who see the theatre curtain go up at last breathed from innunrerable throats The were going to have their bit of fun after all The rifle was a beautiful German thing with cross liair sights I did not then know that in shooting an elephant one would shoot to cut an iniaginarv bar running from earhole to earhole I ought therefore as the elephant was sideways oii to have aimed straight at his ear liole actualIv I aimed several inches in front of this thinkingthe brain would be further forward quotlien I pulled the trigger I did not hear the bang or feel the kick one iiever does wlicn a shot goes lioine but I heard the devilish roar of glee that went up from the crowd In that instant in too short a time one would have tliought even for the bullet to get there a iiivsterioiis terrible change had come over the elephant He neither stirred nor fell but ever line of his body had altered He looked suddenIv stricken shrunken I1TtlTtEttSt3lquot old as though the frigl39it39ful impact of the bullet had paralyzed him without knocking him down At last after what seemed a long tin39ie it might have been five seconds I dare saj39 lie sagged flabbilv to his knees His mouth slobbered An enormous I08 SHOO39t39t G AN I1iiPitiANr S t1Illl 39 seemed to have settled upon him One could have sands of years old I fired again into the same spot moment to f I I hreiiigth from his legs But in falling he seemed for a rise or as its in egs collapsed beneath him he seemed to tower upward like a huge rock toppling his trunk reaching skiwards like a tree He trumpeted for the first and onlv time And then down he came his hcllv towards me with a crash that seemed to shake the I i 39 l1nto gaverns of pale pink throat I waited for a Ion p 9 B 0 9 p p 9 lt ie thick blood welled out ofliini like red en ierk when the shots hit pause He was dving vert te from me where not even df 1 ad got to put an end to that a u to see the great beast I ing there powerless 39 and not even to be abl t fquot 39 39 back IOT 1111 small rifleand poured shot after shot into his I39I 39IIIl llI1Cll1lFIltlJInsI39I391t 39 c 39 is throat Thev seemed to make no im 39 pression The to t d steadilv as the ticking of a clock I we gasps Contmued as In the end I could not stand it any longer and went aw l took him half an hour to die Burinans were bringing dahs and baskets even I f I I 7 J6 org eft and I uastold the had stripped his body almost to the bones bv re a ternoon slrlii IJjquotaiid in great agriziv but in some world remo a 1 let could damage him further I felt that I h dreadful noise It seemed dre as I heard later that of course there were endless discussions al the elephant The owner was furious but he was onlv nothing Besides legallv I had done the right thing for a mad elephant I t 39 ias o b It39ll cl l39k 39 39 E I 6 1 e a mad dog if its owner fails to control it Among the Europeans 0plt1tOI V as divided The older men said I was right tl nout the shooting of an Indian and could do n anv damn Coringhee coolie And afterwards I was it put me legally in the right and it g the elephant I often wondered ad done it solely to avoid looking 21 gave me a siifficient pretext for shootin grhgtlier any of the others grasped that I h oo dui39is butcher knives IEdi I09 GEORGE Oiiii39i5ii QUIESquott391ONS 1 Describe Orwell39s mixed feelings about servirig as a pohee officer in Burma 1 2 How do the natives quotforcequot Orwell to shoot the elephant against his better in g p M 39 r fB 39t39l nient How does he relate this personal episode to the larger problems 0 ri isi I iiuperialisni 3 quothat is Orwell39s final reaction to his deed IIow literall39 cairigis e take his state ment that lie was very glad that the eoolie had been killed tparagrapli Hi rt mm the opening sentence Orwell displai39s a reinarkable caiidpr coiieeriiiiig his feelings How does this personal candid tone add to or detract from F strength of the essav 7 E i Orwell39s recollection of shooting the elephant m shaped to stiFpport speeitie point or thesis 39here does Orwell state this thesis is this plac lltelli39t3iCil s 39 J 6 In what t S does this essay read more like a short story than an C39pOStittt39 essay lion effective is Omell39s use of narrative and personal experience 7 Orwell often 39t39tJiC with a political purpose with a quotdesire to push the worlld rule certain direction to alter other peoples idea of the kiiidot S0L39t flfllTi1l lltti 539 1510 strive afterquot To what extent does the quottiny incident in this essay ll fJ 3fe t 39 f nature of imperialismquot fparagrapli 3 Does Orwell succeecl in altering iour lclt8 0 iinpcrialisin s 8 Lisirig Orwcll39s essay as a model write a reflection III which the narration ot 1 tiny incidentquot illuiiiinates a larger social or political problem 139lrl39I N C CONI N FCTlOtl S Tlm 5clQclIlt1S l39 II2139t13939ltg lttt tp 3939 7 o39e39 quotI39raci39 IquotIarlr PX HE 0 IUTEquot 39i5er p 1333 in this section read sorncwhat like snortstories as oes rwe s essr 39 39 39 is fiiliiess of 0I11al the narratiie desigiis of tiio of these iiriters Emil IIISCIHS 19 l 9 stori39telliiig in reflective writing I10 WHAT DID YOU DO IN THE WAR CRAIlDIIA A Flashback to August 1945 o Zoe Tracy Hardy Born in I 92 and raised in the Midii est Zoe TI39dt 39 I39IITCft39 was one of millions ofyoung worrren called quotRosie the Rivet e39rsquotii39ho worked in deferrse plants during World War II Considered at first to he mere surrogates for male ivorlrers these women soon were building bombers that their S ttptt391 l sors declared eqiial in the construction to those turned out by experienced worlrinen in the plant s other depart rnentsquot as a news feature at the tinie stated After the escort ful saimrier described in the followiiig 39SS t139 Itardy finished college married and began teaching college English in Ari zona Griarn and Colorado This essay first appeared in the August 1985 issue of Ms irragaiire exaetli39 forty i ears after the end of World War II It was rinseasoriabh39 cool that day in i Ia 1945 when I left in39 rriother and father and kid brother in eastern Iowa and took the bus all the way to Omaha to help finish the war I was 18 and had inst completed ini first i39ear at the Uniirersity of Iowa without distinction The war in Europe had ended in April the war against tlieJapanese still raged I wanted to go where something real was being done to end this hitter war that had etl t S been part of inif adoles cenee I arrivetl in Omaha atiniclnight The 3W39C would get a room was closed until i t so I curled up in a cracked maroon leather chair in the erowcied sniokv waiting room of the bus station In the morning lset off on foot for the Y CA dragging a lieav39 suitcase and carrying my favorite hat trimmed in daisies in a large round liatbos An hour of logging and resting brought me to the Y a great Vietorianhouse of dark brick where I paid two weeks in advance most of rni39 inoneyquot for board and a single room next to a bathroom that I would share with eight other girls I surrendered my red and blue food ration stamp books and mi39 sugar coupons to the circle who would keep them as long as I stay eel there I had eaten nothing buta wartime candy bar since breakfast at home the day before but breakfast at the Y was alreaciy over So queas39 and light headed I went back out into the cold spring day to find an job I set out for the downtown office of the Glenn L ilartin Coinpan It was at their plant where I promised in faniilji39 I 111 u 39 5 a i rr ri nrv39 quotquot quot 39l39he historian must not get these things wrong But when points of this kind are py l39il RlJ llALLtE39I39 CARR Tins f lIS391quot0Itl i3939ii tt His l ac39i39s not with facts like these that the liistoriaii is IlI1 It1Tll39 coiiceriied It is no doubt iniportaiit to know that the great battle was fouglit in 1066 and not in 1065 orquot is IfliT and that it was fought at Iiastiiigs and not at Eastbonriie or Brighton Let us take a lookattlie process bi which a mere fact about the past is trans formed into a fact of history39 At Stalvbridge Wakes in 1830 I vendor otigiiiger U bread 39 39 W 39 quotC 39 an an as tlicbrelsulltof spnie pett dispute as delilierateljr kicked to death in 39 39 39 I31 39 15 39 i d gr39i jllltti 5 tits 1 act of liistorji ear ago I should llll1 Silailt1gl39 have ws 0 39 2 ai no I u is recordd by an CCquotilll1tfSS in some littleLiiowii 39t1 39II ItI3939s39lquot but I had never seen it 39llg t39l WOl ll39t39 of mention bi 39IIl liistoriin 39 39e 1r ti 0 quot39 1 39 C I l S Dr lIlSOt1 Clark cited it in his Ford lectures in Oxford lg Dries ll ll Il tals39Cgil39 I Egon h395tU ltl339i Vi lil1t l set lts present status l siiggest is that it has ro 05 p p at or ITlCIitI 5ltl or the select club of liistorical tacts lt now c awaits a secoiider and sponsors It inas be that in the course of the next few ltj years we shall see this fact appearing first in footnotes then in the text of arti 0 cles and books about niiieteentliceiiturv ifiialiiid and that in t39u39it39 or thjm z quotquot r C quot 39 i 93T5 Wit It I118 be a well establislied liistorical fact lternatii39eli39 nobodir 0Yy mar take 139 ii ii 39 39 pu 39 quot 7 R L p r iiliich sase it will relapse into the limbo of uiihistorical facts atliiip the p stltrolp whicii Dr l39itson Clark has gzlllttl1ll39 tt flQl to mscue 1 39iati39 39 quot 3q think oh 1 Hem S l1il1 of these tiio tliings lll liappeii It will depend I 39391Cquotl393 i39 s W O r ie HIESIS or interpretation in support of which Dr lli50t1 Llark cited this incident is accepted l other lllSt0I39l39tI1S 39is valid and sigiiifi ant PPn lts status as a l quot 0 m k quot l l FP L 39 39 iistorical fact will turn oiia question of iiiterpretatioii llus ele In ment of interpretation enrs nito 3939Et quot fact of liistorv Xk 39 l 39 3 39 I f I 39 l la I be allowed a pcrsonal reiiiiiiisceiicc hen I studied in this UIlt ISlh niaiiv i ears ago I had Jriod of the f ersian 39ars I collected fifteen or ti39entj 39ltll1CS on iiwslieliquotes and took it tor granted that there recorded in these iolunics I had lllilll fi t r i e ac relating to in subject Let us assunie it was vcrv ne39irh39 trLie tliat those Vols 3 nines contained all the facts about it that were then known or coiilrl b Efll iip tlt net er occlurred to me to enquire by what accident or process of attrf ion 2 39 quot Cb X ii ininute se ection ot tarts out of all the lTtI ldCl facts that inust have 2 ONCE been known to soinebodi39 had SL1t39 l39el to become the facts of historr I StlS Clil1E1iE398 quotA 39 3939 39 K L 39 W XZ tilt it he I1 tgcliirlpiie of tips tascinations of ancient and iiieclieval ltl5lOT39 39 39sus i 1 2Y g ie 1 LSIOII Z raring all the facts at our disposal witliiii a manageable compass the nagging distinction between the facts of liistori i l 39 c I other facts about the past 39iquotctI39llSl1t S because the few known facts are all fict cf liistori is Burr wl 39 V i 39 5 O to had worked in both periods said the records of ancient and mt llE ill l1lSl0IT are starred with liciinae quotH llistorv has been C391llLl ii 39 c 2 t1Ot JI1Ol1S i saw wit i yM 39 0 O lts ll 1 it of inissiiig parts But the main trouble does not tconsisttof the lalciipae Our picture of Greece in the fifth centurv BI is defec ive no iriinari 2 39 39 0 C 1 fr iecause so iiian ot the bits hate been accidentally lost but raised I am reminded of l lJll il139IaI1 S remark that acciiiaey is a chit not a J 39lFi1lC l l To praise a liistorian for his accuraei39 is like praising an architect for using wellseasoned timber or properl39 inised concrete in his building It is a HD iiecessi39iri39 coiiditioii of his work but not his essential function It is precisely for eI 1 matters of this kind that the historian is entitled to rely on what ha39e been called the quotauxiliar39 sciencesquotquot of liistorv archaeology epigrapliy niiniisniat39 B ir39s cliroiiilog39 and so forth The liistoriaii is not required to liave the special r skills wliich enable the expert to deterinine the origin and period ofa fragment 0 of pottery or inarblc to deciplier an obscure inscription or to rnalze tli39e39 7 elaliorate astrorioiiiical calciilatioiis 1t C393SS3T39 to establish a precise date 39l hese 5 socalled basic facts which are the same for all lquotllSiirlamp1I1S C0lmt10t1l39 beloiig to 4 the categorv of the raw materials of the historian rather than of l1lS if39 itselfquot 5 39lquotlic second observation is that the tlCC SSll 39 toquot establish these basic facts rests not on any qnalit39 in the facts thcnisel39es but on an ri iriori decision of the p a liistoiiaii In spite of C 1 Stottquots motto ei39eri39 journalist knows toclay that the 39 most effective was39 to inlhience opinion is by the selection and arrarigenient of 39 the appropriate facts lt used to be said that facts speak for tlieiiiselves This is u of coiirse untrue The facts speak only when the historian calls on tlieni it is i he wliodecides to whicli facts to give the floor andiii what order or coiitext lt was l think one of Pirandello s cliaractcrs who saidtliat a fact is like a sackquot391 it won39t stand up till ji39oii39i39c put soiiietliing in it The onlv reason wln39 we arequot interested to know that the battle was foiiglit at Hastings in l066 is that l1lSl0ti ans regard it as a major liistorical tquotl1l39 lt is the liistorian who has decided for395 his own reasons that Caesar39s crossing of that pettsquotstream the Rubicon is a V fact of history whereas the crossing of the Riibiciriiiin39 millions of other people 1 liefore or since interests nobody at all The fact that you arrived in this building half an hour ago on foot or on a liC Clt or in acar is inst as much a fact about the past as the fact that Caesar crossed the Rubicon But it will probrilli 539 be iigniirecl hi39 liistorians Professor Talcott Parsons once called science a selec i tire S Sit tl1 of eognitii39e orientations to re39alit39quotquot lt niiglit perhaps have beeiiff put more Slmll39 But liistory is among other things that quotthe historian is iiec if essarily seler39tii e Tlie belief in a hard core of liistorical facts existing objec ti39eli and lI1l Jt39I1lt I39tll of the interpretation of the liistoriari is a preposterous fallacy but one which it is very hard to eradicate i 39 quot 0 V iiiicieiit liistory as a special siiliiect Greece in the pe 39fl ilaniiiiis 39ilttrriiiriiiiir39mi lif1erl riirius End ed Caiiibrid2e Uiiiversitv Press 1937 5 lorcl George Sanger Sei eiit39i39 i39e39c1rs 39 Sim ii 1 i M 3 tii llousinriii llt 59 l936lt lionI and classical scholar who edited ilariihiis lEds 39 v pp l359 39 39 R H m l dawn 139 39 39 ls cm amp 5 quot 39 W6quotF l ltlf f Piriiiirlellri ll fi39 l939it ii ltaliaii plagmrriglit Fds 39 39 7 7 quotTalciitt Parsoiis and f39d39ard r39 Shils 39lquotoii39urd ir Geiieral 39l39fieori39 of Actioii 3rd edlC an1 H 39 39 1 1 H I I I HThese will shortl oe piiblisl Iiiiiisiiio l ItLE39 CARR 39 Tin IIisroiuin AND His Fic39rs Let me illustrate what I am trying to say by an saiiiple which I happen to lrnow well Wlieii Gustav Streseinanri the Foreign Minister of the Weiniar Re3 public diedin 1929 he left behind him an enormous niass 300 l0 Sg full of papers officiai seniiofficial and private nearly all relating to the six 0 c i ears ofliis tenure of office as Fcireigri Minister Hisfriends and relatives natuquot rall39 thouglit that a monument should be raised to the iriemory of so great ah man His faitliful secretary Iicrnhardt got to worl and within three years tliereif appeared three riiassi39c volumes of some 600 pages each of selected docu P rnents from the 3ttU lioes with the impressive title Streseiiioiiiis quoteriir 39i39clitiiis3p In the orrliiiar39 way the documents tlieiiiselies would liave rnoldered away39in39j BW some collar or attic and disappeared for ever or perhaps in a liundred years or P O so some curious scholar would liai39e come upon them and set out to cornpare them with lierriliarcltls text 39l139dt liappenctl was far more dramatic In the rlocuiiieiits fell into the liands of the Bl39itiSlt tll the American govern 39 inents who photographed the lot and put the p392iotostats at the disposal of 5 scholars in the l ulilic Record Office in London and in the National rclii39es3939g in Wasliiii 1tiii so that if we have sufficient patience and curiosity we can dis cover exactly39 wliat Bernhardt did hat he did was neither 39er unusual iiori Tquot sliocleirig quotlien Streseinann died his Western policy seemed to liaiequotI been crowned with a series of brilliant siiccessesLocariio the adiiiission39of39 eriiiaiii 39 to the League of Nations the Dawes andYoung plans and the Anier quotEquot ican loaiiis the 39iil llt39Etquottl of allied occupation arriiies from the Rhineland 39l39his seemed the important and rewarding part of Stresemaiin s foreign policy and it was not unnatural that it should l391 c139 been o39crrepresented in Bern hardt39s selection of documents Streseinaiiri s Eaistern policy on tltCi0l2hCf ii hand his relations with the Soviet Union seemed to liave led nowhere inpat ticnlar and since masses of docurnerits about negotiations which yielded only39 trivial results were not en interesting and added nothing to Streseiiianifs rep utation the process of selection could be more rigorous Stresemann in factde 39oted a far more constant and aiisious attention to relations with the Soviet Union and the39 plai ed a far larger part in his foreign policy as a whole than the reader of the Bernliardt selection would surmise But the Beri39ilia39rdt39fvol unies compare fn39orall I suspect with niarn39 published collections of docu quot239li tI39liiS WOI39l 3 selecf 39 ion from Ben ls 39 b 0 39 Cli5 5t39l Ctt0lt perliaps one third of the 0IlgtI1a iias omitted Sutton a welllciiown trans ji0b coinpetently and well The F39nglisli versiriii he C Cl39tiIC l in the pref 139ii39as sliglitlv condensed but oiil 39 l i I 3936 f i in the oiiiissioii ot a certain amount of what J it tilsleltt ngsrliilriore eplieineral inatter ot little interest to l ilIglI3939lt reidem orsucens iisa ain is net i quot 0 Emem on P I g 1 mil E l0l1gl1BlIlfil1f result is that StrL39scimums 0 tc p C a rear under represented in Bernhardt recedes still furiur roin iiew and tl Q D I PY 39 xcasional mad H118 Hoiict biiioii appeJ39ars in Eaiitton s voluiiies P e er uiiwecoriie intrn er iii giCl39f sena11n395 Jr C39lItt1tll lItil39 West em foreign policv tet it is safe to Tit I 39 0 c that for all exceit 2 f 39 39 j ion and not BCmhmdtpmd Still 10 the d0C mnelmlH 1 tusJcciilists but for the Western world tlieiiitlweiitic mice JffQiit39t39Sl1 I lellllsd ltlcishlrcpremm 39 f L ianri 391 l39OC 1l K Pf 5l1Ul 111 I949 in the bombing and had the remiiniiiu Bier I at lncnlh I llSappeared the Qlliltelliiclh and 1tlilOl39il3939 of Sutton 5 I H W O times P 39 wont never iai e quot questioned tIain printed collections of docuinents gritefnlh accepted lJ lfn toriansin defaultof i 39 I quot 5 p But I wmt to C mt l1tEorg1rials t39cSi on po seciirer basis than this quotc 3939 39 ie s on one t quot quotCand Sutton and be tliaiilful that W Eiiiiuiiliiliai 0 Us mtg l db0m Bcmlmdl 39 quot 2 quot 0056 Corisu t tie at 39 ls1P9T5 0 3 l IltlIngmrt1Cinaiit in some iiiiportant events of recent E mmnhc iston I39h t do he 39 39llI39 ElI papers tell us moiig other tltltlquot l 39 its HEW coiitiin record f some hundreds of Streseiiaini39s 39 39 quot 39 i 5 0 e coiiversations with ill 39 j 39 Berlin and of 3 Score or 50 Wth Chichmn 3 1he T c dSfl1i aiiiliissitlcir in 2 D 39 ecor s 1a39 one te39itur Hcominon Ihev depict Streseman q 1quot it as hating the lions share of the conversa tions and reveal his art 39 39 39 unients as invar r r his partner are for tlieginost part scarihidiiiiilfiicslciclml cilnd mgenil While those Of I 3 Iquot u 39 Iquot o faniiliar characteristic of all records of diplomatic lmumimungiii Hi lb A quot 39 39 convcrsa ions quotre uicu ad or perhaps wlirit he waiitecl him Bernhar lt l 9 himself who started th 39 m or i ml emquotl39quot e process of selection and if we liid 39 39 r 5 bat Lliiclieriii 5 records of these same coinersatioiis xy 3 h Chiclierin thoucrht and iirliai reills he slmuldlm 1mm from than only what r gt r ctppeiiec npiilcl still have to be recon G 39 e acts am docuni t39 sential to the historian But do 39 5 39 C S M esquot iict i G thenmVeS constitute hismnh he pIl391tiljCe Elinittillsll Jilillcllt lhei lo not lit I icmse res no re39i 39 n iier to this tiresome question Wliat is lj5fQn quot mink m ittliis point I l 39 siould like to sa 39inineteentliceiiturv historians were l1lquotfll 39 i39rii5 0 the quashO of W11 g a is int erent to the plll0S0l39 of quotl1lSt0I i39 The tern 39 r 2 p 0S 3 35 lmelli d l3 Oltaire and has since been used in differ iiierely as an oc T C d rquot 9 Ii L r C i 391 FD U D i I l I15 I I I1 a II If IQ 51 C I11 J F3939 4 nicnts on which the orliriirj39 historian illtpllCltl relies n y 39lquothis is not the end of my story Sl10t39il39 after the publication of Bernhardts 39OlltlTtE S Hitler came into power Streseiiiaiiifs name was consigned to obliv ion in Gcrnian and the voliiiiies disappeared from circulation TI1at39t39 perhaps most of the copies must l1EtquotE39 been rlestroyed Today Stresemciniis quotemi iclitnis is 1 rather rare book But in the West Streseiiiariifs reputation stood high In 1935 an Eiiglisli publisher lirouglit out an abbreviated translation of Bern 539392lCUSid1quotStI Editor sNote ngori Ciiicheriii i39tST2 l936i 3 P toltqire I69i l7i 8l French drain w39ci39iiiar ltcpi ilic the governiiient oi C erinaii39 estalilislied in the city of 39t eimarfafter Wciridhl semmm Hm Dimes I39 quotquotquotquot39 39d P quotPW CUJIICIIIII M irI I919 and lasting until Adolf Hitler rose to power in W33 ELls acrnillaii amp Co 1933 quot Sircseriiriiiiii quoteriiic39i39c itiiis this title rriay be translated as quotStre39semann39s Legacy Eds I g mt39erflllRllS5lHl1 diplomat Ecls atist pliiiosopher and social critic Fllt 600 I 601 ator troni the German did his Eoii39inn lquotlLItT CARR eiit seiiscs lint l shall l39ttl39C it to incaii ifI use it at all our aiiswer to the q39ties tioii Wlizit is liistors 39l he iiiiieteeiitli E t1ttlt39 was for the tI t llg 39C ttlEtlP539Ot P csteri39i liii39ope a ctiiiifortahle period esiitling confidence and optiniisin lhe q St r39 l that quotwe are not initiated into the purposes of the EtCTt39tt39tl wisdoni 39 Pro fessor liiit39tci39field as late as l93l noted with apparent satisfaction that l1tStft ans hasquote reflected little upon the nature of tliings and e39r3n the nature of their own sitgtiectquot But ins predecessor in these lectures lal391 SEE more F l1l s39tl39 critical wrote of Sir Wiiistoii Cliiircliills The l39ttt ld CTISISht5 b00l39 ahoiit the First 39orld quotiir tl1at while it iiiatched 39l1Tquott51 quot5 Hi39Sf39rT W the Rirss39ion Remfiitiriii in 39 TSftIt tltl i39 39t39tlttt SS and 39ttamptllt3939 it was Ittf Tt039 In 0119 1 respect it had quotno philosoplis of lti5tt 39 heliintl it British historians refused to he drawn not hecaiise they l lIC39L tl that historjr had no tquott1 39c1ttInC39 liitle cause they lCllL 39L39l that its ineaiiiiig was implicit and 5Clf Ct ilE39ttt the liberal iiineteeiitliceritiiri39 view of ltlSitT39 had a close affiiiiti39 with the economic doc 39 triric of ltiissezi39tiire alsti the prodiict of a serene and seltconfident outlook on the wt1rld Let e39eiorie get on with his particular job and the hidden hand woiild take care of tlieiiniversal liari1ioni The facts of histors39were tlieriiseli esppi 39 a tlcnionstration of the siiprenie fact of a letieficentantl apparentlsquotiiifinite3 progress towards higher things This was the age of innocence and historians walked in the Garden of liiden witlioiit a scrap of pliilosoplii39 to cover them 0 naked and iiiiasliainetl before the god of history Since then we liave lltnowii Sin and esperieiiced a 7 all and those liistorians who todai39 pretend to lt5pfItS Hf39 with a pliilosoplisr of histori39 are iiierely tryirig 39aiiil and Sell CtttSCl39tt5l39 like meinliers of a nudist coloni39 to recreate the Garden of laden in their g2ll ltZ tl I suhiiih quotlquototlai39 the awkward question can no longer be exacted QUES t It39S t aarrs essay answers the question quotliit is a liistorital 5quottLt Stiniimrize liis an swcr to that qiiestioii u i 39 quot39 I V 39 3 hi paragraph sari says the historian must ciiltixate ignoraiicef hat doc I t it i 39 391 39 I Hm Mpressiriii mean in its contest hat is the point ot tl1edisi1ission 1 ton an fT 39 I I u 39 5 quot 393 I Dtillingcr in that paraigrzipli How does this tlisciissioii ttttI llt1hL to the larger theme the essav p 17 nd W Rmisc The l39Iiitliift1ii Epocti ihoridriii Macniillaii 185 Ci3 194 pp 2523 602 tacts were on the whole satisfactorv and the inclination to ask and answer awl 0 ward qiiestioiis ahoiit tlieni was C0t t39ESJnltlgl weallt Rranlce Pt0LlSl39l ll39e3939l that tli ine prft39lt39l 39ttCC would take care of the iiieaningof liistorv it hetool y care of the facts and litirclzliatdt witli a more modern touch oi es39nicisrn 0l 39 siiiniiiarize the opposing position Stat standiiig it and aicceptiiig it asa tact v 39 l39lW might Ca 3quotHcrhert liiitterfield Ttie i39l39iig lnterpretutioii Jfi ft39tt39tt39j39 ilt391l1lJl George Bell 5 50715 Tat IIisroiiiaisz AND His Fit139s 3 In presentiiig an argiiiiieiit speciallx39 seek to gain the conficlence of the reader H picture does he present of hiinself quotliat im ences to hiiiiself in paragraphs 1 ation of his positioii 4 Carr39s essay is a coiitrovcrsiail one a write OW does Carr 30 ahoiit this pression of him do voii get fr mil 0 and how does that iiiipressioii affe r niiist often on his refer ct our estilti I I an argiiiiieiitatii e essay on interpret t It words iimerpret and iizterpretcitioii in the larger discussion 39quottiitifiew of the r presented here 3 Carr39s essay CItlt 1lt39tS p tween l39li5l0I39it1tt5 and the facts th I atioti Locate the iiiaii rises of the essajr and corisider how thei39 tiinctioii in e ationstiip between facts and tnterpretatioii is revioiisly existing esplaiiatioiis of the ey must deal with in writiiig llStt 39 c in i our own words the views relatioiisliip be ihcre does Carr of ltistt 39 39 l f 1 with which Carr tell85 issue mm uh iCoiisilr 0 tenth t we selffal M13 S 3ll Lnowii to son and 1our classiiiates Limit iour at Mmiii to 1 tEEt1t tacts 5peeiticalli39 from the last year it oii niight first discuss in class quotsorso o ac p8 merit toiir attention hith oi those facts has the best chance of he coiiiiiig a liistorieal tact in Carr39s terms On what does that process depend Write quotill esplaiiiatioii oi the 39l1lblOt39lt39Ttt39 of a fact sou choose trviiia to CtJtt ltl39tf 0llt39 cl that i39oiir taet will become a historical fact i M 39 Select an accepted liistorical fa wliich you argue iilits iii fact is assniates ct not mentioned b39 C Iarr and write an essav iii a historical tact and what grounds we liave for tinder iiiiiltiNo CONitEC39t39lONS How does John Berger39s essai quot llirosliiiriaquot tp 539i eoiiiriieiit on the use of facts rr C Or39llttf Il on Bergers interpret ation of liistorv 603 m Does tIis39roin39 l39lAPt EN VHEN DOES HISTORY HAPPEN Barbara Tuchinan Mr Carr of which he re was driving at quothat he 39 past eients cannot exist iiidepencleiitly of the historian quot 39e would know nothing about them in short that the unrecorded past is none other than our old friend the tree in the fell where there was no one to hear the sound of the like li Carr l3cti39hcircI TUCJIIIICIII il9l l189lItS399I3 i 39 1 iiiirii earned with Hle39mlc Oi htltitisititlklctttohitifhl etloed iifitliiiz the dis iltiSftt39t39cIIt39S tasc is o e39 39 t I H P nherco ec ctfJhiie of facts l he i390l0 39 393 quot3953quot mm fm q conundrum because it asks the wronr ques I I tion 39lhe point is not wiiether the fall of the tree made a noise hut whether it tion l3zlcticlltg llistor39 Sellecu d Essaji39s lrrili rltt1tt t I 3 mark on the forest If it left 3 Sp tectioii Tiichiiion fiffer U U quotquot mnen 39 39 r h For urtlier biograpli toward histori and histoiicat res cITC f 39 39 iftcd rule of the pack to one of different haracteristics or if it fell across a path ofariiinals and fed I mdh Dn on I39mlmian see HIE hC d quotiquot 0 page caused some small Cl13Itt lt in their liahitual course from which larger clianges 219 followed then the fall ina de histor39 wlietlier ani39one l lierefore declare inyself a firm belie l factsiesistiiig iI1lEi ltlCItil 39Book and all other recorc s of the ti quot 39 Saxons to the ieard it or not f I39 in the preposterous fallacquot39 ofhis of the historian l thinllt that me had heen hiirned Noriiiiiiis would he no less it fact of Britisli 39 39 a record not an iiiterpretatioii and do not exist independentl39 of th nzihle He niiglit just as we39ll Grecian Urn woiild not exist witliout K itfS i see it evideiice is more iniportant than interpretation and facts are his l ether interpreted or not I think the int of the weed ll tlC3It expansion wasa plieiioineiion independent of l7redericllt laclltson Turner who noticed it and the role of the leisure class independent of Thorstein Veblen and the influence of sea power upon liStOr39 independent Adniiral Malian hi the last case lurks a possible argumeiit for the opposi quot Admiral ilahanquots book The Influence of Sea Power upon llistrrji39 39 Iernian39 and Great Britain in the 4 that in isolating and describing it great historical fact he hiin rr might inake something of that 7 main theme unnecessari39li39 metaphx39sical l am con eiittodefine history as the past ei39ents of which we liaiquote lciiowledge and re ai I 39 re none until that is some 39 l 39 39 39 39tain last Octoher39 itixe dTi39 crisis in Bri itliiii three niontli ClJi 1tl1ltCJOttl Lit39l1ic0n H119 dwmdm l1iSt0n of the a w llqml 3 393quotquotlk lquotquot39 Rm Pl M l 39 is 39 t l fore its signifi P 39 39 iisli in u on an even it had been mum and Pubhbhfdt39 iiiiirtlie siirrdiiiidiiig circumstances may be 7A 39 to separa e l s 39 canu has had time fnd when the E3 2 i harrassed author ma 1 1 wtwlmsmoi but is It UadlitilI391 cit est l391 ll little sianificaiice at all The red si 3 c c 39 memem mi dmdfdclmni lnt lliitoriti on tiiitilisliersplists raises the Cl e5 quot39 tiese 10 ii 39 p L it l 1le O 1 I t still sinollting 15ton he written 11 e i 15 i ltZlioiild or perhaps can 3 l t 1 whqt 15 lm I 39 it first answer tie qnes ioi p Before mkmg that hmhul mm limit e ierCisi39iquotg tlieinselves i39ehenienth39 over I 39 39 o 3 39 E tipw Prottssioiial liistoriaii f1quott Shad ponem E H can of aiiil3r1l 39f3i 39 39 3 igi 39 39 1 W9 l for quot m 39 mm 39 is H r I l the title ofa boot 39 39 39 Frc39el39aii LsE Ctlll39CS ant 39 0 lF I39Sli39 made it the siihiect of his I p I II in 1963 Iquot 39 it the EtSii quotCI1ls 39 t 11 of 3ast events or is 1 p is lmmrii he Jbkiuiii t im i1riizid tllC1lO0llt until after I had finisliecl a no 39 ll1 3quoti 5 lquotquot5 P gnm C C K 39 I I ll liwe never daredto 39 atwc otlierwise siouc 5 Cm of mi mm at lmtmllcldl lmmt hten 391quot1i C that the Eliiestion Dosed bi M 39 o I 0x J 3 C 3 39 39 begin 1 mi mnowmc lmd iii ll39 issnined that liiston was Past eventsf3 can had mm Come pl Ilm iimeitaiiiiiieil them or not i D Ming mclcpemllmlilii lei lmr ciineiit on the Past were E l I 1ll 0tlS to it liellktr l had lltLi 1tt139c1l we w 10 C0 C i I h d su X l to its esistciite 3 P taiiding but not integra V hi perhaps to its iiiidtrs J H mm dim E 39 A 5 would haxe H611 ie p Z G 39 lmscd that the Cr39ecLS dclielii ofliquotriJrliJlii iCl1l39O1ilCil it Er not But that 15110 ii ist tion to Westcrii 1lSil 39 ie ier H m f Vqtin inde 3 39 d torical acts eL g s heliet in 1 hard core 0 iis 4 lr Carts position lhc L 39 re Osmous fa iistiiri39iI1 he 5435 15 1 P P w peridentli39 ot the iiitcrprtltaticliig of tltdficllmf j quot H lacsquot hut one that is 39er39 IJN o era s Dmeme was I 39 39 39 39 l to me to be preposterous n p On tirst reading this seeinec the takens 39 u 39 J ofsuch eminence mus some sort of recoiiditc iolc But a 11111lI39uI I P if Doinesclai39 the transfer of land e in sai39 the r d E F 5 TD 5 LTD 5 lJ 2 E 1 N about those of wliicli we ha rcheologist digs them up 39Icornene39t to historians Who are the contci ewlio come after The answ and indispensable are the mo nporaries of the event or er is obi39ioiisl both Xiiioiig conteinporaries requotorless unconscious sources letters diaries t 1llotin Keats l795 l82l Britisl poet author of quotOde on a Grecian Urnquot t Ids Frederieilz Jackson 39l39umer 39I86i l93T Aniericaii historian tEds t grfltepz Veblen 18211929 Aiiierican ecoiioiiiist author of the Timon of the 39 s I ei39sire 60 603 I MR3 M A rIUCHMN Wiiiin Doss lIis39roin39 tIiPP1 i I p 4 39odi39cals business and govern mquot quot i i quotquot ll0bm 5r lPlHes llcilslwptis hid Plicrzlri l not liistori39 Their aiithors inent documents llicse are l1i5tOl39lL lbl39l3bU 1 O g osterih hilt Hut dO Sn0t 39 39 39 39 I 39 39 Imn lit 39 39 55 ill one sit or pols J Qt rfuires aiiew from the out nialre them liistorians lri pcrtorm trit uric ioi 1 I p i 39 1 conscious craft 39 39 Ea SldLilm igtlr liff l39 l1t level quotire the lwasthere recorders iisiiallv39ournalistS quotit 39 r 0 39 i 39 rniation buried in a mass wliose accounts ottcn contain golden ignggeiri ot IttllQuad to hivh game OM16 39 I I 39 I 2 Lu 1 0 of dnl39 traxelogiie l11l the passage lo ltLI1t 7 11E f lS f U St me from thel 39 3 I 39 39 I I t most 39l39tl details that Llli into in Jon I9 21 g g e 39fl i1 press the H0 doll criislied under the wlicel ot a Cuerinait 8 C Q G quot39 5 l rep 392 Sl t39Cl bodies that ion 0 lmm lmn Cobb Hm 39Hmll39Ul lmlf J 1 ill the incident of C0l0I1E Mari the iiivadeil villages ot Belgium from 1 l ll t fgnm Irtdem39k Pqlmer who 1 g 39 6 9 lliilfininn i ClIltlSJ39 insults at the lJJ13I1tlSE39hgflttizfiq hnumer even whenncmut rcpmlcd Hm Russolallmlcsc ml ll 3 lllilm I u issiIlti39tlll source initerial lected in liooL toini is lllxe letters ant re r p rather than lIiSiI39 H 39 H I in ilers who hurriei 1s T1v Sllll C ie39lll3m l39 lml ll5lC S llJle arethe for idler italize on Ptiblic inte ble ll lnmll mm Cllpllmgs and mum fill m l stx niddijngs is the overnight big 2 39 i a est when it is high A taxorite form o IESL I 1 a ogriplu39 like The Lwidon Iolmsoii Star 39l Cll 3935 l the lioolslo as lllltlrul x l l 39 39t Tlie Com 1 ers in 15quot 33 few weeks of the mudml that line mil tOll39 t r39 ins 39Il39ClI1 gllgillE39 139 I 39 39 39 39 39 39 I malt Slillillli no mm u39mlCr539mm mlg clntl as 1 in39iins 391 pure vein of conscious39 All these Varieties bung dlsprmf 0 ll Mireille I39C iquot1I two leinds First the O I 39 r 39 39 39 l quot quot l lnstoriaiis of ltJI ll among coiitciiiporiries 39 1 H g Own a E13 loolzers who deliberatelv set out to chronicle an L 39JtSt39 e 0 iClr p b 8 quot quot 01 39 ti in H l39l 1llquotCf it may e39393I1 39 M or delmssmn or Sm 0r39Smm39ltlmflu1ter incl 39fllllli39 of its owii Th A are shape it into 1 lltsititltitl narratiie Vii 1 ti quot e nd Theodore WhiteSrn Cullllcsl Pelapmnlmall mi lllxn ll nllllm SL1 il ilfll tlioiigh on a tin39 scaleii 39 F 39 l quot 39 3 E 1 39 ilriliiig ofri Prcsideiit lundcrta en in ie 911 I g P comparison are e ainpes 39 n A 3 rinders who attem ta geni Second are the Actiic I articipaiits or me C mum e inequotitai v 39Eigm quot c 39 39 S 39 39I 39 lt395i0Tquot ti 39 lquot quot3 lmc Llloilliii Ht mt Cirics39crLirIeli39 hi the reqiiiremeh 39 II 391 l 1 quot 39 39 A quot39 quot quot5 5quot l lllquot md lmlKrCCPh ll llbmi ear lJSf Pl1ttS39 The leii39ish We of the role in Wltlclt H19quot llflilll tllemfltlfs lilfipllllioliil and Winston Clidrcliill 0H r 39 39 t mT O H C 9 v 39 the ttarl of Claieiidoiis is The OI liE l itOT tI39 has no perspective E i39 l3939il1lI39 appears the same size Little matters looni big and great matters are sonietiines imissed because their outlines cannot he seen ietnain and Panaina are given gfollrC0lUl139ll1 headlines toda39 hiit the historian fifty or a hinidred 39CElt39S hence ii39it39illgptti them in a chapter under a general heading we l391iJ39C not yet thoiiglit of quotTlie COl1lE I10l39al39j39 especially if he is a participant is inside his t 39CIlS ii39liieli is not an entirely iiiiniixecl adi antagc quotliat he gains in ltlllII1amp13939 ithrougli personal acquaintance which we can never achiei39c he sacrifices in cletacliriient He cannot see or iiidge tquotairli39 both sides in a quarrel for 39 lI11plC tie quarrel as to who cleserves chief credit for the Freiicli i39ictori39 at the Battle of the i ldI39I1t in l9l l ill eoi39iteinporari39 clironiclers were extrenie partisans of eitl1er loffrc or Gallieni So violent was the partisaiiship that no one except President lJIl1 lI39 l noticed what is so clearly visible when iewed from ii dis tancetliat both generals had plared an essential role Callieni saw the oppor ltII1lt39E1I1l gave the inipetiis Joffre brought the riiiy and the reinforcements into place to figlit but it toollt fifty years before this simple and just apportion iiliclti could be made 39IDlSl8It39i does not always confer objectiiti39 one can hardli39 sai39 Cihhonl wrote 0liE39C li Clquot of the Roman Empire or Carllequot of the lTCIClI RC39Ult1llI bjeetii it is a question of degree it is possible for the latterdai39 historian to lJ6 at least T fcIfi fi objective which is not the same tliing as being neutral or alziiigno sides There is no such thing as a neutral or purely objective liisto ian Witlrout an opinion a historian would he sirnpli39 a ticking clock and un readablc besides eiertlieless clistance does confer a kind of removal that cools the judg gineiitand permits a juster appraisal than is possible to a coiiteinporarv Once Iongago as a frcsliinan journalist I covered a campaign swing by Fraiilzliii D 39Roosei39elt during which he was scheduled to make a major speech at Pitts iirgh or Harrisburg I Forget wliicli 39s we were leaiiiig the train one of the ewspaperineii reniaincd comfortably39 behind in the club ear with his feet up aining that as a New Dealer writing for a Republican paper he had to re I11aiI1quot OllE3Cli i39tquot and he could quotbe a lot more obicctive right here than within quot39 en feet of that fellowquot He was using distance in space if not betiiiiir I I 39fOtJI1Ll out from personal experience that I c liisto39ri3 if Iquot tried Some people eanquot quotilliain Shircr for one the39 are not af R e39 39 teClbi39 involvement But I am as I clisctoifered when worllting on I n first quot boolrililie and Sword It dealt with the liistorical relations between Britain g is in the foreground and in time to acquire Wrirlcl Crisis and Second World Iltoi39 are classics or tliis1C1l t1tquotl73939l 39 n0 For the liitterlav historian these too lt C0 t1C t0t1l39LtC Iiilialit ldj YeSgintli in possession of history39 39l1Cl I we l i391 39 these accpiiii 5 ofthe 3 G that we are in possession ot wine when the irst pressing I fllll39tl But it has not fermented and it has not aged 1l1C great idintige 39 39 i distaiiec from the events he describes and uiti ICE 1 wmt waSSi m sec inorr ofwliat was going on at the time and tllgilltgtll I p 1 VI K from what was 110l oiild not write Ol tlt3I i0r ti39ji39 r Ei39f1t i2l dlG1fJfUt l7339 l3979iji pfihe Roinaii IIiirpii39e Edsl Britisli historiari aiitlior of The I iiiion of the 5TiionirJs Criri 39 e l795 l33 l Scottish liistorian Els itquotih riiiiS i39n rer ijl9t39l I993 Aiiiericaiii ioiiriialist and liistorian Decfirie and Firff niitlior of The Rise and I crH of 606 607 only gs oI vquotc A1 A 7 r P 0r BARBARA 391 39U3H1IAN WHIEN Does Hisroai Il PPFN and Palestine from the time of the Phoeriiciaris to the present Originally I had w quoti U intended to tiring the stoffi down tliro1igl39I the years of theBritish Mandate to CiaiIltf i11ilctS quotquot111 39 l39 90quot the rah Israeli War and the reestatilislnneiit ot the state ot Israel in 1948 T P em 39 mom 16 clustered 5P113968 of lfredcriclt stand 0 Was lealin I in co i 0 tliougli he was 1 39 T ge some so mayor historian and onli h 1 39 f 39 39 39 nI39nembu tm tt m5 3t30Ut liartluin the quotf 39r39 t It i 3 POff mild m393939 of S it it were not for Lars Porsena of Cl 39 i an of Oman lmmni below Cttmtt l 39 the rest of the S 39E i1t StquotlI17aS W i SIulT1 By the Nit Gods he snore quot and g from Lmwfeno L p Ie non how the Aiiiericraii Revolutio b p o s at lights in the old North Chiir I H fgfm ci quot One if by land and two 9 t On the opposite sho Titquot t 39 0 ride and spread tough e39 r39 Midcllcsex it he poets have familiarize Hos and sometimes the I spent six months of research on the bitter history of those last thirty ears P the Arab assaults and iiprisings the RoLindTables the hite Papers the T cutting off of Iewisli iininigration the Conimissioris of Iiiqiiiry the ultimate liistoricat iron39 wlien the Britisli quotwho had issued the Balfour Declaration 0 l raniiiicd the ship txodiis the 39l10l igiiomi1iioiis tale of one or more cliapters 39 of appeasenient l i pi Wlieii l tried to 139tlIC39 this as historjr I could not do it Aiigcr clisgiist and 39a3939 scnse of iriiustice can inaize some writers eloqirent and ex39ollte hrilliaiit pl39 I l1tCi39i but these emotions stunted and twistecl iiijr pen I found the tone of tin con39 39 eluding chapter totally different from the SCquot39f3l itf I1 chapters that went liefore39f39i39 I had suddenly uallcecl over the line into L tl39ttt3l1pOTtl 39 lriston39 1 had become N iii39ol ed and it sliowed ltlioi1gli the 1JLllltSl Jf l39 t1It i the narratii e hrought g up to date 1 lltiiei39 in 39 final chapter as written 01lll destroy the credibility of 39 all the preceding and I could not change it I tore it up discarded sis iiioiitlis 391 worlt and hrought the hoollt to a close in l9l I am not sa39irig that emotion should liave no place in l1iStOf39 On the con trarjrj l tliiiillt it is an essential eleinent of lt5tIr as it is of poetrjr 39l1OS origii 39orlsn rii39tli7 defined as quotemotion recolleetecl in trai1quillit39quot39 tlistori39 onegit Wliittier 39 is ii 0 3Ut1 39 on the other years after the event AL sign if by sea re will be the alarm iillage and farm cl more people t have given histori I7 UK Wliite ltan s Votli liistorr tl3ll l1H39C the lttStOrt t Plt5t1 txipling did it in 1599 Burdenquot addressed to ltlTtCrtCquot1IlS 39 39 39 392 39 V 1 l f E V 39 L p paare at Manila uere soret39 Peftolesed over irliat to l C liml Dmiehs dawn rnigl39it say is emotion plus action recollecied or in the case of latterclajr lnstop end forth the best tie breed Ki H t Id I O 3 Ollt the Pliilippiiies riaiis reflected on in trai iquillit after a close and honest exaniiiiation of the 1 39 39 39 P g 0 hem t t11l39 records 39l l39ie 39JI39tll1dlquottquot dirt39 of the historian is to stay within the E39tlC39l1C Yet it is a curious fact that poets limited h39 no such rule l1 l E done very well with liistoi39 both of tliieir own times and of times long quotgone before 39 3 j 39lquot39ciiiijrsonquotq39 quotT0tC the quotCliarge of the Light Brigadequot within three inontlisof the event at Balaclava in the Crimea quotCannon in front of them 390llC t quot l and ff tlnindercd Flashed all their Si1ll39 S bare L Plunged in the batterysiiiolte 0i Stiriiiiiecl at with shot and shell 2 quotheii can their glory fade O the wilrlf charge thei39 inaclequot His version even inchidiiig the quot39ictoriaii coupler Tiieirs39quotquot not to reason wli I Tlieirs but to do and cliequot as poetry 1391dquot lack the nioderlig virtue of inconipreliensibility but as liistrirjr it captures that comhiiiatioii of the glorious and the ridiculous ivliicli was 17 11tl1f t2 11tltC ll1tt1I 39 cavalry charge ag1inst caimcm As an oiilcioker said quotC39est imig39iii39fi39qiie mciis CE n39est pasta giierrequot quotit is inagiiificeiit but it is not quotirquot i which is exactly irliat Teiinisoi i con39e ed helter than any historian c To me who grew up before Bruce C dttt39Ji139iJ tiegan writiiig the Civil War quotil aln39a39s appear in terms of i to want in hca39i39 harness On fluttered foil and wild 39our neircaught sullen ieo la t lalf de it and lialfchild P LS T 39 quot 39 I I t e l393 the t hite Mari s liurden l quot f e3ge 393l39S of peace 1 Lil the month ol tquotann39ne And bid the StClltl1 5S cease T ttie up the Wliite Ye d iIaii39s bnrden I I are not stoop to 553 piiblislicd in a ti 1 E lU0t Ct El t39t3955 the Cmmm Within ap eek5P1Tl ltl l L391lcChires the expenditure f 39 c quit IV C ti Q to implenieiit it 0 builds bmmm39v39 and trick Mcigciziiie iias coiiciled most 39meri ri39 that soon proved neg quot39quot quotquotquot quotquot p vimGquotquotquot39t9 tflWIitti39erquotl5fl 39 39 l593tAin tr HHITCJHIIIIS Iuc39aiiIiii39 t if39ttttlquotii1 Li British t1ieSIfIcIquotf39ll1l1n0eti tt t5nl em llridsimrth Lullefeihoii ISHE 18 J an shitesinaii 1d5 5 a i 51 Aiiiericaii poet author of p 1 i P 0 I i 39 I 5 Re ercls Rlde39 39 P quot393 H86quot9 5J British aiithor ltfdsj f39i39lliriiri t39iiru39sii39irHi iil77lS5tl39t British poet i tl39rcci39t139iinson ilS39J ltitili British poet ll ds A q quotBruce Cattnii fli 199 tquott7i i39i mericaii histririan author of a nuinlier at l00lS on tlie39Ciii quotai liilsl 39 39 7 I I T 608 609 Bt RBiL 39 f 391 Crtt1tax W1rri Does H1s39139o1n39 Iin1rT39 Kipling had a peculiar gilt tor recogriizitig historv at close quarters rte 39Ii mote quotl eLcssio11ilquot in lit at the time of the Queen39s Diamoncl lnhilee xihen he sensed a selfgloriticartiori a kind of hubris in the national mood thatfriglit H erred him In The Titties on the irtorrtiirg after quot391e1 1 people read his reZ rninder 39 39 39 391 39 4 Consider an e 39 39 pisode or event you loiotv a or I 1 1 I you might Write Iis InSm Y0 8 2c ea 1 mot and tlnnk about host u could write of 391 recent t gear or season campaign curricular reform 39 il l0tIl39 lngh school or colle 39 39 39 E the hi tl Equot b F3 a recent criminal Lise I 1 Gt sent if you were to 39i39i39l39ltC rat would you have to km a local political an organi7ation El SCliOUl L 011ll Vers39 I under the intlucnee of F I an W discover worrv and ti 39 I 1 an as your uide Vt 39 39 P quot391 quott 3 Flt It lf0u ere to ollow tuchnran Write an quotW011 research in one ks an im 0 t is or the Otlttf would lead tquoton p rant question Sl1ould orperhas ci SI1klngl Paragraph up Consider mm i n nstort be TIL l and 39l39uchn WI 39 responses la the Selections l39 T tan rat is your position quottil 593quot 0r Tuelnnan WI A t it you were to talce C 3 e39planation of uhe 3 39l39uclnnan as quotH ten wllile it is still H Carr tip 59 Lo all our pomp of yestcrclaj is one with Nirreelt and R Iudge of the l ations spare us 9 5t Lest we h39ii39get lest we forgeti it creitecl 1 profound impression Sir lfilquoti39l Clarllt the clistinguished laarris7 ter tiho defended Oscar Wilde was so atleeted by the message that he pro nonnced quotRecessiorial39quot quotthe greatest poem written l39 39111139 liquoting man39quot it 7 0 39hat the poets did was to come the feeling of anepisode or a moment of 39 liistor39 as they sensed it Tire lristorians task is rather to tell what happened within the discipline of the facts 39 39 s hat his imagination is to the poet Facts are to the historian His exercise oi indsgment comes in their selectiou his art in their arrangetnent39His method is uar 39 ratixe His subject is the stor39otm2n1quots past His function is to make it known3939 i gonsnons 1 39 hat position 39lquotnchnran talzing in deelaring lierself a firm belies39er39in t39th preposterous tallacsquot oi liistrrrical facts existing independentlt39 of the ttistorianf 39para399 graplr 393939I l quot 3 ecorltling to Tneliinan wlrat aclvarriage does the latterclay historian have over the Ct1I1tt 1391t3939tquot1t historian Wlnrt does this ad1ntage suggest about when liistory39 happens 39 p 3 quotlquot11Llnnan tells her readers about the problems she had in worlcing on lrertrrst lmcrllt Bible rind 39 ir39orcl 39lucliman writes quotquotnger disgust and a sense of injustice39ean Il1 tl39 some riters eloquent and ex39ollte hrilliant polemic hut these emotionsstnr1tedj and twister my penquot tparagraplr 23 What is the effect of these personal retleetior1s39 tlou39 do the serve to strengthen her argument 4 quotli39 does Tutlnnan choose to quote frorn Tenn39son Longfellow and Kiplin lion does this eviclenee lrorir poetry support her arg1itner1t 2339 Q 5 lion do 39on respond to Tucl39nnan39s claim that entc5quotiion E an esseritialfeleme39nt ot39lnstcirquot39 ijp1risrrli 3339 39 T lIXKING CONNtZlC39IilOI S 1 Both l Z H Carr tp 593 and Tucltrinan ask in rne39t39art39 or another Vt l1at39is l139i tortquot Outliiie the major areas of agreement and clisagreenrent between tliese39ts39riter Where do sou tincl the most significant areas ot agreement Qt clisagreernerrtlf 610 39lquotHOitSEFl7EttSfN 1quotlrlll lC C39NNCquotquotIONS a the first question 39 l3551C deductne argument as 1 ll lL39llquot39T5 5 l 39l quot 1lquot39lquot 15 l C 739 39 ltstand as a clear example oi S y lBluc t ChtI1 8 aha suggests hcc 1lLer s m P 1 39hcre does she express ner O A h of her 1rgumcnt A 39 lmlllcmE mgumgl RE W W she amnnunce it more qt l l quoti lllillflt lmild umquot ll 959 W St lquot C395 lV i ll ll39 l39H roached it inductivelv Write an inductive tI Declaration look like if Icfierson nu 1 J If V Cck1nt391Un of 0 N 39 39 is dence leilerson had oi N 2 rhat il rather than xxrltiiigglrq liglepelrisllppose he would jwve I T u 39quot S l H quot39 fcml 3 lnmle l llmlmsill lo lllllit llllllSlquotTg1tl11t I39li Write F011 own modest igt0wllos1l t S ldi l39lquot quot ll ll lulu llmml or less in the manner of Eonathan Swift tp 6339 bul tn the lx39in atldressrng him more 39 r 39 t the Declaration drawing on the evidence that ltiicrson pr0 Ill 5 11 64 REVIEW or STANLEY t IILGRAM S EXPERIMENTS ON OBEDIENCE quotv Diana Baumrind Diana BcIU1I tTId b 1927 is a dei39eofJmentat and cliniccil psycfzologist with the Institute of Human Developnmnt at the Unit39ersiti of California at Berkeley Her research spe ciuities are quotthe effects offrrnziiy sor iaiicttion on the dew opment of social resporzsibility and personal agency in eliti dren and czdotescentsquot and quotthe ethics of research with human srtbjects That last subject is her topic here as she discnssesthe experiment conducted b39i Stcntlev Milgrcnn pages 38439ill8j This article appeared or39iginuUi39 in 1964 in Arnerican Psvcliologist the journal of the rtmericcm Psy choiogicol Association Certain problems in psycliological researe 1 ance his career and scientific interests against the interests of his prospective Asubjects Wlten such occasions arise the experimenters stated objective ire quentl39 is to do the bestquot possible job with the least possible harm to his sub j39j jects The erperimenter seldom perceives in more positive terms on indebted i ness to the subject for his services perhaps because the detachment which his X functions require prev39ents appreciation of the subject as an individual 0f Yet a debt does exist evcnwlten tl h require the experimenter to bal 3939 1 lost evperirncntal conditions do no and are SUiiiClEl1lCl interesting or chall j Pq or offer him nothing of value then the rnenter is obliged to consider the reward him according39 39 The subjectls experi reasons 39h39 the subject volunteered and to pq public motives for volunteering include h or stimulating experiencequot acquiring lmovvledge favor which II13quotSOfI1C days he reciprocated and making a contribution to sci encea39l hese motives can be talzen into account rather easily by the experi menter who IS willing to spend a few minutes with the subject aftervvarcls to thank him for his participatioti answer his questions reassure him that he did 1i39elland chat with him a bit Most volunteers also have less manifest but aving an enjovablc doing the experinicnter a 643 A3 iI39 i n 71ii BAL 39il 1lquotl7 Rivir w or i39IiLiLaii s E 39PERlitEquot39I39S 39 tunitv to liai ell it mas be SCltl1l l 1 OPPOT 39 3r 39 73939 coiilact with be iioticu 5 1 PL 1 enter T toiiard tie esperii Z j 39 V lent Jiltllttlt oi most siili t f5 X cal training lllC deptiit n Gt s0mesubp t ii as ivell as In epreS5l0 is an artifact of the E393EftI 39iU1tl 39sllttill3911UtwV mhmteter I jecfts personal need s st l lltc1tttttplde 139Smn wd by must 5uiCis in the experi Hm depemlentl hm ml A I l T t39 The quota1ine is defined by the PtN 39 la ion mJ mcmal wtmg 13tdlppmplldletlto ll ft qlllv volunteering tlie subject agrees iin39u s rues r c C39C1 Il1IC11lCt anc ic iiia cs re 1 V While the expemnentaj aosture ot trust and UbL11 T 0gM Plluul to amlnm l WK t 111 the ri 39l1l to assume that his seen K conditions leave him exposed ill 5Ul3l9L 5 I ritv ind selfesteem will be prUtCC i l llilgrani39s 1963 study is a case in point The following is ililgrain39s G of his experiment abstract This article describesa procedure for the stiidv of clestruetive obedi enee in the laboratorv It consists of ordering a naive S to administer inereasirigly more severe punishment to a victim in the context of a learning experiment Puriisliriient is administered by means of a shock generator with 30 graded switches ranging from Slight Shock to Dan ger Severe Shock The victim is a confederate of IS The priiiiarv de pendent variable is the niaxiinuni shock the S isivilliug to adininistcr before he refuses to continue further3 26 S5 obeyed the experimental Cl the highest sli0L39llt on the generator eornmands fiillv and administere H S5 broke off the experinieiit at some point after the victim protested and refused to provide furtlier answers The procedure created cxtrenie levels of nervous tension in some S5 Profuse sweating trenibling and stuttering were typical expressions of this emotional disturbance One unexpected sign of tension 39et to be e39plained ivas the regular oc u1 ber the paltlellil39 0 R is in 39il11Cl l t1tI1t n here are Othcrlprllftbwlndl lltltlllilillfrtiiii the otlier tli Pl15tCl39c1I1 or listser I C n 39 I quot l 39 quotY quotl lquot l d5 K P ml pm 8 inienter and subteet p 39 ll rchitioiisliip betiieen exper Cl11lJglsi But the intcrpersoni I k t n eh m to J139UU e mi ia a teitures nhitli are ltl 1 additionalh has unique z l l 1 Hc1mmr 39 39 2 r settin am C T 5 0 the sulJt Ci ll l lquotquot 39 quotl 395 lml m h H 1B g of the amjet and Passjx39quot currenee of nervous laughter ivliieli in some 85 developed into uncon ainliig1t01399 l e l l 3 Clulmalnl 0mCe39 emusc C to bcmw in an Obcdif trollable seizures The variety of interesting beliavioi39al dviianiics ob ilv gL393911 f i ltl 1 llquot 5 mquot g39 the Sublect 15 mmelpmlj C Tlierefore the labo339 served in the cxperiinent the reality of the situation for the S and the chi siiagestilile manner in the laborat0Tquot lllfnlle Tm 16 39 1 Cctibijih 139 y possibilitv of parametric variation within the fraincivorlc of the A 39 n 01 S1 gr quot 39 i ratorv is not H16 Pldci39 l0 5l ll lt lifet 01ltmeUCree the lsES line for tliese39 dure point to the frurttulncss ot turther stud ll Jill 39 S 39 ta conci ion 511 r P0 i tiiiictioii of a particular C1f I39lt1C11 39 1 o I H n m most r 39 l39tll39 inueli I121 ls found in the liboritor is H0 phenoriiciia as I l 1 t ml to me expernneuter r ivliic i the re a ion 1 other settings lhus Clp Fll11CtIi51tl1 mdem wnditmn are hnperfecth dC55ned 39 393 39 b 39 39 rd as an authoirt is user as an int 39 39 I pects m0led lhey hm are prone to tI1UI39 tie 511 m for the SEIUK reason that t x 1 1 Ct 3 4 ill l1tl1 tie so 16 i P l quotL1 1lll39 of trust and obedience iii disregarcl the specia q I p s propriatel regards the Cit t lTll1 l1llt emim deiiOnS unlike those njn 0 1Cl Otlier plieiioinena 391tL 1 prese 1 1 1 riem 32 ton tun ure espe l succcssfulh in the labora above can he rcproducet 1 hen0menajn 39 39 olation are ainong suci p coiiforniiti to peer tll ltim ntl md ls nter to take ivhitevcr measures are nec 7 t ie cxperirnc 39 these cases ue can spec b I 1 ed W3 toii more iuini t 0 b ect trorn leaiiiig the la ora 39 Sam tn lmwml the 51139 T 39 d T quot uaraiitee that an esPe 39 tile than ivhen he arrne 98 cure alicnatrrl or hos M the 0 er tal 39pE 1 lCI1CE in P P ef 39 39 3f leaves a stresstul csperiinen w 0 Ctdll SCl1Slll3 siibjcct I H n mmdeOf P M 39 ainiii But usiia 3 state sometimes rctiirct511lLtiil t1liiipIp1 il11 genf i Wm Suffice and no amount 39 t 5t amp1ttlLCt39m 39 39 coiiipassiori respet 1 j am to pact that the 39 bstitiite the subject ias tie rig 7 of clinical traiiiiiig tll su l his gjfme amt y A B 391 tin has some eoiitfflt 0 3 p lmlmloglst h t mm hi 15 lluscslbhil inn to esprcsr his good will eff ctrsli the personal attriiiitesant pro c c I J S ccthe deschrgs 39 39 talivavs treated mth Ht T9 P e l1fll39lIllll13tc s ll 5 l l t 5 U l boratorv studies to 39 in soeio S39v39ClquottlOgId cl T 39 It has hewme mm Comnjollphnefort subjepcfs tit times the insult to the sub quotOt1 l T mJmlmLllC39Tllbmmssl ml fill 39urnil reader ivheii the results are reP FteFl ject39s sensibilities exteiicls to 18 1 t p c Pl39OCC39 p The detached objective manner in i39l1lClt Milgrarii reports the cinotional disturbance suffered by his subjects contrasts sliarplv with his graphic account at disturhaiice Fblloiving are two other quotes describing the effects on liis subjects of the eicperirnerital conditions 5 quotquotquotb r13939 3933939 I observed a mature and initiallv poised busiiicssniaii enter the labora 39 cg tor smiling and confident Williin 20 rninutes he was reduced to a tiviteliing stuttering ivrecli who ivasrapidlv approacliing a point of nervous collapse He constantly pulled on his earlobe and twisted his hands At one point he pushed his fist into his forehead and niuttered H 39 Oh God let s stop itf And yet he continued to respond to evcrv word 39 of the csperirnenter and obeyed to the end p 37 r in a large number of cases the degree of tension reached evtreines that are rarely seen in sociopsycholragical laboratory studies Subjects were observed to sircat tremble stutter bite their lips groan and dig 39 their fiiigerriails into their flesh These were characteristic rather tliaii 3918 stancls for sub jeet E stands for esperiineriter 39tIds eperidcnt mricible that ivliich changes as 3 result of other cliaiiges made in the experiiriciit jEds 39 Vprirametric i39ari39citioii statis iluenee the results and so leav tical term suggesting variables ivitliin the evperiiiient that would iii e some questions lIIt1l Js39 l39E l l ltl 646 6 t7 a39iiiua 39PlU or AL JUST LIKE Us because people don39t believe that animals liaye any moral worth People look at rabbits and say quotTlicre are many rabbits If there are a few less rab bits who caresquot j 39739 Nl KIRK Not true 39lany people who don39t support animal riglitsii39ould P care it you stuck a lmite in their rabbit or dog Tlieyire deeply offended by C acts of iiirliridiiul cruelty I CPi39N Yes but I suspect that if in your test we substitiited ugly sewer rats 39 for liiittonnosed rabbits people might applaud tlii siitieriiig There are some animals that inst don39t register in the liuinaii consciousness Rats don39t rabbits miglit dogs and horses definitely do 39i F39tltlttt Not always If the test were done to a sewerrat in front of a persong E the average person would say Don39t do thatquot or Kilt him quiclltlyquot lll39lquott quot39liy L il KtltK lt39s institiitioiialized cruelty horn of our hideous compartmental ized tliinllting If the killing is done behind closed doors it the goveriiiiientg says it must be done or it some man or woman in a white coat assures us L39 that its for our lienefit we ignore our own ethical good sense and allow it to 393939E happen p lll39l t lt the friyolily of the original test bothers us wliat if we up the ante Wliat it the product to he tested might yield a cure for baldness FRNCttJ l39 lacllt that is a iitilitariairquot arguinerit which suggests that the v tightness or wrongness of an action is rletermiiied by the coiiseqiiences of that ha action in the case of animals it implies that anirnat e39ploitation produces39 beiielits tliat justify that exploitation I don t lieliere in utilitarian moral 3 tliouglit lt39s dangerous because it easily leads to atrocious conclusioiis both in how we treat humans and how we treat animals 1 don39t belies e it is I139t0I a39tll39 permissible to exploit weaker beings even it we derive benetits COtD1ii39 So not even the cancer cure I iiquot I likt lC Ii No absolutely not y CPl39 But you miss theipoint about moral seltisliness By the time you getquot39 to the baldiiess cure people start to say quotl don39t care about animals iquotly 39 39 terests are a hell of a lot more important than the animals interests So if keeping hair on my head means sacrificing those animalspainlessly ornot39 I want itquot lt s not utilitarian itquots selfish l quot l quottti 3I39i E But you certainly wouldift put that forward as a justificatioii would you it 4 Ct t r o it39s inst a description i 8 3 y FitNC2ICNE I can39t argue with your assertion that people are selfish aren39t we morally obliged to assess the consequences of that selfislinessit begin that assessment people must become aware or the ways iiiw1iichwe exploit animals 39 Maybe l rn inst a hopeless optiniist but I believe that once people are confronted with these facts they will reassess The batklasli that were seeing from the exploitation industries the meat coiiipanies and the biorriedica lresearch laboratories is a reaction of fear They lnow that t HIFl39II l1 more people will reject this painful C ploitatim 4 39 u wont your iiioyemeiit l 39 39 utilitarianism rd 3 dis be lmmpemd bi that imx of mam n mom e l39539 P90Pl will say quotYes be kind t 39 l 39 39 o aniii 391 up to a point of utilitarianism so I can mtE n39 Cancer Cum md 1 ti 5 g point otinoral egotisiii so I can have my sirloinl quot There in 39 C 39 in Of 39 the moral CCMET lmtit will move only so for ii in 6 some Shift 3 Cmin Ia rec quot P I g Cari can remain optimistic but eoiitroiiting people with tie tacts won t 39 t him in f i I t L H 5 rri ar loral egotism extends 3939 I I11 w J Urns ets not forget that we are in a city where you have P E 0 enter this bm1d39quotg39 Peopli 1lOIt39t say Feed clothe ind hous tl and then tax me I39ll s Vi 39 N quot e ml39 I E In I 39 Ag 39 pi e base a limited moral imagination it may be p cu iary merican but you can show people pier gr llioineless people or animals in leg traps and niany will say quotlquotliatquots too P Life isliard but I still want my pleasures my eij3mmS 39 NE 39lslRR There are two answers to that First people i p were brought up with the illusion that tliev must mt Now we know that s I 39 t he more people to huiiiaii re to step over peo ures of staryiiig children nt t S animals to be liealtliy i39IIOt39E1l01 even lust l1ii rmi uiimd becilllls Of Immimklndis lack of 5quoti actly what they shtiulcil clill39lImgliatOnquot We adi sts 113 to toquot People 93 iywe but 3 mm Ste laddc yirpi we iniist inake it easier for them to do it if iquot N But most people feiil ow ll mill Ol iLEIDPIEI 3 lot Ofihcm M wanquot P quot A me Jmon W 39t I P1 quoteSsquotas inc l nals and ask tho am I l ni orili l 516 can do einust show thein liT R0gerI in wondeniig wlietlier yo 0 began Oi39iginallv you weren39t offended 39 new sliainpoo Are you now rCoi x h Di y J lI1 l1t still a utlitariin But it the test is imnece I ye c gt 1t in persuaded that it should be stopped V E1thltttx Precisely Carys point liurt animals in rnoral center lias shifted siiice we by H39 using 2llU0 rabbits to test a SSZ1T or just repeti Armed with the facts Roger opts not to 5 E FRai ClIISINC iii CRIiTttRE S at nialies liuniaii beings have rights and animals not b at C Some would ar I 39 39 P his image and did not gii H bibhilai ldmlnciloil God Created hmmms 1 39j39 another hum MC 1 C39rea39 e aiiiina s tiat way lhats one special property L It lP p Ia M515 is iiatural law which holds that inalienable rigys accriie to being hiinian that is a distingiiisliiiig feature in 1l of itse l 39 39 Wl Personally I reject both those argunients I subscril hiiiieiii iyliicli finds these rights grounde it tieability to reason the ability to suffer ie to an entitlement 634 635 accept the iiiytli They d in certain iniiate properties such as v H39 quotr 39 Igt3939e39 39quot393939quotquot a rw39 0 T 7 6 quot3 A fquot 39 quot quot3939 s s3939r39 p quot ARTHUR CAI L39N or AL Flt39fIltE Let39s take the abilitv to suffer and quotconsider it more carefull39rquot I The ability to use language or to reason is irrelevant to theiriglrt to be freeis from suffering Only the abilit39 to feel pain is relevant Logicallx 39 it doesn39t follow that 39ot1 should restrict those rights to humans On this primary level 39 the question must be who can feel pain who can suffer Certainly animals must be included within the reach of this fundamental right If on don39t then you are basing the right not to suffer pain on quotintellij gcncequot Consider the grotesque results if you apply that idea e39clusi39el to 1quot human beings Would you sajtf that a smart person has a rightto stiffer less p pain than a stupid person 39I39hat is effectively just what we say with animals393939 Ever though they can stiffer we conclude that their suffering is irrelexrant because we think we are smarter than they are 2 CI MN The abilit39 to suffer does count but the level of thinking and con39 sciousness also counts What makes us l1l1I l39lE11391i39quotquot39llt grants us the right to life It is not inst a single attribute that makes us human Rather there is a x cluster of properties a sense of place in the world a sense of time a sense of p selfawareness a sense that one is sotnebody a sense that one is morally rele vant W hen you add up these features you beg u to get to the level of entiquotL tlement to rights l 39RrNt039E 39ncl I am going to push you to think specificall39 about rights agairrVlrat must you possess in order to have a right to life I thinlc thequot most obvious answer is simply a life lint let39s play this question out in your terms 39I o have a right tolife you must possess a sense of self a recollection of the past and an anticipation the future to name a few By those standards the chimpanzee and I would argue the entire class of rIammalia would be enfranchised to enjoy p right to life quot 1 I 39ttRt The question is do tires have an interest in living If the do tlreni one has an obligation to recognize their natural rights The most fundamen tal of these is a desire to live Tires are alive therefore ll 1t 39 want to be alnfe39 and therefore we should let them live 39l he more profouncl question though is what distinguishes humans from other animals Most scientists at first thought that what separates us from the other animals is that human beings use tools So ethnologists went out 39 u into the field and returned with innumerable examples of tool quotuse in aniQt mals The scientists then concluded that it s not tool use but the melting of tools Eitlmologists such as Ceza Telellti came baclc with lots of different ex amples e39er39tlring from chimpanzees making fishing poles to ants maltingji boats to cross rivers One might think the39 would then elevate the criterion to making tools in union worlzshops but they switched to quotlanguagequot 39lquothenquotquot there was a discussion about what is language Linguists among them Noam CIhornsllts39 and Herbert Terrace said language possessed certain 3939compo3939 nentsquot But when various etlmologists were able to satisfy each of these com ponents the Cartesian scientists became desperate and kept adding more 7 656 e quotthe rubric quotof rights I don39t think so Wl39rer1 l quotg relati eh chintzy about it Do embryos have rights In my opinion no Do 39 irretrie abl39 comatose people have rights I doubt it Do mentall39 retarded Just rnlta Us components including some pretty complicated ones such as the ability to recite events in the distant past and to create new words based on past espe riences I 39errtr1z1ll rtlre number of components was up to si39teenI The final component was teaching someone else the language But when Roger Fonts I gave the signing ape quotasl1oe a son she indepeuclentl39 taught him some seventy American handlanguage signs XPLAN One of thesad facts of the literature of both animal and human rights is that e39er39one is eager to identify the magic property that separates humans from animals Is it the abilitv to stiffer The ability to say some thing The ability tr say something interesting I think the philosophers are all looking in the right place but are missing something We have rights be cause we are social Hts KIRK Since39allmi1nals are social then you would extend rights to non liumans J fCquotP1quotlli its not just sociability Of course all animals interact but there is something about the way humans need to interact Suppose we were little 11 Rands who marched about selfsufficient proud and arrogant If we were able to chop our own wood cook our own meals and fend off those who would assault us then we wouldn39t need am rights You wouldn39t need to have a right to free speech if there was no one to fall to i39l39 point is thatour fundamental rights are not iClL1Si39 l39 intelleclual properties 39I39he39 are the natural result of the unique way humans have come together to form societies dependent on each other for survival and therefore p I respectful of each other s rights 539 NEWKIRK None of this differentiates humans from the othc r animals You cannot Had a relevant attribute in human beings that doesn39t exist in ani mals as well Darwin said that the only difference between humans and other animalswas a difference of degree not kind If sou ground am con cept of human rights in a particular attribute then animals will have to be included Animals have rights PIXN That brings up another problem I have with your entire argument 39 Throughout this discussion I have argued my position in terms of ethics I quot 739 have spoltenabont our moral imagination and animal interests and human decenc39 quotlr39 Because I don39t want our relationship with animals to be 39 as a battle of rights Only in America with its obsession for east attorneys courts judges and lawsuits is the entire realm of human relationships reduced to a clash of rights So I ask you Is our relationship with animals best conceived of under am dispensing rights I m people below some level of intellectual functioning have rights Probabl 39 not 6537 Aa39rrnrrlt JseLN iii 39tt us39r rr1lte Us Tlrere is a wide range of creatures some of them lnnnan for whonr our rights language is not the best way to deal with them I want people to 3 deal with them out of a sense of fairness or a sense at l1trn1arrity or a sense of duty but not out ofa claim to rights 7 NF39KIRK l don39t like your supremacist lC of a custoclial responsibility that39 grants you the l1u11rv to be magnanimous to those beneath you T39lie39iriglrts39 of animals are not peripheral interests In this case we are talking about 39 blood grits pain and death l393913NI07l Art when you start talldng about obligritiorrs without riglits you can justify violations of those obligations or intrusions more easily by spini ning airy notions of utility The reason many of our battles are played out in riglrts language is because our culture has e39ol39edthis notion that a right is ff something that stands between me and an intrusioni A right does139139t3939ield au tomatically because a stronger party might benefit k D If a scientist could cure cancer without fail t3 subjecting me against quot my will to a painful experiment it wouldn39t 1natter I have a right not to be if used that way 39 j IPtW Ironically I agree with you That39s exactly the role that rights laniiij griige plays It defines the la139riers or lines that can39t be crossed But if you hand out rights willy nilly you lose that function NI 39KtltK Wlieri should we stop a Cl lN lint not sure l ltnow the answer but if you cheapen the currency ofy rights language you39ve got to worr that rights Inay not be taken seriottsly5 Soon you will lnwe people arguing that trees have rights and that emlr39os have riglits nd the tendency would be to say Sure they have rights but they are not important riglrts39quot A Art wouldn39t you rather err on the side of giving out too many 39 GoLoMsN When you That39s inevitable lf you lrax e a free press vouquotre going to have fair trial prob J lems lf you start espancling riglits of liberty you run up against riglrts of 39eonality I don39t thin expansion cheapens thern but by elevating animal riglrts to a constitutional issue you certainly multiply the difficulties Ht39t39l You could argue that conflict strengthens rights If you had no conflict B over free speech would we have the solid right to free speech that we have e39 r toclay 39 jquot 39 GIDILAN It depends on who wins W hat would happen if free speech lost lquotIa Ct31 Roger vo11 will have conflict and difficultics wlrethcr you cast our relationship with animals as one of rilnligartioirs or riglits The real ques 39 tion is are those obligations enforceable by state autl1oritx If they are there will be clashes and we will turn to the courts for resolution CaPtAN Cary l would like those olaligations enforced by the aritlrority if 0 you lillte of empathy by the power of cl raract39er 39tihat matters is how people 39l quot animals how their feelings are touched by those animals what tlriyes them to care about those animals not what rigl391ts the animals lune i39l39TRA ClO2 E I agree that you don t effect inassive social L l1ange exclusively 39 through law but law can certainly help quotl hat39s a classic law school debate Do moral perceptionsshape law or does law shape moral perceptions lt probably goes both ways I have no doubt that we could effect a great change 2 i if animals were included within our constitutional framework ili tIRIi Great clianges often begin with the law l erne1nber the lTti0s m case of the West Indian slave Ionatlran Strong Strong s master had aban doned him in England after beating him badl39 The judge in that case PP y feared the consequences of emancipating a slave But the judge freed Strong tI 39KIRtlt 7 and declared Let justice prevail though the lrcavelis inay fallquot rights rather than too few CAPII No lI KIRK So according to your view maybe we should 39dl39 away some 39 of the rights were already granted After all granting rights to blacks and women has deprived society of very important tl1i rgs such as cheap labor quotl39hat a society evolves and expands its protective shield should not daunt us 39l39l1at39s like saying if l continue to be charitable rny God where will it ever P end 39 1 39 l5lOO THE 391quotALllNG ClilEll ri7l39quot39l3939 3939HITT 1leet Mojo the signing eliiirrpairzee lIoio is female and has learned Y7 more words than any other clrinrpanztee One clay39oi1quotrc signing away with r39lojo and she signs back I want a lgtabyquot Roger are we under any oblir1a tion to grant her wish GtDtI rN Since I am not persuaded animals l1d C any rights I don39t be 39 39 there is any obligation CPLN It may not be rights or bust There may be other ways toget people to conduct tlremselres decently without hauling out the heaxy artilleryyof rirhts lairgtiarge every time Pc E NIi39r39KIRK People l1are to be pushed society has to be pushed Those who care deeply about a particular wrong have to pressure the general 39popi1la tion l 39entually a law is passecl and then adiustrnents are made to correct licye llt39IquotT Doesn39t it follow that if this chimpanzee can articulate a desire to have e i gl39i39ilcl a1 primal desire and one that we would never forbid humans we l1a339e some oblifation to fulfill it 39CrPt4N You are alluding to a foundation for riglits that we haven39t yet dis cussed Is the requirement for possessing a riglit the ability to claim it Tliat is39l in order to hold a right to life one must be able to articulate a clrim to flife to be able to say quotI want to livequot a past injustices You have to bring these matters to a head 0 llt39l39l Roger from a constitutional perspective do you thinls that rights are cheapened when they are broadened 39 i 6 658 659 put it in a constitutional context you invite conflict r r iiA 5quotJl hs i1391 439IIiuzv 7 wt quotquot39quotquot2quotquot 39 39 39 Aivr iruii Cansi 139r L IUST LIKE U5 39I39here may be animals that can get to that level and IIoio masquot be one of them Nevertheless I don t buv into that argpnierit Siiiipl39 being able to gggj claim a right does not riecessarilv entail an obligation to fultill it 04 p l4 iur 391ti7 But iquotloin does have the right to be left alone to pursue her de 5 sites the right not to be in that cage eren t we 39l0l339Itllg soiperiglit p 3939Ioio s by confining her so that she cannot satisfy that primal desire 0n IlI39l I Is this a fair svll0gism l39loio wants to be free 393 fight to freedom exists if von can claim it ergo iloio has a right to be tree Does the 2tlIlll39quot to lav p claim to a I39lEIllI autoiriatically translate into the possession of such a Tlglllt pD Cpi39t You doii39t always generate obligations and duties from a parallel set of rights rnatcliirig one with another Look at the relationship that exists lietweeii IFtlllllquotl11 l1iJ139S Soiiie lCIT plc might argue that children have certain rights to claiin from their parei1ts But there is something wrong with that assiunption Parents liaveinap obligations to their children but it seems inorall39 weird to reduce Il1lS39llf p tioiisliip to a contractual model Its not a freemarket 39c1l39t39i3lgClT1 IIi vi 1 t39 ii39 vou put down a rights chit I put down an obhgatioii chit and tie llltilltfg them up 39 A My kid might saw to me quotDad you have an obligatiori to care for I11 needs and inv need todav is a new carquot I don tenter into a 139iegotiatiori based quot on a balancing of his rights and inv duties That is not the proper relationship iItTquotl39lRi But having a car is not a fiu39idarnental right whereas the right not I do not believe there is a slippery slope between the child born with most of its brain missing and the retarded There are certain thresholds below which one can make these decisions At some point along the spectrum of life rnanv people would say a pig and I would go further to include the anen cephalic l3939lIquot quot are safely below that threshold FRANCIONE You caii t equate the pig with the anencephalic infant The anericephalic child is not the subject ofa life in anv meaningful seiisc Tliat is to say it does not possess that constellation of attributes sense of self awareness anticipation of the future P 39 been discussing The pig is clearly the subject ofa meaningful life I CAPIAN But if it s a matter of saving the life of tliebab39 then I want a sur A geori to saw out thepig39s heart and put it in the bahv s chest i E39KiRi The pig can wish to have life ibertv and the pursuit of happiness quot and the aneiicepliali739 babv cannot p i CAPLAN But vou must also consider the effect on others I don39t think i to matter verv nuich what the pigs parents think child s parents care about the lalii39 and they don t FRNClOiquotE Then vou change their reaction 39CPtAi I don t want to change their re about babies NEiiKIiult Ciiiiii t39s going about that pig Whereas the care about the pig action I want human beings to care Like racisin or sexism that rem ark is pure speciesisni Speciesisnit Mine is a legitimate distinction The impact of this to bc qbused is For W pie Cim lung 4 right not to be used in facto transplant is going to be ditferent on huinans tlian on lower animals 39 I 39 39 r 39 qr ries 39I39hat right had to be fought for in eiactlv the same wav we are figlihlng NE KIRK g quotLower animalsquot There comes speciesisni re n I again Look Art I associate with the child I d we can t establish wh39v that matters exce 39 human If a building were burning and a baby baboon a bab rat and a baby child were inside I39m sure I would save the child But if the baboon mother went into the building I m sure she would take out the infant baboon It39s just that there is an iustinc airing its ugly head out associate with the pig But pt that you are liuinan and I am for animal rights now I g 1 I t d Hie Ci LN Carv I want to press vou further A bal neecsa rear an S0 pE scientist believes the miniature swiiiels heart will do it I 39 2 r I 1 v 39 39 i I I i 39 39 I FRiiINIlt Wiiiilcl I take a hLaltli pig rcinoie its heart and put it iiio H g child No quot Cl Li I am stymied bv your absolutist position that makes it impossible even to consider the pig as a donor 39 M t to save 39OU1 S lf first then vour iinniediate fam W 39 39 d fa ih VOUT countrvrnen and on to vours ecies But we have to reco mac and llLi Clt t What if the donor were a scierclj retarded child instea I 2 H 1 P g Pig 5 i reject the selfinterest that erects these barriers and trv to recognize the rights k of others who happen not to be exactly like ourselves I think vou can teach hurnans to care about quot relevant factor here is that too will never 0 JPtit No because l39ve got to worry about thC lI391t33Ct quotOI 011 quot Ill donor but on societv as well 39 39 39 i I 391 I39IL CIt39NtL Art assiiine I have a threevcarold procligv who is a I1tiJ fl1t Itt39lttIt39I cal wi7arcl quotI39lie child has a bad heart The onlv way to save this It390l1g39 IS to take the heart out of anotlierjchild Should we coiisidera child from a lOt39 socioeconoinic backgrouiid who has limited mental abilities I CPIKN You39re wandering around a world of slopes andl want to ivanderr around a world of steps I have argiied stroiiglv in 1115 writing that it is p0SSli ble for a liurnan leing specifiCall39 an infant born with al1 l1quotBPl1alJ illtllg is without most of its brain to drop below the threshold of a right to life If think it would be ethical to use such a baby as a source for organ Ir t SplaIIti the pig The niorallv get the pig to care about me P6j Not true Art Read John Robbins new book Diet for a l39ew stirrer fquotice in which he lists incidents of altruism b perhaps vou will be persuasive on this point 39lIEWlIRiI39 in Art if vou don t recognize inv rights that s tough for me But that quotd0esnquott mean my right don39t exist 560 66 I ineinorv of the past tliat we have 390 I I0 Aimiuiz Cwiin 131 u JUST LIKE Us RiIM 1fidk5 as 3 group got together and said We39re going to nmt 3 conscious decision to dislike noiililacks39quot quotCt1li you sin that blackft people no longer had riglits 39 0Ns Li1 LXN No but l woiild hold them accountable for their racism 1 C01lll never hold a pig accountable for its speciesisin And I am never going to seer a meeting of pigs l39I39139il39lg that kindot39 coiiversation 7 w ille239KiltK 39l39i39liat happens when the Ru lxlux l39lan meets and the rClL iip 0 w holds their rights H x 1lI The dillcreiicc is that tlicre are certain tliings l expect of d s s wliites cllows oi all liuinan beings and iiia lie a few iiipiiilzils But I am C not going to hold the vast inaiorit39 ofauirnals to those staricarc s iit39Klttlx So the 39Jtt11ltil11 i ICli for their p39fCt I39E l deticieiicies wliicli iiincsigAp dentall39 is shared by the linman babjs39 is to beat tlieigi to death i m CPlN I didn39t sax39 that i am trying to reach for soinetlung that isnt caph hired by the spccicsist cliargc 39l39li39e difference betweeii people 39iiid39aiiiiii lstiiIi k tliat l can persuade people l can stmiiilcite their iitiririil iin igiiiatiotiis ii can39t do that with most aninials and l waiit that lit ffp I1CE 0 CW c IIITT Let39s say that your logic prevails People are sickciied by dancing bears 39 and are demanding a coiistitutioiial amendment Wliat would be the lan T guage ofa Bill of Rights for animals p b NEWKIRK It alreacly exists It39s quotlite lllCIl39 We just liai39enquott e t ended it far enough 0 X GOLI3iIAN l am assuming your ainendmeiit would restrict not onlv go39crn nient action but private action as well Our Constitution i eriiinent action The single exception is prohibits both the goxeriniient and th slavery39 quot quot HITI To whom would these rights apply Woiiltl they apply among aiiinials tar tlieiiiselves Does the lion have to recognize the ga7elle39s right to life 39 NEWKIRK 39li39liatquots not our business The lJCl39la39l0T of the lion and the gazelle U T is a 39 tribalquot issue if you will T hose are the actions of other nations and we cannot interfere 8U I 39 COIDtN Wliat it we knew the lion w we have an obligation to stop it I739I1tI39 It39s not our business This aniendiiient restricts only39 our code of lCl1 t39i0I g HtT39l But what Roger is asking is should the amendment be so broad as to restrict both individual and goiernmeiit action FRWCIONE It should be that broad Of course 39 3 3939H and the pursuit of happinessquot restricts only go39 the Tliirteenth 39mt i lll l lE l1i which e lI39Ili ltlll ll from the practice of as going to kill the gazelle would A 4 i woiuo w139i39ii no IDKNCINC BEARS llt39l T How would i39ou eiwision a society that embraced animal rights A would happen to pets 9 F quotg I I 39KtRK l don39t Lise the word quotpetquot l think its Spf Ci SSt language I prefer39 quotconipanioii animalquot For one tliiiig we would no quotlonger allow lJTCEliI1gH People could not create clititiereiit breeds There would be no pet shops 0 A people had coinpaiiioii animals in their liomes those aiiiinals would l1239 O be refugees from the anirnal slielters and the streets tori would liaie a propf tcctive relatioiisliip with them just as on would withan orphaned child But as the surplus of cats and dogs artiticialli39 engineered by ceiitiiries of Sorted lireerliiigi declined e39eiitnallj39 CITTElI l39O11 animals would bc Pllime ii and we would return to a more S39l lill0ilC relationsliip einoyinent listancc 39 it 8 l3939R 39l i39T i39lucli more than that would be phased out For exairipletliere would be no animals used for Food no laboratory e39periinents no tiircoats and no linnliiig quot 39 ilsl39ll39t iI ould there be zoos FRNC1INE No zoos H l I39l39 Circiises 39 i 51 quoti quotI2quot llRlECt39i39i 39 Circiiscs would have to cliainge Look right iiow we couiite nance the taking oi an animal from the wild a bear dressing that beaIT391 a ami and parading it in front of tlioiisaiidsot people while it balances 1 i p on its nose Wlien you think about it that is perverted A it would create a lot of issues 173 we would have to work out First to wlioni would we extend these riglits I have a sneaking suspicion that any moment someone in this room will say quotBut what about cockroaches Will they have these rights Do they have the right to have credit carclsquot39 Hard questions would have to be answered and we would l1a E to determine which animals would hold rights and how to 39 translate these rights into 0lCT i6 protections from interference 39lNF39l39lRl i The health pioneer W K Kellogg limited it to quotall those with faces If you can look into the eyes of anotlier and that other looks back that s one iiieasiire So the amendment shouldn39t be limited 39IltiIili to iriaiiiinals because we know th all feel pain 39l39liev are capable of waiiti w that thev have these primal interest the line ifwe think it is down COLD1IAN Let me go up the line What about liuinans NEWKlRK They would be just another animal in the pack Ctii i I2 hi I But your ainendnieiit would I1 l35Siquotf l expand the reach of the no Constitution for humans For exaiiiple the Constitution does not require rictinis of crime Under your proposal if a state P T J iopliftiiig or eveii murder the victim s constitu tioiial rights would be violated as some aniinal rights advocates at birds reptiles inseets39aiid fishes rig to be alive As long as we know 5 then I think we need to explore down 662 663 or1 v1115quotquot 39 Ct Itii t But a mouse ii39i riia CAPLAN FT Al Ctquotti39 And if we take the face test how is that going to affect the way we treat the unborn iliist we enfrancliise our fetuses That39s going to be the end of abortion 39 t Iti i l t39quot Not necessai39ih39 I am fiirli comfortable with the notion that a J fetus does not have a right to life But that is not to say that a fetus doesn39t 2 liave a right to be free from suffering F39etuses do feel pain and they ought to 0 be free from suffering But it doesn39t inalte sense to tall about a fetus having p p a sense of the past anticipation of the future and a sense of interaction with 39 B others i t39 iixciiiii Sure i CA ti l guess we can f 39E t il39t1quotI1t on and eat all the animal fetuses we want i liittN tCNt139 I didn39t say ion had a right to inflict pain on animal fetusesl39 239 don39t think 39tt l39iai39c 1 right to inflict pain on liiiman fetuses 39 0 Ct Ie39 r you siiggestiiig that we can39t inflict pain but we can kill them H iit tltIRtlt You are talking about the manner in which abortions are currentlr perfonncd not whether they shoiild be performed Our standard of lack of siiffering holds up if i39ou apply it across the board for human and non39T 3939 huinan fetuses 39 s y C3i I11M Let me see if i can bring together those who advocate animal welfare with those who believe animals hold rigiitsi What about a diflereritpj ainciiduient similar to the difference between the Thirteenth rineridinent q which is an absolute ban on slai39cri39 and the Fl lttl fltilt Amendment which 39 bans iliscriinination but not absolutel39 in fact the Fourteenth allows us to o take race into account soinctiines siich asaffirinati39e action Do the animal rights activists see a role for a limited ai39nendmen39t similar to the Fourteenth i e it would broadlr protect animals from unnecessarj39 suffering but allow forquot39 quot some medical eperiinents i ii I h p FRt li tti Does your ainendinent simply expand the word personsquot in the3939 Friiirteeiitli 39t1E39l1Llt1ZtquotIi to include animals i 39 zf Pu C39ItitW No but it is modeled on Foiirteeiitli mendinent jurisprtidencelfp it would not permit csperimentatioii on animals unless necessary for a comlip pelling need pb T b lquotRANftCNt3939 I would favor this approach if the experimenter had the burden to show the coinpelliiig need I would have onl39 one problem with adjiidipcaquot tion under this corripellingneed standard i I39 fear is that the balance would quot alwars favor the biomedical research coniinuniti39 l 39errorie agrees that no W one should rieecllessljr use animals in erzperiineritation Yet we all lrriow that millions of animals are being used for frivolous purposes That is becausequot the biomedical researchers have persuaded enough people that their esperiif ments are so important their have become compelling bf definition U G1lJitN Of course the difference with this constitutional arnendrnent is that it woiildnquott pass unless twothirds of Coiigtess and three fourths of 139 I 664 FRWCIONE Roger i would re CAPI The problem with i 39 1115 companion animal or mic ltt i do with those bugs What do I think of btigs 1 V labwitl l39 39 V r us chiinpaizee or am one of us at home with I I i K V 1 j A r W J lief the participants in the forum seek to answer How does each of the participants respond to these 3l39lOllS responses Jesr LIKE Us ii XF pa cs ltll it So ifwe re lI39D l39l1Ig a hundred years from 1 rate tie problem of science experts alwa s prevailing The mblem is H t tire tomorrow ifl could get your aineiidinent I 139 39 39 39 quot 39 39 F r 39 P a our SOt f econoniitalli beiiefits from eirploitatioii the Iltl1lElltt tE39lttSil39tLl S are so strong that tliei39 liare shaped an entire 1 citric sistcin 39l lLSll SEtl1 e etr39t h A need test would rlesipt i id39eS fliplmmlmni 5390 I am mt Sm39e mur mmpcllmgi how Thats h39IF i apt ring siistantialli39 diftcrent troiri what we have 39 39quot 0F 1 Tr fl rights l10f1OI1 to protect the defenseless ab 50lUtel39 As soon as vou 39 x7 39 O o T lei 111 tilt bdl111c rs people such as it Caplaii u e got trouble ow 39ou won39t our constitutional ainendinent is that quot 39 39 is irrelevant to liiiinan beliarior When the lawiei39s the criiistitritioiiiillllli It dicators andtl1e Supreme Court ii adlui quot l 39 35 are ilmt llt t1 ill5 lust me and g in the woods where 3C a ghts H18 i the ainiiials zit Y A 0 n I panese beetles tll a par and e 39 e il1tli39Sit1UIt was HOE tr littlelArt going to deal with those Japanese beetles u ieir wings 0 7 ever et them out ofthc jar Step on them What doil i going to tell me what to do with them 0 SHJJFIme Court tustiee is Ett KlRt39i A lot of these conflicts of mor riety of umicitural relationsliips we hax whether it39s little Art with his jar of al obligation result from the wide 39a c with animals in the first place apanese beetles or the scientist in the sin le issue of the steri 39 39 r a Cat Just take Hm Wtlflgl the custodial 0iligl2ii lEl1i1mil Osieliilisaieltllieorilsi1 tlmitt llmlclllell mlrsellies llave screwed up their reproductive cvcles so inml til dnmlmi Immllse We and inbreeding that the have inani39 nror iffmi wing imneshmhon would What would happen if we just lettLaiiiiiiiilineilrriilg ntti iiEii issIc139s39nililclir 39 7 I E 3 P 9 M 8 m 8 I1 1 mg tic gazelle ell nature is cruel but an is crucler iict QUFS39l39lOii39S l One of the central qrestions of1j50mm39 3 id ofall disciissiniis of 39 39 39 in1iria rights hat makes huinan beings haie rights and animals not have riglits How does each this question ans from other aniinalsquot lpziraigrapli 43 this question iquotliat assimiptions underlie if i J 7 39 u r 39 7 iieiLirL 3SlS Vt hat llSilIlgLllSi t S hum 665 1139139111111 C111111 111 AL t P 1 I 1 1 t in P 11391pl1 quotll quot39quotl l111t s 11 classic law 51 10111 Fin n1ir z1g P S 2 2 391 1 1 39 s1ee c c s 3 1 e 11 m15 39 It 3 II 1111111111 r1l11esl111395l391391pe 11111111l per1ept11111s l31 quot quoth 39 our 3 a lquot39 39 l l39 quot39l Shdpl Ll 0 I l 39 l t39 1 13911tect111g 111111111 11gl1ts1 H1111 11011ll A 1 1111 P Sum Change Li 1l1e111tl11e11Lt1l 1 yea i we en 1lr1CEl 1111n1sl 0 Qu Dds I101S68 and Ieffersonian Happiness Vie6139 Heczme lquot139clci Hecrrne 1 I946 0 an cmim Parts of Liglit I o1ms 1991 Acl111139s Taslc Callin 5111iel L l1391ll 39 39L 1e111r1li11 tu s11111e of the lc1r111I1 tTcquotl39 lquotmll 39 I O E I39i gill7 1 7 1 11quot1U13911l1 125 one 11ttl1e 111111111 p IIlICPi1l1l5 1 Sl1r111ld all 11111111ls l391lL r1g1ts 11 D 3quot he mtCrmalCd bYanyt1e 1lis1 1I1ses the 1111 stin11 39311t139l11t 11l1139111l l t r1tLTtC51 iI Uf1ngh1ES should tll v be HO 111rtieip111ts39 1J39 39ili1391I1s7 Ii11111139111ls h11c 1131 1111 11111 re1p11111l to H115 1ss1111 I I 1 tIfl 1r111 39lt3921 Well 1121t11re is cruel is Neilldirk Llomilmllllllhs llllllltlir1 rll6l1l11l1ldlhiltllis tl11111 l391t39Wfllt7 ii 9553 in which 1111 in 139r1l 1 quot l W H 439 quotA 39 11t l11J1It Ictliewlnp mm position on 1111i111a1l 11l1ts 111 thef 11 by st11ti11g 1li i 6 llllltquotW5 lcll quot Ulmlf the Eli ll 39lr 11111ell1t is l111sed In fact t quot39 quot39 i 3 39 39 reeth the quotselfe139i1lc11 irltll i O ll 1 lcliatio1ie1l v11l11e 111111 limit Oi iftlllif Ml me11t 111111111151 1111 1111 11ppe11l 111 11 rt11111M11I1Lt tI39 in rh not Cen writer states these quottrlllll the Tim lllsmlllcilllle lllllllliillectllxljtilltltlltl pllitigcip1111ts in this lor11111 z1111quotl tf1391tcJ 1let1 111 exnlieit 39 111 1 e1s11111 39139 Hquot 1 J W5 being 111 net 11 113 e 1 mlllcl the lines lllcllll lmtlllllilpiill31ilhltll l1bl 3hI311lllHllrilt1l 1111 1s51i i11 1lll1icl1 f11u 1111l EL 0 1 e1te1l quottrnt 11quot 111 11111 1 t 1 5 39 1 Q OHS thiv C39t plt39 l truths that pr03911le the lmsls I111 thelf P ll ui h39crir1er I 1061 Tire and at 11r139139er 139iefiorz g the A11i111a1ls l139 1la111e 1987 and 1zo11f1 e1 io11 Be111d39139t Dossier of z1 Da11gem11s Dug I9 l39 She is also 1 teacher mm 11 corrtribtztirrg editor at ll11rper39s 1nc1gc1i11e 1111ere 1 his 139ScI first 11ff c1rGCi 11 it1 1 1e szrbtitfe OfH111111139Js Horses and e j 1rsc11i1111 Hc391fpi11essquotquot 39l99li Not all l1z1ppv a1391i1111 1ls T are alike A D0le1111e111 going over 11 hurdle after 11 V 1 small wrgioden 1l11111bhell is sleek all arcs ofl1ar111o11i1111 s power A basset h111111d el1eerf11ll139 pertomring the same exercise exhibits l111rm1111ies of 1 more l11g11lgtri quot 0115 111111116 There are chi111pa11zees 11 39l1r1 love ff lSl0I39l the 1139111 11111sici1111s or 39 f1111atieal ho11sellteepers39 or 1cc0111pl139sl1ed l139p0Cl1011lri1es do others for 11h1391111 39 l111ppi11ess is 1 111atte139 of in139e11t139o11 and 1 39ari1ti1J11 el1i111p 1391111le139illi1111 Tlicre 539is 11 rhi11oceros 1139l1ose liappiness as 11e11r 15 I can 111z1llte out is in needing to he f trained e139er1 1110r11i11g all over agaiii or else he forgets3939 his eire11s r1111t13911e e and in this 111111 fincl 11 el11eto tl1e slow deep quiet cl111elltle of his l111ppi11ess and to the glory of the beast Il11ppi11ess for Secretariat is i11 1is el111llie11t 39bou11d that jo139t3911l length of stride For the draft horse 0 1IKl1IC C1iNllC391 lONS 39 39 39 39 1 lericl ii 111 1p 69J lrcc C1c tor lxper1111e11ta 139 ll Amnmls m Rctleanhi ll llctl cl I11v1iciP 1nt1 nl this torum 111111 hrs afglllllelli i en1 quot 3 l39 E5 lquotquot 395 Allllm HIP ml ml fnr 11si11o 111i1111ls 111 1 i3quotl39 39liquot D0 in mm 39739391 using j1pl1111 to stlpp fi quot5 me p j hm5 ifgmwliere w1111lcl C11pl311 5 l l 39 1 with the case llI1E 15 Tl mg 39 1 11pl1111 1111111 agree H 1 3 39 lllmml mm king 39 i lludee tr139l l11111111s letferlt1111s Decl1r1t1o11 11 II B w T F st 11111 111pl1oltl11s 11111111 1 mm to 9 R quot C ll ll g 39 quotquot0r1ti11e11tal Corrgress of11111111 5 l quot3l7 g dPCmem 111 1401 l11111g111Ien 1mn in ame imam that yd 39 3 rlcleg lti east as cl111 It9 lquotltl 39l C lemfv mm refer hid 139111il1a39e heen 11ssi 3911etl the role lclfel quot 1quotquotCe39 quot 1 39 11 V Wquot39 quotl l r Fquotcl lllh lcl3911391iir111 of lnclepemleliee hat 11011111 m1 sa at 8 s held tn d1 nit 1111 1111111111 5 E 1 r I t 1 39 l1e11d and 1111 I 1 hr111 to 111111 task G0 1 I H Imam for an 1de11L39C 11 Will Wquot 1 5 1c111 revatc 0 11 quot z I l l 39llUl1S 111 tl11senlleet1c111t11111s1111ll1 1 r quot137 am van Selma he i Farlu M0111t391 quotlser39111 V 01 quot5 P quot 39 39 h e quotIE5 m 39 w I 139 I 39quot i l39 ll lcasl Lil lUlm Pu 139 1quot 1 quot41quot and quot1cllt1 Ilear11e 5 hats r11r1g 39 1 l111i1llt 11111lz1ll 5 l lfSl Ol1sL1 J If1 ii 39 Him 11 9311 1111 of these 3939rilf39T5 Palllclpahnli 39 quot 39 617quot1 are e 1n11 es 1111 1 section 0 1 1111n11l Rlalits 1p 1 391 W t 39Ull tl1c sae Re11r1 1 1 g quot I l Ihev bretil 111 13 quotI b 111 th1s F11111111 here 111111lt 6 Titer as pmticipimts tl1isF11111111 1nelL11l111g fV0 0 1 39 g S intn l1i1111elf al loct11t13911g all of tlie edueatecl power that orga111397es his desire to dwell in fierce t power le1115 11110 the l111r11ess and K1 S 39t H1139 SUCKER lOlTI 39 IF11 e speali11g of h111111n hein tend to 11112111 so111etl1ing like er golden retriever rolling i gs and use the phrase 1111i111al h ealtnre comfortsquot The e1391391hle111s 11 the grass the horse with his nose dc 39tl1e lltitt139 by the fire C1 e2tlttTC 39011391iorts are 139mpo1te111t to 1111i1111ls39 quotCr11l first 391 then ethics is a1391110tt1Ji that would describe 111e11113911 11139se L11br1d0r retriever 111111 l have 11 tiull t1a111el l1111ie 11 hose contimial quest for the perfect pill11139 in sp1 re539l1e139 to 111139es0111e feats But there is something more to 1111in111ls 11 e1p11eit139 quot in the fullest se11se 1139l111t is k11111139n in 39 l1appi11C39ssquot ent like the s11tist39e1eti1111 felt h1 11 good 1lres1z1gc l101391e ltis 11 11ppi1391essquot we of this are the ep in the rmts 1 vM 9 iTl1is is 11 5 39 11f11odear1er or 11 cl 666 667 t1ig1tn t v t 39quoticilti lquotlt KRNE happiness that like the ai39tistquots must come from soinetliiiig within the animalquot sotnetliiitg trait39ie39rs call quotletlCt391l Hence it catitiot be iinposecl on the animal 3 But it is also soittetltiiig that lUC395 not come ex ttiltilo If it had not been a fairly 39 quot ortliriir39 tliiiig in one part of the quot0t39ll to teach 339oung children to play the piquot 0 5 aiiotorte it lS lOt1llitll that i lri7art39s music would exist llappittess is often inisuriderstoctil as a s39non39i n for pleasure or as an p 0 A tttl l139lTt for siitteriiig But Aristotle associated happiness Will ethics c0des of 5 ltelianior that urge its towarrl the seitsatioii of getting it riglit a kind of worllt that ltllS tlte quotclickquot of siitistactirit39i upon solving a problem or surinoiinting an 12 0 obstacle In his litties ristotle l39Ol quotIf happiness is actii39it39 in accordaitce3939 with escclleiiee it is reasontltle that it should be in iaecorclance with the higlt B est excellencequot lliornas Jefferson ideittifietl the capacity for happiness as one i 0s of the three tuitclatiiental rights on urhieh all others are based lite libert39 and PG the pursitit of liappii39iess quot l briiig up this idea of ltappitiess as a form of work because I am an animal 39 trainer and work is the foumlation of the happiness a trainer and an animal rliseover togetlier I bring up these words also because they cannot be found iiii j39 i39 the lexicon of the aiiiiitalriglits titoveiiteiit This absence accounts for the 39ini P easiitess totvarcl the tnovetueiit ol most people tvlioiseitse that rights arhrocates lt39 tquotC a point but take it too far wlien thei39 liberate snails or charge that goldfisli at the county fair are siittei39ii39ig But the problem with the aniinal rigl39tts cales is not that tliei39 take it too far it39s that tliequot39e got it all ivroiig 39iiin39tal ritglits are built upon a fT1iSC0l1C l39Cl preiiiise that rights were ere atecl to prevent us irom l1l1I3C6 SS39 1l3939 sitiieriitg You Seanit find an animalrigltts quot book iideo pamphlet or rock concert in which soiiieoite doesn39t ttteritiori tlie Great Seiiteiice 39t39itteii b39 lE f ltl39 Bcnthatn in 1789 Arguing in favor of siiehif riglits Beitlhain wrote quotThe question is not Cill1ill1t 39 reiisoii nor can tlieitiquotr cilia but can they stifferquot t The logic ot the aiiiinalrigltts mo entent places suffering at the tcmlbj graphic center of a skeu ed 39dltl s39stei39n The tliinkiitg of its proporieitts git39en eerie expression in a iTltlEtll sadoporitograpltic sculpture of it tortured iiiciri39 key that won a prize for its coiitpassioiiatc iSlOll ldS collapsed into a pe39n39erse Ct llltt39lTltl391l lioilay the loudest voices calling tor39 deinaii39liiig tlie destrtice tion of animals are the humane organimtioiis This is an il39lquotilEllle cotis39e quence of the apotlieosis of the drive to relieve siifteriitg Death is the ultiiitate release To coinpensate for their coritradictions the huinane39mo39einent has dciitotiized in this century and the last those who made animal ltappiness their business 39 l39 iI1a139i39dI1S traiiiers and the like We think of Louis Pasteur as the ittati whose work sat ed t ou and me and 39ttI dog and cat from rabies but aittitiviseetionists oi the time elaiinetl that rabies increased in areas wliere there were Pasteiir liislitiities o 39 n 39n antirabies publicrelations campaign mounted in England in the l880 by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Aiiitiials and otlter orga 668 it it s some it i rii 39lilAL RIGHTS i nizations led to orders being issued to club a i zl 1 1 1 quotF J V 9 dog and still has he cruel and llI1l1 C6SSal 39 l alien gm months in quirantine before l illE a 1 osto the recent S PTOPJaiicla about t 5 hold with their front teetquoti while tlie39Pc39lliltitiiliiafl1iflrd i Jium that they take quot3939 quot0 ld imlilli39 it1COI l eCll39 that th quot I C M I 16 ma i r39 quotquot i l1i 39l1 pn mm pubhshed bv the Hilmane im39i1ti eO ottiillnltiller5B czttt be traced to litera p quot1987 and earlierilf i E m 6 mics quotmg the till i r your JCI hbors 39 t rr U 1 str0 ed because he is a ItUgiS391ICQ Mnr iimr dog it home Impounded and de quot quot33quot he Clog marks or the horse attracts iflies it will be 39 the loca l39lLtt l39t3I1e 39 0 5 DC 39 39 P action et to uhoin our neighbors turn for og found not iveziriiig it 111112 alu thzlit reqiiires ati aiiitiial to otter loose in the COUItl39t3939 In a was evervon t n 6 list the o3 ortuniht L 39 Pq V 3 l mn Of m itiioit that the liistori39 ot the hu death The Humane Sock is the pmmd tlserlils arrests Prosecutions and e Chamber or the lethal illii ions You Octm0nP aLe dtll the decoiiipressioii a quot a 39 J A fl il1l ll1 f1Jn Landerss coliunn C quoti m Owed Imus abm 39 nimari l1 39 39 kinds of ani tails P1liKiall0nSE nef luustmed lat quot 5quot 6 P 355 i If quotquot and quot39i J quotr quot 1ltu39li139l1 some PE 0Ple seem to Prefer their a iiiiiiicid Iluhrquot the hm Conditions f of art animal is too coii 39 39 1 839 iecanse any other quot 39quot iquot quot iphcated for to E 39 book Atiitmil Liberatioiz Peter SiiigcriisaipugtulddljIn UK Himoductmn to his H t i 39 395 soinewiat Smllg it Hmi he mt I 39 39 39 c 115 err tllteiit This is offered as s rt 39es me as an odd Joy V D for an etliic39l 39 39 l end high School Students togchemh theirrii Ill390lt3Li Inst encoiirages universiti oraitce 39 39 pfiibot of their devotion to aitintals g 0 51 great bud dog 395 gel39 with photograplts of two 539 l would like to leave these ms of Sutfemig l70 11 1E39l1t revere niv tired I i l 39 39 B etc or ii gentle rebuke to ours I it lat his first dog Sh ms il39t i tlt Druiniiier leirtied C P ace where his ti 3 39 i I i brate his metieuloiisness li 7s ltelppiriess it on riirl Li mpemdi I Want to Cele lt C v 3 p l 5 I ont ltould swoop clown upon him and Sl39tl t1 l mug it the dog Sim that no Inkm n as the iitecldybear Cumplwp but gt 2 111m iiiti the googoo excesses igaire hint room to work I waiit to SH rT erl OP 9b1Ctuall39 got out of his wax 39 39 cart ea 39 puppy alto can care about 3CCLII398 who can be fas d Six ind 1 tlIfI11trilOltl ousness will be a foiindatioii quot mus aiic w iosc t5tlll 5 quotLeave iny puppi ant to celebrate the ino 39that there cart be a pub for courage laterquot 1 mm to W lwatt lttr 11 0 me the ll l 5 Pll9T5 beltllttl but l eaiiiiot in part because the lat la ue aeadet 39 gment are illiimiiiatiitg 39lquothe39FiiEider do 1m 35 f ill quot quot l T lquot5 11039C Jnterests Or if these rightiss lead quotirticul llmd 5 we ngms or do Hm have g 39 g I 39 39 39 p P clrji unesaniittecl lites time immss quotCI 539 395 II 2 at Equot 3 E U quot391 o 2 quotD 1 n J U3 2 669 39iilti lquotll39ARi tti Wiiir s Wiiozxic wirii 39i39 IiIL Riciris rift tell iiiv Airedale t I 39 P 311d blTlJlCS Vtiliat a i 39 39 g vou are quot he ll clrf39i0SlinCOine Ciimes mquot35339 l Full him back and jn i Ti illquot 0 E0 OT 11 correct him for breaking i39ow he holds his sta be merit but not because l have punished rond a dog39s ken which is wlii39 the mail carrier who doesnt also happen to be ii dog39s friend is forever an intruder tliis is wln39 dogs bark at inailinen g h lt is clear enough that natural rights relations can arise between people and li aniinals DIl1t 11l39l39lf I for e ainple can insist quotHei39 let s go outside and do Suille 39 thing if have been at in39 computer several days on end He can both refuse to accept various of my suggestions and tell me when he fears for his life 39i such as the time when the liiige white flapping flag appeared out of iiowlierequot393 as it seemed to him on the town green one evening when we were working lquot12 caii l39ai39id do sai39 to him either Oh you don39t lime to worri39 about that on Llli oh yoii re right Drum that guy looks dangerousquot Just as the goi39ernme39nt39 VX and l two different species oforganisin ha39e developed impr039i5el ways of coiiimui1icating such as the vote so Drummer and I liave worked out a nuiii39 her of 39a1 S to make our expressions known Largely through obedience I liave taught him ii fair 3l39110Ut391i about how to get responses from me Obedience isquot he dless 390llI1g dog he 0 gush with praise kai39 to make friends akcs Drummer feel that I39CSEl C is in ii insincere a 39 39 39 liimselt and thinkillg quotTiiis Person liiiiioiihliblllSllllllg mil gomg dowquot 1 Tstill and he will 39 539 e 5 P quot39 S quot3919 ill Sit veri39 39 50 Melt r lf the persoii39cloesn39t t k tl l 39 39 v ghe the 3 e ie iint from Driinimer pup a little hacku 3 b r quot 39 e PpG 391 1 I I 1 srllngr Please ClOI1 li Pct lilni P D 01kinc quot ien long 1 ie was not under gt H Et139CUI1 tm3I1d reciprocal you cannot get responses twin 1 dog to whom you do not respond i ll PltPFB3tl5 tins and there is a flicker of a working trust no t 39 39 3 I acciii39ateli l have enfraiicliised him in a relationship to me by educating hini ihf dog is the pup gratefiil Wlieri the stranger leaue i S miquot5 m creating the conditions by which he can acliieve a quotcertain liappiness specific to A a dog mafhc even specific to an Aireclale inasmuch as this same relationsliip has allowed me to pluriib the happiness of beiiig a trainer andwriting this article 39 395 39 liistructioiis in this liappiness are quotgiven terms that are alien to a culture in7 which liver treats fliiffii windup to39s and miniature sweaters are confiised with i respect and work lack Kno39 a sheepdog trainer oiiginally from Scotland will 39 sliiike his crook at a novice handler who makes a promiscuous snore to praises dog and will call out in his Scottish accent Eli Eli Get back get BACK Ye39ll no he abiisiii the dogs like that in 111 clinicquot Arrierica is a nation ofabiisel animals K139iix says because we are E1l39H S swooping at them with praise ttoui gi39iiig them their freedomquot I am rcrninded of Rainer Maria Rilkesl dCCDl39tl liiiflj which the Prorligal Son lf El S l tE1S to leai39e beeause ex er39one loves him even the dogs love him and he has no path to the delicate and fierce triith39of himself Unconditional praise and love in Rilkes story disenfrancliise39iisdis ii tract us from what trul39 excites our interest i f 39ff in the minds of some trainers and handlers praiseis disl39ionest39 Paradoxi39 call it is ii kind of contempt for animals that masquerades as a rei39eren39ce fiir39 helplessness and suffering The idea of freedom means that you do not at least not while lack Knox is l 39ctTlquot helpfiilli39 guide your dog through the I110iiQl1S39i of say herding over and oi39er wliat one trainer calls quotexplaiii39 waiiiyquot This isf rote learning It works il I39illl39 well on some handlers because people hate vast iiiiconscioiis minds and can store c0mplex r 39pl390gl39amn lC ll5elIaiiO139 Dogs on the other hand have almost no unconscious minds so they can learn oiilr by tliinking iIan39 children are like this untii educated out of it p H r5 i065 lit my l11nd to I T 39 snlt fliis one says riothin 1 l39m us is a working trust we L f gratii ation society i39lV hauP is praise emu R U 3 I 39 I I Lmemn L5 39 I11lji Stlpport is praise enough tor me are outifde llCl0lgEfSl OSilfdiiiluighi Sflpplose it i I luSt after dark and 39mk toward the Sh 39 F0111 16 3910ltS 16 PUP and I both out and then toward 21 l tl quotquot don39t so much as quot31 0 M W hat do i on think I noel mi head because Dru 39 39 quot 39 to know Mm he think miner IS growing up and I want 5 He takes a few ZHC Stem again and Comprehends Hm it SsifE FStiFI LcifCl the house and I follow given to alariniiig cries and shouts He shriigs to M lilo iii fourtee 395 39 l ness I sav nothing To 39 39 i 39 3 me am goes aboul his l 5i39 praise him for this perforiniiic Id much Sense as rmSin a I c 396 oil make about as v P E 11131311 being for the same thing thus A What39s that B l don t know Listens Wliat 1 goooooood h 39 Hui 33 and I sai39 nothing mtieh g at not a niiitiialcon are developing gh for him the l Oil its just Holly uman being FF 39lquotliis is one small moment in n39Airedale who on a Friclaii W gsqUlT l it i21l39 down 3 1113 i 39 l0tT1 and play with the chi 39Christmas parts a series oflike nio ll have the distn ho is attacking me ldrcn at the annua ineiits that will ciilniinate in niination and ionfiglence re 39lil a knife and on Sati1rdai range Empire Dog Club People who claim to s 39 idea that the ten keepin f an offense The mo peak for animal rights are mere g of a dog or a horse or a ge re loiidly they speak the le 35iI1gl39 devoted to the rbil or a lion is in and of it ifiiiiner lurid Rillre Il8 39fl93tquoti CcriiiaiiAtistrian poet ii3ds SS a J H I 1399 0 1 i39t1I39 i0 e in 3 l 672 5 673 Vi r1lt1 H 1 more g I 39 so much time in39 1l 1lquotli rclatirm to ant Z39t t3939rI11IIsI1 tl IC39 c1tStTilI L ttT1Ergsvlvester Sta1OneL quotquotquot l iquotlquot mi i39 9 iimmlilitiiiggl esramhle liretrid ilewlltirllt the ipl if antitut ral3939 3 iii hi it 39 J i I 9 ur39ed tliat39ro39 W ic y muiliiiuiii ijiLiIliili39iheueliri 5riaaeg ml by taste a 1L t139 wo 39es am39 390 P I 39 quot I vcr closed to 39l39l39iose interior structure is both e139r1ot1or39121ll39 lttllrtii riIit I39I fore I 39c m Drnrrimer claims tl1 quotelas39 to he spealzmg tor amma tg In giredal S imlicngg She is inrililg I am the tttarpg mg1r rgi i1i n gmWent is W mom ahle rit hts quotict391er or no to I 5 i 39 t I q nd39s mate Rt Hm tchIt ltion of this point tlian whet39her I39M lquotf l quotfIlI39 H1 nl 1i1kIU Dmmn39 39I She Iiminncm miuits the ma Oi Hmnmliel 39Lmil3911tiriisli I Elli39i and the l lu I and whom he can lnow capable o t its rmqmEw aS immuU0nS mane Sn39itt39 and the ttsl t and the ongre mg mi Drummer but are Omquotp do traps the powgr to attect my ahiI1tj39 to ngri 11 that would increase hisgr crwise incapable oi Lreatmg I1l1ttIm39S or 1 Ovfer n Ebev mnm Obey who lrappiiress 39nhr Drummer PC owner has tvl1 l 0quotn EquotHn39t him his gh tSand In is and what he is 39npIllt3 lKIWI 1quot Um sit I Po open up the possibility Oi i ilI iquot39 395539 I SIFTINC THE ASHES lonathan Frcmzen lonathcm F39ranen39s b 1959 first novel The 39Ii39wentx Seventh Cit I 9538 quoturns a detective novel He has since ri39rz39tten novels dealing with such contemporon39 issues as environmental pol utirn abortion and reIigr o39us fmrdcnnen tczlism This articfe first appeared in the New Yorker with the subtitle quotConfessions ofa Conscientious Ohjecior in the Cigarette Warsquot I996 Cigarettes are the last thing in the world I want to think sider myself a s1nollter donquott identitv with the fortysix milli quot liai e the habit I dislillte the smell of srnokeeand the inasion of nasal pri39aC39 it quotrepresents Bars and restaurants with a st39lish profilewith a clientele whose n part on the toxic clouds with which it shields itself rooms where smollters orns where men use the nasti39 on as a laxative quotWi11stoi tastes bad I Like the one I just peachahle parody from In39 cliilclhoodfi F twothirds of the people on the sidewallc 39rr39ing lighted cigarettes I maneuver con 39 in Nevada was a vision aged women with footlong faces puff 5ing on footlong Kents and compulsively feeding silver dollars to the slots gt lien someone tells me tlrateigarettes are sexy I thinllt oi Nevacla When I see jan actress or an actor drag deeply in a movie I imagine the pyrenes and about I don t con on m1ericans who gurs1391cJis H 39 tut to leiine her term the most crnL I39 tl 39 s t at ltquot1rn39 is rare I 0 I In 11ulonezlrerngnrnin o 39 thistermi H She go about defining of 39IIIL Il ts llitltl quotl39 Hi dub j in ii1vlr39tl1 t her argument bee paragraph 6 lot 3 How does lquotlL 39t39l39l391L39 use parar as u 0 1 3 I 0 cmmph 3 1115 emups 39 In does 5 t ttII1l1I1d rig 3 g pd a 39hat are ttearut s nrawr fl15tampI5quot fquot mvnph li D5 cr r rtulcr tn tliwi as rgormoissenrs oi sir trIn1 P T Edie Mm me Ckmm that mum 39 rquot Ill1 a par run a K P 4 Iilmrne mm the Mgunml d tl e I Ilawctl because their r e 3939ns Hcarne cons ers M1 r391g39lit grmips are asLing tIiecllrI1L5l1ii of rinlrts is in the 6 39tiv l39JlL 39 oi sullerlttg I39ttI1CTr IIiiquot lquot III Am quot3 iquotquot1 i iii lull i iquotU39liig1Ft 39Iquot13lft II tlnw do sou thinlv she answers the 39 Q3 I E I 39 39 I titan In the pursuit Hi MlquotII llquot I I r quot 39 l 39li 1sa1rIampIl 39 397 doc5s1e qttttIIUl h wmpl 1 U I I is HJU IOU itwe 7 notlrer impnrtairt lcrnrtnl lltclrnt I3 I If I I 39 393939 139 39 39 Llmm Hm mm M lmimm Imtwlght 1tl1ll1L r dos How does she use her Airedale 391 J 39 V 0 I I quot 39 1 I t L a Lonsrtler Ilcarnt s LoncCP 9 I Drmmrrer 139 39I39 lLquot It 5ei D quot1 I39D 39239 l39 quotT39 fl Equot C D 2 Ch 9J I1 l 51 Zquot 21 quot391 Q F O quot1 7 3 UQ r39 E F 5 1 I39 3939T393939 E quot39 on monoxicie and cvanide binding to their hemoglobin the p heaving and straining of their chemically paniclced hearts Cigarettes are a dis 39 39 re general paranoia that besets our culture the antill knowl 39edge of our bodies fragility in a world of molecular hazards The scare the v Because I39m capable of hating seven tall about cigars and because I smoked what I believed was m39 last ciga itehefirreghears ago and have never owned an astrtray it39s easy for me to tl1inllt of gnuself as nicotinefree But if the man who bears In39 name is not a smoker then wlr39 is there again a box fan for exliahst purposes in his livingroom win dow Whi39 at the end of ex39er39 worlltda is there a small collection of cigarette butts in the saucer on the table by this fan 39 39 almost every attribute of cigarettes let39s not t391I39IIi39G C1 t C39l 1OI S i 39 39I riglitsRei39iev 39 I 3 A the torum on anima Ncslrih 1 prtLpn11L1n f limits Hi 39l 5 mt Ri ms in 67quotI l 5 is quotlc lsirlii 1 mitm in iilmii like US A i39immIi39 1i1riitI e39irr1e is and Next39kirk39s defin c 0 1 e 1 Hcmm i5 fmly representing iCIlIi s Hen it ticI15 HI rminrul t39tamp lFi5 U at 153 I5 H quot399 3939 3939393939 quotquotquotquotquot quotquot quot 39 Ii Fiii2orrucilt A KING S 39 39 ls are put in quotisolation until they are from him er and thirst anima aln39d dlti 339lI1 or dig from dc lriir and terror animals are 512sl3l i d l0 Ctuslfltng r men in E 39 1 b an heir internal organs the 1111 5 0 forces that smash their bones and Irupturedt E bcmxlimal Ehaages animals are 39 5 39 139 9 nnals are mutilated or ainputatcc to pro It 1 h in n ht tl i thus of ltlZI39EI39l391Z pain and stress inflicted out of id as curios 3 re V C 39 quot l v animals s Cl10l1C msmsh experiments designed to make healt i P l 39 have consisteiitlv charac 39 Such irresponsible accusations of research crnc t r lo ists 1A H 39 39 a recent slLl b pSCl10 g lgn fid tile Pltiibiildi illiller oiiilllfddlrelieller Universitv c0U1 1 fE39TS H1953 aro inc oi i quotc g 39 quot clrirtes Coilc and Miller looked at even Mllcle 393 total bf 608i appeimngl in quot3quot ll i39l SOC39l3lt0I li39l l39 the past five years in toumals oi the Aineric in Pine io og ca 5 39 t t1 zrtreine allegations report animal researcli llC Ji1LlU1lE l thit none 0 its 6 made l the 39ill 39 could he supporter av have one unreported or P Code and Miller admit that charges olcriielt It I t inlv 1 1 1 fig but thcvsav it such studies did occur tic Cefa hem mpmm e 36 is i 3939 ii 39 l 39 tquot ttl ev are tviical of gto inip 13 1 i l r quot 39ladin were iiifrcqnerit and it iSquotltquotll39tquotllCl inis C experi1i39ieiital psvcliologv39 39 chanisnis to ensure that researc limihemiorel Wire are Sitlmi nlscli1diiiitiiicall39 sensilsld war These l nECl1339ii P quotquot39imdiS are Hemeiilinda hlulhiiiiiailnquotelf39ire ct of 1066 rmen39ded in Congress r 39 i v I 3939 c 39 39 39 7 msIm ImllCt 1 tle l El 9Lquot39r9l eriodic inspection of all animalresearcli l 1Cl1il8S in lqquotU39 I 1 am quot t P quot h d 39 iimal q 39 39 l federal a en ies that in 1 by the Department of griculture xisits E 8 39 onditions of animal care and ex researcli and are iiirreasingh attentne to the C 39 1 rel1eT1Si39t quot i3ltri39 lt 39 Iquot quot l quot quot L quotM Mia Piunrfi dIsiwsi iiiiiiiiiiiiiinpiciaaied bi I document quotGuide for thewClare and Lse of J Jttm Gill Wen Hmior scienmC the i atioiial Acadeniv of Sciences In addition itgtlltcir it fb mgs uidelines for Society whole 1 ihmnbcrSll0nduilt ailliiiililiismhiiiiiiitc l11li ilii S aifd researcli 6 such researc i ove ant gtevon i quot 39 h and care 0 39 t monitor animal researc c stitntes hare aniinalcare committees that The United States Public Health Service is revising its guiglelinesito reqfuz lii p i 39 3915 to desi nate even c carer mes o 39 msmuhond that do 1T E3illlI liIiilnhilif This iirill include detailed inforrna 9 th0filVquotc1 35P0 5 i quot 39 4 l 39 well asa 39 39 39 39 lies with the new regu 1110115 35 thou each institution comp mm lbw i t tli it uiiiiial research committees include not only the SupEIVlSlngr requireinei z c t d sonnet 39 39 t also a nonscientis an a p ialmmiori vCienmlmn39 and sciliilitlits bu l l111lllf ES will review Progfains for ani iliiliated with the institution iese cor I r tor all researc 1 pro 39 l ircilitics and l39Ct and H10 inal care inspect all aniina P b He ml 39 the United States u it 3 3 before they are suhriiitted to agencies 0 I pr P05 l5 H Owe to d15a rove or terminate Service lhe coinmittees will also hate 1C PP a any research proposal 39ll be occai339quot ts are erlect Then in quot5 is not to SJ that reseanli of abiise as is the case with ElI4quot39i sional errors cases of neglect ant in c g 696 well known Hence it is i search in beliavioral studie 0y Among these are the developnieiit of virtu c tectious diseases the invention of surgical p 11101165 and the testing of all new quot U well known than those of inedica application of psvcliological rese 3939ablv behind the applied use of havior although controlled b39 t P are much more difficult to desc ieorgan svsteins To describe the complex into 39i cognitive and emotion changes from inomerit quotdoped Since even a sin 39 ditterent forms a wide varictv of w tideveloped Finally because inucl from behavioral observations Jrvere needed to insure that ti not make the study of aniinal or human beh than other kinds of researc pw readiness for clinical applications 39iineiits in the interest of lninian wel back which had its origin instiidies ot bel 39cular activities in rats and other animals Biofeedbacl techniclues pain and as a method of jpiscoliosis a disabling and uuiiALs IN RESEZARCII human endeavor whether it be the rearing of children trade or protiession or the governing of a n inane treatment is maintained The choice of psvcliological rese stems from the fact that such researc studies of anatomv pliysiolog39 cliology is a less welldeveloped benefits that have accrued from the practicing of a ation But a high standard of hu arch for special attack almost certainlv h is vieived as more vulnerable th or niicrobiolog39 In the ini science than the biological psi cliological research with more difficult to grasp the nece 3 than it is in biomedical studies 39quottin39oiie39n39lio has looked into the matter can sc vances in medicine have been achieved through l an arc ncls of inani39 psy scicnccs and the aininals are less ssitv for animal rc arcclv den39 that major ad iasic research with aiiiinals ally all modern vaccines against in approaclics to eve disorders bone rise the discover39 of insulin and othe drugs and antibiotics The benefits to lniinans of psvcliological research with animals inav be less 1 research but are just as real lIistorically the arch to human problems has lagged coiisider medical researcli Meiital events and overt he he nervous s39steni and biology of an organism ribe and study than are the actions of tissues or rplav ol perceptions iiiemorics al processes with a plivsical and social environment that to moment elaborate researcli designs had to be devel gle type of beliavior such as vocalization lias so ltim l395 of measuring the differeiices had to be i psjvcliological research l39i1 lCS inferences about internal states at an organisin nietliods 19 interpretations were valid Such coinplexities do avior less scientific or important li but il1 do make it more difticiilt and slow its and joint injuries and heart dise r hor Basic psychological research with animals has led to important achieve tare Examples include the use of biofeed iavioral conditioning oi ncuromus Toda biofeedbaclc can be used to and help prevent heart attacks In the d to elevate blood pressure enabling have to spend their lives lying down to sit upright also are used in the reduction and control of severe iieuroinuscular control to help reverse the pr ocess of disfiguring curvature of the spine Biofee dbaclr can 69 lil u mc A KING A391iLs IN Rimsxncii their public posture leaves little room fo 39 a ing similar standards toaiiinial research Witluii the anirnalprotectionist movement there con dence in scientists as compassionate human beiii 39 slearch Flieir Ill113931397393iI1S are to insure that animals are treated liumanely and tiat discomfort in aniiral e39periineritation is kept to a iniiiiinuin lt is to this B group that scientists and scientitic organizations have the responsiliilitv to es D plain what they do 39l1 39 l39lCl how they do it and what benefits occur I believe that tl16quot39 tll S giiicliiig contemporary animal research represent prevailing sentiment witniii the scientihc eonimunity and indeed within soci ety at large And I believe that these values are congruent with those of the nioderates within the aiiiinalprotectionist iiiovement s articulated by ctliicist 5 Arthur Caplan rights in the most realistic sense are granted by one group to g another based on perceived similarities between the groups Plaiiilv aniinils lack those cliaracteristics that would allow them to share in the rights we grant p to humans We do not grant domestic aiiiiiials the right to go where they wish or do what tliey want because they are obviously unable to conipreliciid the re sponsibilities and deiiiands of human society hi fact we do not as 3 socieh even grant all domestic animals and pets the right to live Y ffhils does not mean liowever that we do not have a moral respoiisiliility to I v flltlna s I believe along with Caplan and the scientific researcli community at l arge that we hold amoral stewardship for annuals and that we are obliged to treat them with humane compassion and concern for their seiitieiice Minv ariiiiial forms can and do feel pain and are highly aware of their eiiviroiniieiit p This awareness makes them worthv of our respect and serious concern Caplan is CE39IlE1lll correct when he says that this moral obli39sation ought to be part of what it means to be a scientist today i also be a costeffccti39c alteriiative to certain inedical treatments and can helps3 avoid many of the complications associated with longterm drug Lise 139 Language studies with apes have led to practical riiethods of teaching lat39i guage skills to severely retarded children who prior to this 39J139l had little or39quot no language ability Patients who have undergone radiation therapy for cancer quot can now take an iiiterest in nutritious foods and avoid foods that have little nu Pm tritioiial alue thanks to studies of conditioned taste aversion done with aiii39 2 iiials Neiiiiil and beliavionil stiidies of early dei39elopiiieiit of vision in cats and priiiiatcs studies that could not have been carriel39 out with childreii have39 led to advances in pediatric ophtlialinology that caii prevent irreversible brain y damage and loss of vision in children who have cataracts and various other sequot 39 rious eye problems 39 A Behavioral niodificatioii and beliavioral tlicrapy widely accepted tech TU niqucs for treating alcohol drug and tobacco addiction have a long history of aiiiiiial studies iuvestigatiiig lciiriiiiig tlieorv and reward systems Prograiiiinedg instruction the applicatioii oflearning principles to cducatioiial tasks is based on an array of learning studies in animals These are but a few cxainples of the effectiveness and usefulness for liumans of psycliological research ivithf 39L iiuiinals r exainiiiing these subtleties or apply are moderates who have gs and in the value ot rc Tliose opposed to animal research have proposed that alternatives to aiiiinal research such as iuatlieinatical and computer models and tissue cultures bequoti used hi some cases these alternatives are both feasible and vahiable Tissue 0 P cultures for cxaiiiiple liave heeii very effective in certain toxicological studies39 ii that formerly required live animals For S39Cl39l0l0giC391l studies however it is l often necessary to studv the whole aiiiinal and its relationship to the environe nient Visual problciiis abiiormal se39ual l l39J t39lOl39 depression and aggression for C2t1tTtlC are not seen in tissue cultures and do not lend tlieinselves to comy r puter models hen liuiiian subjects cannot be used for such studies aninials are necessary if the rescarcli is to be done at all E39l39t39EI11lSl5 within the aniinalriglits movement take the position that aiiiinals 39 have rights equal to or greater than those of humans It follows from this that i even if humans might benefit from animal research the cost to animals is tooj JV Q I 1 I 39 ocience must proceed 39l he 0lEit quest lor lcnowlcdge is a treasured en terprise of our lieritage and culture Scientific inquiry into the riature of our quot39lii39iiig world has freed us from ieiioreiiice and superstitioii Sciciitific under gstandiiig is an expression of our highest capacities O ration ItlerPl39ell39 reasoning iiiiagiiiatioii and c P results ot basic research often conducted with no goal other than that of iri creased uiiderstaiidiiig the eveiitiial practical use of this lciiowleclge has led to a vastly improved wellbeing for lnimanlltind lstrciiiists in the aiiiiral rights movement pr0labl39 will ne iustitications for research or assurances of liiimane any actions no matter liow conscientious that s 39and morally reconciling the advance of huniaii welfare with the use of ani 39mals But fortunately there are many who while deeplv and appropriately concerned for the compassionate treatment of aiiiiiials recognize that huiiian welfare is and should be cur primary concern liigli lt is ironic that despite this moral position the same orgaiiiziitioiis conI tloiie ai39id indeed spousor activities that appear to violate the basic riglitsof39 aiiiinals to live and reproduce Eacli year lCLOOUiJUl dogs are destroyed ii39f3939 j public pounds animal shelters and liumaiie societies i39Ianv of tliese progranis L are supported and even operated by aniinalprotcctionist groups Surely there is a strong contradiction when those who profess to believe in animal rights deny u 39 animals their right to life A similar sitiiatioii exists with regard to programs ofLi pct sterili7atioii programs that deny animals the right to breed and to bear off spring and are sponsored in niaiiv cases by antivivisectioiiists and animalrights groups lvirlciitly animalriglits advocates sometimes T COgI l7 and subscribe W to the position that animals do not have the same I39lgl1lS as liuiiiaiis llim39ever those of oliectivc obser reativily Founded on the ver accept such treatments Thev may reject cientists take in realistically 698 699 t liztabetli l tiblcr Ross for this increasingly mechanical depersonalizcd approach our own defensive ness is this approach our own way to cope with and repress the anxieties that a terminally or critically ill patient evokes in us is our concentration on equip ment on blood pressure our desperate attempt to deny the impending death which is so frightening and discomforting to us that we displace all our knowl edge onto machines since they are less close to us than the suffering face of another human being which would remind us once more of our laclc of om nipotence our own limits and failures and last but not least perhaps our own mortality l A iIavbe the question has to be raised Are we becoming less human or more human it is clear that whatever the answer may be thepatient is suffering rnore not physically perhaps but emotionally And his needs have not changed over the centuries only our ability to gratify them QUESTIONS 1 Wliy does KiiblcrRoss describe the death of a tarmer What in e plaining such oldfashioned39 enstomsquot paragraph 16 2 To what extent is this essay explanatory Summarize a particular esplariation of hers that vou find intriguing Do you nd it persuasive 3 At what point in this essay does KiiblerRoss turn from esplanation toward argu ment Do you think she has taken a stancl on her subject How sympathetic are you to her position 39 L i i In paragraphs 2 and 10 KijblerRoss indicates a specialized audience for her writing Who is that audience and how do you relate to it 3 Think of the audience you described in question l as a primary audience and of yourself as a member of a secondary audience To what extent do the two audiences overlap How thoroughly can you divide one from the other g 6 hat experience otquot death have you had so t39ar3939v39 rite of a death that vou know somcthing about even if your relation to it is distant perhaps only through the media Can you locate elements of fear and anger in your own behavior or in the behavior of other persons involved Does KiililcrRoss39s interpretation of those reactions help vou come to terms with the experience 39 l 7 Wliat kind of balance do you think best between prolonging life and allowing a person to die with L39lignity What does the phrase quotdying with dignityquot mean 8 ll you were told you had a limited time to live how would that news change the way vou are living Or would it Offer an explanation for your position point is she making 328 393quot I I 39 399 OBEDIENCE AND DSISOBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY Stanley M ilgram Stanley Milgrom was born in llen York in l933 went to Queens College and Harvard University and at present is a professor of social psychology at the Graduate Center of the City University of New Yorlr The following exploitation of It39Iilgrorn39s experiment rst appeared in the professional journal Human Relations in 1963 and made him famous causing ct storm of controversy over his method of experi mentation and the results of his experiment Milgram has said of his vrorlr quotAs a social psychologist l look at the world not to master it in any practical sense but to under stand it and to communicate that understanding to others The situation in which one agent commands another to hurt a third turns up time and again as a signi cant theme in human relations It is powerfully expressed in the story of Abraham who is commanded by God to kill his son It is no accident the Kierlltegaard3 seeking to orient his thought to the central themes of human experience chose braham39s conflict as the springboard to his philosophy 39 War too moves forward on the triad of an authority which commands a person to destroy the enemy and perhaps all organized hostility may be viewed as a theme and variation on the three elements of authority esecutant and victim We describe an experimental program recently concluded at Yale This research was supported by two grants from the National Science Foundation NSF C l79l6 and NSF C24153 Exploratory studies carried out in I961 were Financed by a grant from the Higgins Funds of Yale University i am grateful to John 39139 39v39ilhanis lames lclonough and Emil Elges for the important part they played in the project 39l lianl s are due also to Alan Elms Iames Miller 39l39alzeto I lurata and Stephen Sticr for their aid as graduate assistants ly wife Sasha performed many valuable services Finally I owe a profound debt to the many persons in New Haven and Bridgeport who served as subjects 2S en Kierkegaard quot13131555 Danish philosopher and theologian iEdsl Consider for example i P Scott39s analysis of war in his monograph on aggression while the actions of l39rEy individuals in a war may he explained in terms otdircct stimulation to aggression vast numbers ofothcr people are involved simply by being part ofan organized society For example at the beginning of World War I an Kustrian archdukc was assassinated in 329 u Stanley lilgram University in which a particular expression of this conflict is studied by exper imental means In its most general form the problem mav be de ned thus if X tells Y to hurt Z under what conditions will Y carry out the command of X and under what conditions will he refuse In the more limited form possible in laboratory research the question becomes If an experimenter tells a subject to hurt another person under what conditions will the subject go along witl and under what conditions will he refuse to obey not so much a dilution of the general statement as the many particular forms this question may assum One aim of the research was to studv behavior i consequence to the participants for the psvcholog erful and lifelilze forms of the c diluted conditions This approach meant rst 1 this instruction The laboratory problem is one concrete expression of n a strongsituation of deep ical forces operative in pow onflict may not be brought into play under that we had a special obligation to protect the welfare and dignity of the persons who tool part in the study subjects were of necessity placed in a difficult predicament and steps had to betaken to ensure their wellbeing before they were discharged from the laboratory Toward this end a careful postexperimental treatment was devised and has been carried through for subjects in all conditionsquot39 TERMINOLOGY lf 391 follows the command of X we shall say that he has obeved X if he fails to carry out the command of X we shall say that he has disobeycd X The terms to obey and to disobey as used here refer to the subje39ctquots overt action only and carry no implication for the motive or experiential states accompa nying the action It consisted of an extended discussion with the experimenter and of equal iniportarrce a friendly reconciliation with the victim It is made clear that the victim did not 39 39 39 After the completion of the experimental series subjects were sent a detailed report of the results and full purposes of the experimental program A formal assessment of this procedure points to its overall effectiveness Of the subjects 837 percent indicated that they were glad to have taken part in the study l5l percent reported neutral feelings and l3 percent stated that they were sorry to have participated A large number of subjects spontaneously requested that tlrequot39 be used in further experimentation Four ftlis of the subjects felt that more experiments of this sort should be Carried out and 74 percent indicated that they had learned sometliing of personal irriportarice as a result of being in the study Fnrtliermore a university psychiatrist experienced in outpatient treatment interviewed a sample of cxpcriinentrl subjects with the aim of uncovering possible injurious effects resulting from participation No such effects were in evidence Indeed subjects typically felt that their participation was instructive and enriching more detailed discussion of this question can be found in 39lilgram t39l39iflj quot To obey andto diSttlJl 39 are not the only terms one could use in describing the critical action of Y One could say that T is cooperating with X or displays conformity witlircgard to X39s corn nrands However coofreration suggests that X agrees with Y39s ends and nndersta39rds the relationship 33930 uo I quotquotquot39 39 39 3939 391 3939mamacct 2 OBED1rNcr AND DISOBEDIENCE TO Aurnoarrv To be sure the everyday use of the word obedience is not entirely free from complexities It refers to action within widely varying situations and connotes diverse motives within those situations a child39s obedience differs from a soldier39s obedience or the loveihonor and obey of the marriage vow However a consistent behavioral relationship is indicated in most uses of the term in the act of obeying a person does what another person tells him to do Y obeys X if he carries out the prescription for action which X has addressed to him the term suggests moreover that some form of dominancesubordination or hi erarchical element is part of the situation in which the transaction between X and Y occurs T A subject who complies with the entire series of experimental commands will be termed an obedient subject one who at any point in the command series de es the experimenter will be called a disobedient or de ant subj rct As used in this report the terms refer only to the subject39s performance in the experiment and do not necessarily imply a general personality disposition to submit toor reject authority 39 SUBJECT POPULATION The subjects used in all experimental conditions were male adults residing in the greater New Haven and Bridgeport areas aged 20 to 50 years and engaged in a wide variety of occupations Each experimental condition described in this report employed 40 fresh subjects and was carefully balanced for age and oc cupational types The oceupational composition for each experiment was worl between his own behavior andthe attainment of those ends But the experimental procedure and in particular the experimenters command that the subject shocli the victim even in the absence of a response from the victim preclude such understandingquot Moreover cooperation implies status parity for the coacting agents and neglects the asymmetrical dominancesubordination clement prominent in the laboratory relationship between experimenter and subject Conformity Iias been used in other important contexts in social psvchologv and most frequently refers to imitating the judgments or actions of others when no explicit requirement for imitation has been made Fur thermore in the present study there are two sources of social pressure pressure from the experi menter issuing the commands and pressure from the victim to stop the punishment it is the pitting of a common man the 39iClll1 ai against an authority the expcriluentcrft that is the distinctive feature of the conflict At a point in the experiment the victim demands that he be let free The experimenter insists that the subject continue to administer shocks Which act of the subject can be interpreted as conformity The subject may conform to the wishes of his peer or to the wishes of the experi menter and conformity in one direction means the absence of conformity in the other Thus the word has no useful reference in this setting for the dual and conflicting social pressures cancel out its meaning quot quot in the nal analysis the linguistic syrnbol representing the subject39s action must take its meaning from the concrete context in which that action occurs and there is probably no word in everyday language that covers the experimental situation exactly without omissions or irrelevant connota tions It is partly for corivenience therefore that the terms obey and disobey are used to describe the subject39s actions it the same time our use of the words is highly congruent with dictionary meaning 331 Stanley Milgram ers skilled and unskilled 40 percent white collar sales business 40 percent professionals 20 percent The occupations were intersected with three age cat egories subjeets in 2039s 30 s and 4039s assigned to each condition in the pro portions of 30 40 and 40 percent respectivclv THE GENERAL l39I3ORATORY I ROCEDURE5 The focus of the studv concerns the amount of electric shock a subject is willing to administer to another person when ordered by an experimenter to give the victim393939 increasingly more severe punishment The act of administering shock is set in the context of a learning experiment os39tensiblv designed to study the effect of punishment on mcm subject and one accomplice perform in each session On arrival each subject is paid 4 50 After a general talk bv the experimenter telling how little scientists know about the effect of punishment on memory subjects are informed that one member of the pair will serve as teacher and one as learner A rigged drawing is held so that the naive subject is always the teacher and the accomplice becomes the learner The learner is taken to an adjacent room and strapped into an quotelectric chair 39 The naive subject is told that it is his task to teach the l associates to test him on the list and to administer punishment whenever the learner errs in the test Punishment takes the form of electric shock delivered to the learner by means of a shock generator controlled bv the naive subject The teacher is instructed to increase the intensitv of electric shock one step on the generator on each error The learner according to plan provides many wrong answers so that before long the naive subject must give him the strongest shock on the generator Increases in shock level are met by increasinglv insistent demands from the learner that the experiment be stopped because of the growing discomfort to him However in clear terms the experimenter orders the teacher to continue with the procedure in disregard of the learner s protests Thus the naive subject must resolve a conflict between two mutually incompatible demands from the social field He may continue to follow the orders of the experimenter and shock the learner with increasing severitv or he may refuse to follow the orders of the experimenter and heed the learner39spleas The experimenter39s au thority operates not in a free field but against evemnounting countervailing pressure from the person being punished A few technical points need to be considered before the ndings of the studv are described For the purpose of delivering shock a simulated shock generator earner a list of paired p more detailed account of the laboratorv procedure can be and mdependeritlv evolved experimental procedure emplovir learning task was reported by Buss rI96ll Buss used the tccl obedience and did not make use ofthe fundamental measure is off points found in Milgrani U963 A similar 1g 3 shock generator victim and miqne for studying aggression not mploved in the present study break uJ oJ NJ orv Aside from the experirncnter one naive 39 OBELEIENCE AND DISOBEDIENCE TO U39I39li0RI39I r39 is used with 30 clearly marked voltage levels that range from 15 to 450 volts Each level is activated by one of 30 individual lever switches set in a horizontal line The naive subject is given a sample shock of 45 volts to convince him of the authenticity39 of the instrument The generator bears verbal designations that range from Slight Shockquot to quotDanger Severe Shockquot The responsesof the victim are standardized on tape and each protest is coordinated to a particular voltage level on the shock generator Starting with 75 volts the learner begins to grunt and moan At 150 volts he demands to be let out of the experiment At 180 volts he cries out that he can no longer stand the pain At 300 volts he refuses to provide anv more answers to the memorv test insisting that he is no longer a participant in the experiment and must be freed In responseto this last tactic the experimenter instructs the naive subject to treat the absence of ananswer as equivalent to a wrong answer and to follow the usual shock procedure The experimenter reinforces his demand with the statement quotYou have no other choice you must go onquot This39imperative is used whenever the naive subject tries to break off the experiment If the subject refuses to give the next higher level of shock the experiment is considered at an end A quantitative value is assigned to the subject39s performance based on the rnaximumintensitv shock he administered before breaking off Thus anv subject39s score may range from zero for a subject unwilling to administer the first shock levelto 3039t39for a subject who proceeds to the highest voltage level on the boardquot For any particular subject and for any particular experimental condition the degree to which participants have followed the experimenters orders may be speci ed with a numerical value corresponding to the metric on the shock generator This laboratory situation gives us a framework in which to study the subject39s reactions to the principal conflict of the experiment Again this conflict is between the experimenters demands that he continue to administer the electric shock and the learner39s demands which become increasingly more insistent that the experiment be stopped The crux of the study is to vary systematically the factors believed to alter the degree of obedience to the experimental com mands to learn under what conditions submission to aiitlioritv is most probable and under what conditions de ance is brought to the fore PILOT STUDIES Pilot studies for the present research were completed in the winter of I960 thev differed from the regular experiments in a few details for one the victim was placed behind a silvered glass with the light balance on the glass such that 39 the victim could be dimly perceived by the subject tlilgram I961 Though esserviallv qualitative in treatment these studies pointed to several signi cant features of the experimental situation At rst no vocal feedback was used from the victim It was thought that the verbal and voltage designations 333 Stanley iklilgrarn on the control panel would create sufficient pr SStiIE39t0ftZLlttall the subject39s obedience However this was not the case In the absenc39e39 of protests from the learner virtiially all subjects once comnianded went bli tl i f l39 to the End gt ll board seeminglv indifferent to the verbal designations sxtrernlt Shock and quotDanger Severe Shoclrquot This deprived us of an adequate basis for sealing obedient tendencies A force had to be introduced that would strengthen the subjects resistance to the experirneritefs commands andreveal individual dif ferences in terms of a distribution of breakoff points I This force took the form of protests from the victim Initially mild protests were used but proved inadequate Siibseqiieritl more ve1hement protests were inserted into the experimental procedure To our consterriafzion even the strong est protests from the victim did not prevent all subjects trom administeriiig the harshest punishment ordered by the experimenter but the protests did lower the mean maximurn shock somewhat and created some spread in the subjects per formance therefore the victim39s cries were standardized 5i tape and incorpo rated into the regular experimental procedure LE The situation did more than highlight the technical difficulties 0ffi tttt1gcI worhabfe experirrieiitcit procedure lt indicated that subjectsivoiiid obey authority to a greater extent than we had supposed It also pointed to the importance of feedback from the victim in controlling the subjects behavior One further aspect of the pilot study was that subjects freqiientlv averted their eyes from the person they were shocking often turning their heads in an awl ward and conspicuous manner One subject explained I didii t want to see the consequences of what 1 had done Observers wrote subjects showed a reluctance to look at the victim whorn thcv could see through the glass in front of them When this fact was brought to their atteiitioi39i they indicated that it caused them discomfort to see the victim in again 391 HON liowever that although the subject refuses to look at the victini he continues to administer shocks T This siiggesterl that the salience of the victim may have in some degree 20 regulated the subject39s performance If in obevirig the experimenter the subject found it necessary to avoid scrutinv of the victim would the converse be true if the victim were rendered increasingly more salient to the subject would obedience diminish The first set of regular experiments was designed to answer this question ii 1iiroicr or THE 39icquotr iiv1 This series consisted of four experimental conditions in each Ctt1dltlI0l39Ik e victim was brought quotpsvchologicallv closer to the subject giving him 5 ion 5 In thc rst condition Remote f ccdback the 39iCtIlI139i393S placed in another 334 OBEDIENCE uio DtSOBEDIEi ce TO Au39i iioRi39i i39 room and could not be heard or seen by the subject except that at 300 volts he pounded on the wall in protest After 315 volts he no longer answered or was heard from A j The second condition Voice Feedback was identical to the first except that voice protests were introduced As in the first condition the victim was placed in an adjacent room but his complaints could be heard clearly through a door left slightly ajar and through the walls of the laboratorv7 The third experirnental condition fPl 0Xil39I llt i was similar to the second ex cept that the victim was now placed in the same room as the subject and IV feet from him Thus he was visible as well as audible and voice cues were provided The fourth and nal condition of this series TouchProximitvl was identical to the third with this exception The victim received a shock only when his hand rested on a shockplate At the 150volt level the victim again demanded to be let free and in this condition refusedto place his hand on the sliockplate The experimenter ordered the naive subject to force the victim39s hand onto the plate Thus obedience in this condition required that the subject have plivsical Contact with the victim in order to give him piinislimerit beyond the 150volt level Forty adult subjects werestudied in each condition The data revealed that obedience was signi cantly reduced as the victim was rendered more immediate 7It is difficult to convey on the printed page the fuli tenor of the victim39s responses for we have no adequate notation for vocal intensity timing and general qualities of delivcrv Yet these features are crucial to producing the effect of an increasingly severe reaction to niounting voltage levels They can be communicated fully only by sending interested parties the recorded tapes in general terms however the victim indicates no discomfort until the 75volt shock is administered at which time there is a light grunt in response to the punishrricnt Similar reactions follow the 90 and i05 volt shocks and at 120 volts the victim shouts to the experimenter that the shocks are becoming painful Painful groans are heard on administration of the 135volt shock and at 130 volts the victim cries out Eiperimenter get me out of here i won39t be in the experiment anv moretl refuse to go on Cries of this type continue with geiicrallv quotrising iriterisitjr so that at ltltl volts the victirn cries out I can39t stand the pain and by 270 volts his response to the shock is dctinitelv an agonized scream Throughout he insists that he be let out of the experiment t 300 volts the victim shouts in desperation that he wili no longer provide answers to the meniorv test and at 313 volts after a violent scream he reaffirms with veherrierice that he is no longer a participant From this point on he provides no answers but shrieks in agonv whenever a shock is adrninistered this continues through 430 volts Of course many subjects will have broken off before this point A revised and stronger set of protests was used in all experiments outside the PI39l titI1li39 series Naturally new baseline measures were established for all comparisons using the new set of pro tests There is overwhelmiiig evidence that the great majority of subjects both obedient and defiant accepted the victims39 reactions as genuine The evidence takes the form of at tension created in ttieisiibiects see discussion of tension bi scores on quotestimatedpainquot scales Filled out by subjects immediately after the experiment quotct subjects accounts of their feelings in postexpcriirieritat in tcrvicws and ti quanti abic responses to questionnaires distributed to subjects several months after their participation in the experiments This matter will be treated fully in a fortlicoming monograph The procedure in all experimental conditions was to have the naive subject announce the voltage level before administering each shock so that indepenrlentlv of the victim39s responses he was coiitiiiually reminded of delivering punishment of everincreasing severit39l 335 Ix u I Stanley Milgranl to the subject The mean maximum shock for the conditions IS Sl10391 1 Fi me I 39 e g xpre scd in terms of the proportion of 0l39Cll lI39lt to dtinatI21rtt1liJICt15 ft ndings are that 34 percent of the srtlitects dehid gee cxfcegt inPmximm39 and mote condition 3715 percentgtm Voice Peedbac per 70 ercent in out 1 rotonn lpow are we to account for this effect A hrst cort139 C39tUTe t hquotiIlt 3Il Efftll139 victim was broliglll CIUSET the Sublfict became more 0 fire 0 k C ense But our suffering and regulated his behavior accordrriglv quot1 us ma esi emdifferenCes evidence does not support the interpretation There reno cons sthe amount of in the attributed level of pain across the four C1C3tllll1tllaEa expressed on 3 pain experienced bv the victim as estimated by tile su P schanisms Hpoint scale But it is easy to speculate about a terna ue n hquot l tl Remote and to a lesser extent the Voice Feedback condi Fmpat re cues it re 39 39 3939 b t rahtv for the su tect He is aware but only in a conceptual sense ta h tl e fact is apprehended but not felt The phenornenon is common enoug person 1 i 39 30 quot39 O r I F U O L m X E I 3 E 20 X 5 E C 0 1 Q E 15 quotquot39 0 1 1 1 39 Ftemote Voice Proximity Touch feedback proximity tncreasingproximity 39 A T Experimental condliiotts FIGURE l Mean maima in proximity sEl39l S 336 27 29 the stress of the executioner in short OBEDIENCE AND DISOBEIDIEZNCE TO AU I HOttI39lquot1 The bombardier can reasonably suppose that his weapons will inflict suffering and death yet this knowledge is divested of affect and does not move him to a felt emotional response to the suffering resulting from his actions Similar observations have been made in wartime It is possible that the visual cries associated with the victim39s suffering trigger empathic responses in the subject and provide him with a more complete grasp of the victim39s experience Or it is possible that the empathic responses are thernselves unpleasant possessing drive properties which cause the subject to terminate the arousal situation Diminishing obedience then would be explained by the enrichment of empathic cues in the successive experimental conditions Denial and narrowing of the cognitive field The Remote condition allows a nar rowing of the cognitive Field so that the victim is put out of mind no longer considers the act of depressing a lever relev it is no longer associated with the victim39s suffering is more difficult to exclude him phenomenologicallv the subject39s awareness since he is continuouslv visible his existence and reactioris are made lmown only after the shock has been admin istered The auditory feedback is sporadic and discontinuous in the Prosirrritv conditions his inclusion in the immediate visual field renders him 1 continuouslv salient element for the subject The mechanism of denial can no longer he brought into play One subject in the Remote condition said quotit39s funny how vou really begin to forget that there39s a guv out there even though you can hear him For a long time I just concentrated on pressing the switches and reading the ivordsquot The subject ant to moral iudgrncnt for quotlien the victim is close it He necessarily intrudcs on ln the Remote condition Reciprocal elds If in the Provimitv condition the subject is in an improved position to observe the victim the reverse is also true The now come under proximal scrutiny bv the victim Possibly person when he is unable to observe our actions than when are doing His surveillance of the action directed against hi shame or guilt which may then serve to curtail the action language refer to the discomfort or inhibitions that arise in tation It is often said that it is easier to criticize a man quotattaclt him to his facequot lfwe are in the actions of the subject it is easier to harm a he can see what we in rnav give rise to il1n39 expressions of facetoface confron quotbehiud his backquot than to process of lving to a person it is reputedly clifftcult to quotstare him in the eyequot We quotturn awav from others in shamequot or in quotembarrassmentquot and this action serves to reduce our discomfort The manifest function of allowing the victim of a firing squad to be blindfolded is to make the occasion less stressful for him but it may also serve a latent function of reducing in the Prmrimitv conditions the subject aiicnt in the victim39s held of aivarcncss 5 embarrassed and inliibitcd in his pun rnay sense that he has become more 5 Possibly he becomes more selfconsciou ishment of the victim Phenomenal unityof act in the Remote condition it is more dif cult for the subject to gain a sense of refatedness between his own actions and the consequences of these actions for the victim There is a physical and spatial separation of the act and its consequences The subject depresses a lever in one room and protests and cries are heard from another The two events are in correlation vct thcv lack 337 J IJ 3 Stanley ililgram ful act l am a compelling phenoiiienological uiiiti The structurlc of a iriarIg in a manner hurting a manbreaks down because of the spatia arrange r 1 k somewhat analogous to the disappearance of phi phenomena when the b in ins W 39 39 th P 39niitj39 lights are spaced too far apart 1 iie unit is more full riclitlew3d ts hini ES it is Condition as the victim is brouglit closer to the action lta Cttrlse l3 39 rendered complete in TouchProximity incipient group formation Placing the victim in another room not only takeshirliii further from the subject but the subject and the E3ltl39 m9 t T 31395 draw Tclal eh closer There is incipient group formation between the ef P9quotm 3 t39f dd ihe subject from which the victim is excluded quotI he wall betweenthe iictim akin l If others deprives him of an intimacy whiclt ll t quot3 P5 e t f gmd Sublecth J Hquot the Remote condition the victim is trtil39 an outsider wlio stands alone P 35 and svcholo icallv Vlilien il1eg l ill39l1 is placed close to the subject it bccoiiics easier tt0 fft Jfl13t391 alliance with him against the experimenter 395Ul1I Ct5 quot0 l F BquotTd ff 0 C nab experimenter alone They have an all Who 18 Cl0SE at halidl an cage tti t3ma orate in a revolt against the experimenter Thus the clianging Set I0 P3 ma tjgng leads to a potentially shifting set of alliances over thesevera experiine conditions Acqiiired beiiavior dispositions It is C0mtIl0lll39 observed that laboratory ngicc rarely Fight witii their litter mates Scott 1938 explains this in terms 0 P1W l inhibition He writes quotBv doing nothing under circunistanccs jthe aiiimlgrl learns to do nothing and this may be spoken of itspassuc tnitlllil0I tf ftr list principle has great importance in teaching an individual to be P f r Em means that he can learn not to fight simplv v not Fighting 3 Ii11l39lff39 rift thirs learn not to harm others simply bv not liarmiiig them in ECt39 aid l l 39 I 3 t be learning occurs in a context of proximal relations with oth rs an iniaif 1139 Us generalized to that situation in winch the person is Pll5 C1 V39 39 3 0 Clos 0 possibly in the past aggressive actions against others who were p 15sica F C resulted in retaliatory punishment winch cxtingiiished the origiria Olin 0 d sponsc In contrast aggression against Others at 3 tlIstancemai 1cllEll1 spo We icallv led to retaliation Thus the organism learns that it is safer to C 3 S39ef5h toward others at a distance and precarious to be so 39vl1 l1lil 3 Pail lie 39ld39 arm39s reach Through a pattern of rewards and punisiiment lt d3CqU 3t5e m 39l position to avoid aggression at close quarters a disposition re 1 ocstn 5 dm 5 to harming others at a distance ind this mayquot account f0 e P quotquot 3 3 in the remote and proximal eperirnCI1tS g 39 tion holo ical research has ieeen ed far less atten Proxiiitit as a E1Tl3ll in psyc 8 than it dcscmm f men were sessile it would be easy tounderstand this neglect But we move about our spatial relations shift from one situaitiriri at ttllic ra E CC 0 and the fact that we are near or remote may hate gp0 T U 5 39 39 39 39 s are quotphi phenomena the optical impression of mcztiizjn generated lien Similar 5l3l0 3T l3l5Cl presented one after another at a certain ntrrval IE s sessile pCl39l1 I2TiCTIll attached lFds 338 34 36 OBEDIENCE AND DISOBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY psychological processes that mediate our behavior toward others In the present situation as the victim is brought closer to the subject ordered to give him shocks increasing numbers of subjects break off the experiment refusing to obey The concrete visible and proximal presence of the victim acts in an irnporltant way to counteract the experimenler39s power to generate disobedi O ericc CLOSENESS OF AUTHORITY If the spatial relationship of the subject and victim is relevant to the degree of obedience vvoulcl not the relationship of subject to experimenter also play a part There are reasons to feel that on arrival the subject is oriented primarilv to the experimenter rather than to the victim He has come to the laboratory to fit into the structure that the experimentcr not the victim would provide He has come less to understand his behavior than to reveal that behavior to a competent scientist and he is willing to display himself as the scientist s purposes require Most subjects seem quite concerned about the appearance they are making before the experimenter and one could argue that this preoccupation in a relatively new and strange setting makes the subject somewhat inserisitive to the triadic nature of the social situation In other words the subject is so concerned about the show he is putting on for the experimenter that influences fromother parts of the social eld do not receive as much weight as they ordinarily would This overdetermined orieritation to the experimenter would account for the relative insensitivity of the subject to the victim and would also lead us to believe that alterations in the relationship between subject and ex perimenter would have important consequences for obedience in a series of experiments we varied the physical closeness and degree of surveillance of the experimenter In one condition the experimenter sat just a few feet away from the subject iii a second condition after giving initial iii structions the experirnenter left the laboratory and gave his orders by tele phone In still a thirdquot condition the experimenter was never seen providing instructions by means of a tape recording activated when the subjects entered the laboratory Obedience dropped sharply as the experimenter was pliysicallv rcriioved from IDl dmittedo the terms proximity immediacy closeness and salienceofthei39ietim are used in a39loos39e sense and the experiments themselves represent a verv coarse treatment of the variable Further experiments are needed to refine the notion and tea distance visibility audibility barrier iiitcrpositioii etc The Proximity and TOUf l lPl39U llquotl39lll3939 experiments were the only conditions where we were unable to use taped feedback from the victim Instead the victini was trained to respond in these conditions as he had in Experinieiit 2 which employed taped feedback Sonic illiproicnicnl is possible here for it should be tcclinically feasible to do a proximity series rising taped fccclback sc out such diverse factors as spatial 339 39 ill Stanley Milgram the laboratory The number of obedient subjects in the rst C0ndcllilOIlh E39xp f imenter Present was almost three times asrgreat as in the secon i re be espcrimenter 33quot his Tdlt T5 bi t l Pll0 39 I 39entlf395lx sublecis ere bi do t dient in the first condition and only ninenin the second lChi square 0 pl 11 vs de ant in the two conditions df H P P lt OQuit Subtccis seem a te to take a far stronger stand against the experimenter when they did n0 tI1380 encounter him face to face and the experimenter s power over the 511 lcct quot5 severely curtailed Moreover when the experimenter was absent siibjects displayed an inter esting form of behavior that had not occurred under his surveillance Thong continuing with the experiment several subjects adiiiiiiistercd lower shocks thpn were required and never informed the experinieiiter of their lE tailor from t e correct procedure Unknown to the subjects shock levels were autoinatipa recorded by an EsterlineAngus event recorder wired directly into the Is UCP generator the instrument provided us with an objective record of tliefsuliliecls performance indeed in telephone conversations some subjects speeiicquot1 539 fits sured the experimenter that they were raising the shock level a39 0it39Cltl1g t0 I striiction whereas in fact they were repeatedly using the lowest 5 ice ont e board This form of behavior is particularly interesting although these subjects acted in a way that clearly underniined the avowed purposes of the experinient they found it easier to handle the con ict in this rnanner than to precipitate an open break with authority b Other conditions were completed in which the experimenter was 3 Sint during the first segment of the experiment but reappeared at the point tlat the subject de nitely refused to give higher shocks when Commandcd if 939 phone Although he had exliausted his power yia teleplione the experlnlgltief could frequently force further obedience when he39 reappeared in the la ora t0T39 lilsperinicnts in this series show that the physical presence of an authority is an important force contributing to the subject39s Ol il l391CE or de ance Taken together with the first experimental series on il1EIp t39Ott t39lti 39 of the victim It would appear that soniething akin to elds of force dnninishiiig in effectiveness with increasing psychological distance from their source have a controlling effect on the SlllCCi 5 performance As the iictnn is brought closer the subjer finds it harder to administer shocks to him When tlieyictini39s position is held constant relative to the subject and the authority is made more remote the r 39 39 t 1 39 subject finds it easier to break off the experimentThis effect is substan 13 In both cases but rrianipulation of the etspcrimente s position yielded the more powerful results Obedience to destructiye commands is highly dependent 0 the proximal relations between autliorityand subject quotThe third condition also led to significaiitly lower obedience than this first situatiiiitiliii which 39 1 s e iscussion the C i pL39flm39ttlET was present but it contains technical dittrcultes that require es en l 340 3 ti OBEDIENCEZ ND DISOIBEDIENCE TO Au39i39noam39 TENSIONS i The description of Final scores does not fully convey the character of the subjects performance and it would be useful to interrupt our reporting of 39 quantitatiie izelationships to remark on the sub jects39 general reaction to the situation 39 One might suppose that a subject would simply break off or continue as his conscience and temperament dictated Yet this is very far from what happened There were powerful reactions of tension and emotional strain in a substantial proportion of the participants Persons were observed to sweat tremble stutter bite their lips andgroaii as they found themselves increasingly implicated in the experimental conflict Some sense of the subjects mood can he found in a transcript of their remarks at breakoff point Here are the remarks of two de ant subjects is he banging 39 is he hurt out there quotell I don39t want to be responsible for anything that happens to him No i can39t go on with it I don39t know whether he s all right or not I mean he may have a heart condition or soinethirig I wouldn39t feel right doing it He39s banging for help He39s e39ideiitlv in trouble or he wouldn39t bang I don39t see any sense to this to knoekin can39t see it Subject refuses to administer shocks g him out or something I just Subject 0103 The man is banging He wants to get out l39rn sorry lf the man wants to get out l39d just as soon stop I don39t want to administer any more extremely excited I will gladly refund the check but I will not harm this man I39m sorry I will not give him any more if he obviously wants to get out There is no money in the world that will make me hurt another individual Subject 0l039 H And here is a transcript from an obedient subject He began the eirpcrirrient is calmly but became increasingly tense as the experiment proceeded After ad ministering the 150volt shock he began to address the experimenter in agitated tones 150 volts delivered You want me to keep going I65 volts delivered That guy is hollering in there There39s a lot of them here He39s liable to have heart condition You want me to go 180 volts delivered He can stand it I39m not going to kill that man in the hear him hollering He39s hollerin to him re You g He can39t stand it What if sonietliing happens I39m not going to get that man sick in there He39s hollering in there You know what I mean I mean i refuse to take responsibility He39s getting hurt in there He39s in there hollering Too many left here Ceez ifhe gets them wrong There39s too many of them left I mean who is going to take responsibility it anything happens to that gentleman The experimenter accepts responsibility All right 3it Stanley Milgram 195 volts delivered You see he39s hollering Hear that Gee I c on39t know The experimenter says The experiment requires that you go onf l know it does sir but i inean hugh lie don39t know what hc s in for He39s up to 195 volts 210 volts delivered I 39 223 volts delivered 240 volts delivered iw no You mean I39ve got to keep going up with the scale No sir I39m not going to kill that man I39m not going to giietiirri 450 volts The experimenter says The experiment requires that you go on l l know it does but that man is hollering there sir Despite his numerous agitated objections ivhich were constant accompani ments to his actions the subject iiiifailiiiglv obeyed the experiinenter proceed ing to the highest shock level on the generator He displayed a curious disso ciation between word and action Althougli at the verbal level he had resolved not to go on his actions were fully in accord with the experimenters commands This subject did not want to shock the victim and he found it an extremely disagreeable task but he was unable to invent a response that would free him from E39s autlioritv vianv subjects cannot nd the speci c verbal formula that would enable them to reject the role assigned to them bi39 the experimenter Perhaps our culture does not provide adequate models for disobedience One puzzling sign of tension was the regular oecurrence of nervous laughing ts hi the First four conditions quot71 of the 160 subjects showed de nite signs of nervous laughter and smiling The laughter seemed entirely out of place even bizarre Fullblown uncontrollable seizures were observed for 13 of these sub jccts On one occasion we observed a seizure so violently convulsive that it was necessary to call a halt to the experiment hi the postexperimental interviews subjects took pains to point out that they were not sadistic types and that the laughter did not mean they enjoyed shocking the victim T in the interview following the experiment subjects wereasked to indicate on a 14point scale just how nervous or tense they felt at the point of maximum tension Figure 2 The scale ranged from not at all tense and nervousquot to quotextremely tense and nervousquot Selfreports of this sort are of limited precision and at best provide onlv a rough indication of the subject39s emotional response Still taking the reports for what they are worth it can be seen that the distri bution of responses spans the entire range of the scale with the rnajoritv of subjects concentrated at the center and upper extrerncA further breakdown showed that obedient subjects reported themselves as liaving been slightlv more tense and nervous than the de ant subjects at the point of I39l39aXll39i39tUIT tension How is the occurrence of tension to be interpreted First it points to the presence of conflict If a tciidencv to comply with aiitlioritv were the only pS Cl1JlglC1l force operating in the situation all subjects quotwould have continued to the end and there would have been no tension 39l ensioi it is assumed results i from the siiriultaneous presence of two or rriorc incompatible response ten deiicics l ilill T 19 tt lfsvmpathetic concern for the xicririi were the exclusive 342 13 49 v OBEDIEbiC 39E AND DISOBEDIENCE TO AU39l ttORl39t Y N 137 25 U E 2 ID 15 quotquotquot 395 39 E 4 10 E 3 I Z 5 39 0 T l I l Not at an M d939a19lY Extreme tense and nervous tense and nervous tense and neryvous Level of tension and nervousness reported by subject 7 39 L ass 13939i s quots S quot Values ranging from not at a tense a tp 39leIS tll iccts ueiricgiieii a scale 1ll39I if The were instructed quotThinking back to that oinst 39 Dtl enter tense and emuls most tense and nervous ind t l p In 1e clpenmeqt hen mu f llllquotquot quot ica e just ion you felt by placing an at the appropriate point on thescale The results are shown in terms of midpoint values force all subjects would have calmly were both obedient and de ant outcon tension A conflict develops between harm others and the equallv cornpelli authority The subject is quicklv draw character and the presence of high te of each of the antagonistic vectors Moreover tension de nes the s de ed the experimenter Instead tlierr res frcqueiitlv accompanied by extreme the deeply ingrained disposition not to Hg tendency to obey others who are in irinto a dilemma of a deeply clviiainic nsion points to the considerable streiigtli b trcngth of the aversive state from which the su ject is unable to escape through disobedience Wheii a person is uncom fortable tense or stressed he tries to take some action that will allow him to terminate this unpleasant state Thus tension mav serve as a drive that loads v 39 39 e o escape behavior But in th I e present situation even where tension is extrcnic lI nr llglfl1SrrI Iirgallzelc to perform tl2ie response that will bringabout clj f eludes activation of the dzis tljetliiiiiflg smc tejfciienclquot or mhlbm0n lha39tprC39 factor must be of greater ma nitud Hfliponi e str ng 1 of this mhibmng terminating act would occur fvervv dan B ShBS5 Penaneed or else the i encc of estrerne tension is at the 343 SEHTIC Stanle39 Milgram time an indication of the strength of the forces that keep the subject in the situation Finallv tension inav be taken as evidence of the reality of the situations for the subjects Normal subjects do not tremble and sweat unless thev are impli cated in a deep and genuinely felt predicament BACKGROUND iunioarrv In psi39clioph339sics animal learning and other braiiclies of psvcliology the fact that measures are obtained at one institution rather than another is irrelevant to the interpretation of the findings so long as the technical facilities for measurement are adequate and the operations are carried out with competence But it cannot be assumed that this holds true for the present study The effectiveness of tlieiexperirnentefs commands may depend in an important way on the larger institutional context in which they are issued The experiments described thus far were conducted at Yale University an organization which most subjects regarded with respect and sometimes awe In postexperimental interviews several participants remarked that the locate and sponsorship of the study gave them con dence in the integritja competence and benign purposes of the personnel rnanv indicated that tliey would not have shocked the learner if the experiments had been done elsewhere This issue of background authoritv seemed to us important for an interpre tation of the results that had been obtained thus far moreover itis highly relevant to any comprehensive theory of human obedience Consider for example how closely our compliance with the imperatives of others is tied to particular insti tutions and locales in our day toda activities On request we expose our throats to a man with a razor blade in the barber shop but would not do so in a shoe store in the latter setting we willinglv follow the clerlfs requestto stand in our stockinged feet but resist the command in a bank In the laboratory of a great university subjects may complv with a set of Commands thatwould be resisted if given elsewhere One must alivavs question the relationship of obedience to a person39s sense of the context in which he is operating To explore the problem we moved our apparatus to an office building in industrial Bridgeport and replicated experimental conditions without any visible tie to the university 39 Bridgeport siibiects were invited to the experiment through a mail circular similar to the one used in the Yale study with appropriate changes in letterhead etc As in the earlier study subjects were paid 450 for coming to the labo ratorv The same age and occupational distributionsused at Yale and the iden tical personnel were ernploved The purpose in relocating in Bridgeport was to assure a complete dissociation from Yale and in this regard we were full39 successful On the surface the studv 34 BI VI OBEDIENCE AND DISOBEDIENCE To Mij ORIY appeared to be condu of uriknow study The experiments were conducted in a threeroom ofhce suite in 1 s I i rundown 39 Omciida I 3 urnis e tiougi clean and marginally respectable in appearance Vi hen subjects inquired about professional af liations tl 39 informed only that we were a private rm conducting research fo 39 dict CK S0meSube t d I I 39 I r in us rv I C 5 tsp a ed slepticism concerning the motives of the Bridgeport experimenter One gentleman gave us 3 Written 3020 39 int of the the I t I experienced at the control board mg I S 10 39ted by Research Associates of Bridgeport an organization n character the title had been concocted ClClllSi E l for use in this i hShpuld I quit this damn test Ilavlc I CC 39 t I m Bureau Ihamedpa lest te c0111 of called the I olice up or the Better Business n oriig t How do I know that Mr Williams the ex peLrimenter is telling the truth I wish I knew how manv volts 3 person Lmid ta e before lapsing into unconsciousness I r 39 39 Subject 7ll39 I re passed out Wliat dopes we were not Another subject stated I questioned on mviarrival niv own the legitimacy of the operation and t a heartless wasquot to conduct memori certainly dangerous without the pres judgriient about coming I had doubts as to he coiiseqiiciices of participation I felt it was or learning processes on hiiniaii beings and ence ofa medical doctor Subjed 24t39i A gilgilfre ilas no noticeable reduction in tension for the n e su jects estimation oftlie amount of pain felt by tli th 8fl1I1Ot slgni caiitli39 higher than in the Yale study at ure to obtain complete obedience in Brid extreme compliance found in New Haven sulije ground authority of Yale Universitv if a large proportion of the ttlfcct mained fully obedient verv different conclusions would be called if I S Li Asitt it til quot reduced 1253 nstusigl Egclzeti l olf OICItltnCE 11 Brlgdgeport although sornewliat 1 I v ower an t at o tained at Yale A l portion of the Bridgeport subjects were fullv obedient to the expcrfhisriiiiq commands 3948 39 39 I 39 I 5 versus 65 ElrcepfCef of the B dEeP0Ti 3Ul3IEets I ltCICCI the maxirnuni shock H0 P th I1 l n die corregponding condition at Yale 39 are ese ii ings to e interpreted It is possible that quotf a potentially harmful or destructive sort are to be perceived asilegiiiiiiifiii must occu quotth39 I study that Fit rim C15 Iigpi esort oftiiisptiitioiial structure But it is clear from the TheB dgep0rt ex em rt par icu ar v reputable or distiiiguislied institution am Credentials thin labnents were conducted by an uninipressivc rm lacking title listed in the b rim Ocii M T P 1quot 3 r 5 e t lquot 39 quotW9 l 39 8 39 l benevolence or Comuil ing Iirector39 Bevond that there was no evidence of peence t is possible that the category of institution judged 345 Bridgeport subjects is victim was sliglitlv geport would indicate that the cts was tied closely to thebacllt iii Stanley ililgram 100 Obtained behavior 80 50 Predicted behavior 40 39 b d39ent Percentage of sublecis 5 quot 0 e 39 1iiiliiT quot39ll l 20 064 0125 s l V i 5 i I i i i 0 iiiiliiiili1JLliiiilii1i25 30 o 5 D 15 2E 450 ncreaSmQ wensquot Vans Shocktevel 39 i 39 feedbaclc d obtained behavior in volc Jung 3 Predicted an tl CS in vacuo This tion that focuses on mo mmanls of lmmallgl acmlnlld Cilmcepte for the repair of bruised impulses as re tire y a equa 39 orientation ma c 811 t mm to acne In H 39 r b t as soon as our interes i vealed on the psficliiatrists coucih Std to the Situations in which memes are 39 i larger mugs attcmmn mtust N p ortant press on the individual it exercises tion cxer s an imp 39 h esprcssed A situa was It 5 not so muc dc push in certain circums a constraints and ma pron 1 l C is laced that 39 kind of situation in w iii 1 I P i the kind of persona man Is 35 ii determines his 3 il0i39S I 1 about thc eVperiment Claim that subjects Mam people not 39nowing nine 1 f Sh than 39 39 39 39 thing could be more 00 the board are sadistic IVU who go to the end of Hut 3 EN thmun 39 ersons It is liLe saying a P 311 0quotL39T39 ll Cl quot3Lleruallon Ollllclm Esargjt 3 fast swiinnier or that he has great into 3 SmtHU g stream is I1 jquot rem3 to the banlc The context of action Stamina because he mdmcs1SO39Illdpl39 lillllal upon entering the laboratorv lJC39 39 391 quot 7 39 I must ElW3quot5 bc 50 cm quot3 391 e itum The sulaiect s 39 39tuatioii that carries its own inom 1 comes integrated into a s1 l h IS mmmg 39 r d from a situation 11C lien is how to become disengage problem t 39 j in an altogether ugh ltl39CCiIOf1 dfFwt tcsti cs to the ptmcv of the forces 391 he fact that ltSlt l1gagCInLlt is so i I t hzed L to be conccp ua 39 he control board Arr tliescquotC95 that keep the subject at t 1 t d amlcs or of E t395Ul39Il I 3n as individual motives and expressed in the language 1 348 OBEDIEJNCE AND DISOBEDIENCE TO iuTHoiiiTi39 are they to be scerias the effe the situational eld A full understanding of the subiecfs action will I feel perspectives be adopted The person brings to the lab tions toward authority and aggression and at the sa 39 39 meshed in a social structure that is noless an objective fact of the case from the standpoint of personality theory one may aslc Wliat mechanisms of person ality enable a person totransfer responsibility to authority What are the motives underlying obedient and disobedient performance Does orientation to authority lead to a shortcircuiting of the shameguilt system Wliat cognitive and emo tional defenses are brought into play in the case of obedient and de ant subjects The present experiments are not howcv er directed toward an exploration of the motives engaged when the subject obeys the cxperimentcr39s commands Instead they examine the situational variables responsible for the elicitation of obedience Elsewhere we have attempted to spell out some of the structural properties of the experimental situation that account for high obedience and this analysis need not be repeated here 39iIilgram 1963 The experimental variations themselves represent our attempt to probe that structure by syste matically changing it and noting the consequences for behavior It is clear that cts of social structure and pressures arising from require that both ituations producing the greatest powerful yet perhaps the most nted bv the setting Or they may of motivesin their service But obedience could dose by triggering the most idiosyncratic of motives in each subject confro simply recruit a greater number and variety whatever the motives inyolv39ed arid it is far from certain that they can ever be known action may be studied as a direct function of the situation in which it occurs This has been the approach of the present study where we sought to plot behavioral regularities against manipulated properties of the social eld Ultimately social psychology would like to have a tions which will rst present a language in terms de ned proceed to a typology of situations and th which de nable properties of situations are transform in the iridiv39idualquot en point to the manner in ed into psychological forces POSTSCRIPT Almost a thousand adults W ere iridiyiduallv studied in the obedience research and there were many speci c conclusions regarding the variables that control ilk39ly thaniis to Professi Irioward Leventhal of tale for strcngtlicning the writing in this para graph 3i9 IJI Stanley M ilgram obedience and disobedience to authority Some of thesequot have been discussed briefly in the preceding sections and more detailed reports will be released subsequently There are now some other generalizations I should like to make which do not derive in any strictly logical fashion from the cirperirnents as carried out but which I feel ought to be made They are formulations of an intuitive sort that liavc been forced on me by observation of many subiects responding to the pressures of autliority The assertions represent a painfulalteration in my own tliiirkirig and since they were acquired only under the repeated impact of direct observation I have no illusion that they will be generalliy accepted by persons who have not had the same experience l With numbing regularity good people were seen to llt39titUClltlC under the de mands of authority and perform actions that were callous and severe Men who are in evervdav life responsible and decent were seduced by the trappings of authority by the control of their perceptions and b39ithe uncritical accept ance of the erperiincntcr39s de nition of the situation into performing harsh acts i 39 Wliat is the limit of such obedience At many points rive attempted to establish a boundary Cries from the victim were inserted not good enough The victim claimed heart trouble subjects still shocked him on ctirnmand The victim pleaded that he be let free and his answers no longer registered on the signal box subiects continued to shock him At the outset ive had not conceived that such drastic procedures would be needed to generate disobedience and each step was added only as the ineffectiveness of the earlier techniques became clear The Final effort to establish a limit was the TouchProxirriity condition But the very rst subject in this condition subdued the victim on command and pro ceeded to the highest shock level A quarter of the subjects in this condition performed similarly i if The results as seen and felt in the laboratory are to this author disturbing They raise the possibility that human nature or more speci cally the kind of character produced in American democratic society cannot be counted on to insulate its citizens from brutality and inhumane treatment at the direction of malevolent autliority A substantial proportion of people do what they are told to do irrespective of the content of the act and without lifiiitatioris ofconscience so long as they perceive that the command comes from a legitimate authority if in this study an anonymous experimenter could successfiillv command adults to subdue a ftyyearold man and force on him painful electric shocks against his protests one can only wonder what government ivith its vastly greater authority and prestige can command of its subjects There is of course the extremely important question of ivhetlier malevolent political institutions could or would arise in Arncricari society The present research contributes nothing to this issue 39 350 if 78 79 S0 OBEDIENCE AND DisoBEoiENcE T0 Ain39iioigtn39v In an article titled quotThe Danger of Obedience quot Harold I L k t 3 as i wro e civilization means above all an 39H39 Within the ambit of that de ni on unui ingness to in ict unnecessary Pam the f mands of authority cannot vet Claim to I ivi1lliSz tFihntr ll SSl accept the corn Our business if we desir 39 39 3 e 0 I r 0 9 39 39 iv a life not utterly dei oid of meaning and 5i i C3quotC 15 10 3CC P1 nothing which contradicts our basic e 39 xperrence mere v because it comes to us from tradition 39 or convention or authority It I that we shall be ivron 39 b 39 quot may C I be g in our selfex res certainties we are asked to accept Coincige rtiiltgl t tclicgrtartettl at the root unless the 39 31quot H35 We experience Th t 5 hi the condition of freedom in a a in state is ahvavs a wider d d 39 ska t prca an consistent P mm F the 3 5 P011 l ttClquott power insists SI REFERENCES BUSS ARNOLD H 196 The Psi hi 39 A 39 r KIERKECMRD39 S C 0 0g of ggression New 3 1843 F d T bl 19 can an reni mg English edition Princeton Princeton Lin rsig press LASKI HAROLD 1 1929 quotThe dangers of obedience39 MiLoPaM s 1961 quotDijnamics of obedience P011 National Science Founder nj 1963 nj oil and London John Wiley 39 H 1Ti5 tquot5 MOFTWY Magazine 13 lune I13 experimeiits in social psychologvquot Mimcographcd ion January 23 quotl3ehavioral study of obediencequot I Abnorm Soc Psychol 5 7373 1964 quotissues inthe 848352 MILLER NE 1944 Eiltperimental39studies of conflict the Behai for Disorders New York Ronald scorr LP Study of obedience a replv to Baumrind quot Amer Psichi 1 39 In 0 Mc39 HUM f dl Personality and Press I938 Aggression Chicago University of Chicago Press QUESTIONS 1 What did ivin pated outcomes 2What conclusions did ilil rain I b t pats Mu39d obey the Orders Ufa amhrzzxrhi a on the extent to l1ICll ordiiiary individ gure Under what conditions is this H 5u FTUSSIOII most probable Under what conditions is de ance most lilzclv 3 Describe the eneral d 39 39 Milgrarifs methodsg Do i oiiiotiicinllinif 39fthis39mlmment39 Some persons have quembncd I 15 et iica to expose subiects without ivariiing to 351 grain want to determine by hisexperinient What were his aritici Stanley iiilgram expeririients that might have a lasting effect on them Wliat such effects might this experinieiit have had h 4 One cliaracteristic of this paper is iiilgran1 s willingness to consider several possible explanations of the same phenomenon Study the interpretations in paragraphs 28 through 35 What do you make of the range of interpretation thereand elsewhere in the essay How does Milgrani achieve such a range 5 A report such as Miigram39s is not structured in the same way as a conventional essay His research is really a collection of separate but related experiments each one of which requires its own interpretation Describe the groups into which these experiments tall Wliieli results seemed most surprising to you Which were easiest to anticipate 6 in Milgrarrfs experiment people who are responsible and decent in everyday life were seduced he says by trappings of authority Most of us however like to believe that we would neither engage in brutality on our own not obey directions of this kind llas Milgrarn succeeded in getting you to question your riiyn behavior Would you go so far as to say that he forces you to question your own l1l39ilTBI39l nature 7 ln paragraph 46 Milgram corrirnents quotPerhaps our culture does not provide ade quate models for disobedienec39quot 39 hat do you think of this hypothesis Are there such models Ought there to be Have there appeared such models in the time since the cxperiinent was conducted Explain your stand on Pi39liigrarri s statement 5 if research in social psychology takes place in your school today there is probably a panel of some sort that enforces guidelines on research with human subjects Locate that board if it exists and nd out whether this experiment could take place today Report to your class on the rules that guide researchers today Do you thinlc those rules are wise 9 Wliat in your opinion should be the guidelines for psychological research with human subjects List the guidelines you think are appropriate and compare your list with the lists of your classmates Would your guidelines have allowed l39Iilgram39s exper iment P A ll Tltlltli oia situation in which you were faced with the moral and ethical dilemma of whether or not to obey a gure of authority How did you behave Did your behavior surprise you Describe and explain that experience THE ANTHROPOLOGY AOF MANNERS O Edward T Hall f i tia 2 S9 Latin Amzricans Nasiavp rtls 39 ni enwns mNew MequotC0 ten ned Arabs and Irlmvnh quotPHD ruhese Western Medi dimctor of the PC int Iv T ns urmg the 1930s he was Pamquot raining Program in the State De quot i quotSelecting imemcms for work abroad both for the government and for private businesses His interest in hu g391etIt On1 untCdtt0n includes studying the way persons use 390 tmd SW99 quot5 i quot 8U08t His besbhnown tie it elude The Hidden Dimension Beyond Culture ancizlyllq S t L 39 si39sT trashquot or 0 quotH The GOODS H12 their ngers wand the C00ibs they lie their ltnives 0 er spill their broth on the table cloth Oh they lead disgusting lives The Coops they talk while eating and loud and fast they chew And that is why I39m glad that 1 am not a Coop a9 you In Celett Burgess classic on tl 39 1e Coops we ha P l0gtStS Call quotan enculturatitlg devicequot a rneanlie an example of l39f 39 39 I lti quot0 i5tl 51 39th mg lfI3enBtaught the lesson P 3 5 0 quot3911 urgessl Americans a h It d abroad and discowr whole I I reis oc e when they go k PO M may 1 remark on the barbamusness 119 en tns iappens w3 39 ftheut u cordially disliked all oxmyth Id OF Ctualntness 0 na HES of the differences in 1aEOlt0Enle0attto to discover the nature and m manners in one contezt H13 be bad in like to address myself 39 The subject of ma quot39 quotquotquotquot39 39Celett Bur Q i56539 r3939 to Be Them ll9lls ii Cl5l I ll American humomti llquot quotquot505 quoted are from Coops and How hat anthro of conditioning the voting to Of the EOOPS from childhood a term caning ners is complex if it were not there would not be so 333 IJ