Ch. 7 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000
Ch. 7 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000 Psych 1000
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisol Getchell on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at Tulane University taught by Rollins, Bethany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
CH 7 LEARNING What is learning a A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience early de nitions excluded knowledge b Behavioral psychology interested in how organisms acquire new behaviors learning is closely linked with behavioral psychology c Noticing patterns and making associations d Allows us to adapt for change in environments species that have a greater capacity for learning are more exible with behavior better able to adapt to a variety of circumstances less controlled by biology e Major types of learning i Associative behavior psychologists are more interested in this 1 Classical conditioning 2 Operant conditioning ii Cognitive 1 observational learning etc Classical Conditioning CC type of learning in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli learns the association between two stimuli a Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist accredited with discovering CC i Pavlov s experiment dogs and salivation ii Measured saliva production in dogs with response to meat rang a bell before feeding dogs dogs started salivating when they heard the bell in anticipation of the food b Neutral stimulus acquires ability to produce a response through association pairing with a stimulus that produces a similar response process by which a stimulus produces a response as a result of being paired or associated with a stimulus that already produces a similar response c Components of CC i Unconditioned stimulus US or UCS stimulus that naturally elicits a response without any learning ex food ii Unconditioned response UR or UCR automatic re exive naturally occurring response to the US ex salivation to the food iii Conditioned stimulus CS stimulus that acquires the ability to produce a particular response as a result of being paired with the UCS ex sound of the bell iv Conditioned response CR learned response to the CS ex salivation to the bell d Watson and Rayner Conditioning Fear in Little Albert i Can you classically condition fear ii Little baby 911 months named Little Albert iii Showed him a white rat hit a steel bar conditioned him to fear the rat iv US loud sound v UR crying or being startled as a result of hearing the sound vi CS the rat vii CR showing fear or getting upset as a response to the rat e Processes involved in CC i Acquisition learning the association between CS and UCS learning the association between two stimuli 1 Process of pairing CS with UCS until CR established 2 Timing of CS and UCS a Predictive relationship b Classical conditioning works best if the CS comes right before the UCS bell before food is most effective ii Biopreparedness 1 Biologically predisposed to make particular associations learn some associations more readily than others 2 Conditioned taste aversion CTA a Unique aspects pairing onetrial learning and timing b Avoiding food we ate prior to getting ill c More likely to be formed with novel new foods d Only takes one experience to make the association e Can be a large delay between the CS and the UCS and the association is still made iii Stimulus generalization tendency to produce CR to stimuli similar to CS ex lf Pavlov rang a slightly different sounding bell dogs would still salivate Little Albert was also intimidated by other little white creatures not just the rat iv Stimulus discrimination Learning not to produce CR to stimuli that don t signal UCS if dogs can hear the difference in bells and one doesn t result in food then the dogs will stop salivating for that bell v Extinction getting rid of CR by repeatedly presenting CS without UCS Operant Conditioning OC organism is learning to make an association between its own behavior and its consequence organism s own voluntary behavior Behavior and consequences learn to engage in behaviors that lead to positive consequencesreinforcement learn not to engage in behaviors that lead to unpleasant consequences b Contrast with CC OC associate organism s own behavior with stimulus consequence CC associate two stimuli with each other CC does not depend on behavior of organism uncontrolled by organism no control over when the stimuli occurs and what kind of stimuli iv OC depends on the organism s behavior controlled by the organism v CC re exive automatic involuntary behaviors unlearned reaction vi OC voluntary c BF Skinner Skinner box operant chamber to better understand and study operant conditioning Box is large enough to put a small animal in object the animal could interact with and some way of presenting food or stimuli engaging with object is voluntary and would result in food or some kind of stimuli d Processes involved in OC Shaping 1 Reinforcement of successive approximations toward desired behavior reinforcing gradual improvements toward a desired behavior how to get the animal in the skinner box to learn how to work the box 2 Commonly used by animal trainers Biological predispositions 1 Some behaviors are easier to condition than others 2 If you re trying to condition an organism to go againstit s instincts it will be harder if you re conditioning for a behavior that is in line with it s natural instincts it will be much easier Stimulus discrimination 1 Learning that a behavior will lead to particular consequence in presence of some stimuli but not others a An organism learns that a particular behavior will lead to a particular consequence in the presence of some stimuli but not others 2 Discriminative stimuli signal that behavior will lead to particular consequence a Ex intoxicated friends indicate that your joke will be laughed at so go ahead with the behavior 3 Ex pigeons reject paintings by Monet only pecked when Picasso was shown because they learned pecking in the presence of Picasso would lead to food discriminated between artists iv Stimulus generalization 1 Engaging in behavior in presence of stimuli similar to discriminative stimulus that signaled reinforcement 2 Ex pigeons generalized Monet and Picasso painting styles pecked at Matisse because it was similar to Picasso v Stimulus discrimination and generalization and animal abilities e Reinforcement anything that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows i De ned by effect on behavior ii 73pes of Reinforcement 1 Positive reinforcement add good occurs when something pleasant or good occurs as a result of a behavior ex food money compliments etc are positive reinforcements Negative reinforcement remove bad occurs when something unpleasant or bad is taken away or removed as a result of behavior often involves avoidance or escape something that is unpleasant a NOT PUNISHMENT b Effects are ultimately desirable c Negative only refers to something being removed iii Delay of reinforcement timing important true of reinforcement and punishment 1 2 3 Consequences have a greater impact if they occur immediately after a behavior Immediate timing makes the connection between the behavior and consequence easier Humans can respond to delays in consequences but immediate consequences have a greater impact iv Schedules of reinforcement 1 Continuous reinforcement when a particular behavior is reinforced every time it occurs ex kid gets dessert every time he eats all his vegetables Partial reinforcement when a particular behavior is reinforced only some of the time that it occurs ex gambling paid for work teaches persistence 3 most effective for operant conditioning would be starting with continuous then continuing with partial f Extinction occurs when reinforcement is removed decreasing the frequency of behavior by stopping reinforcement i Partialreinforcement extinction effect tendency for behaviors that were maintained on a partial reinforcement schedule to be harder to extinguish extinction is less obvious when an organism has been on a partial reinforcement schedule it will take longer for these organisms than those on a continuous reinforcement schedule g Punishment i Makes the behavior it follows less likely to occur again in the future ii de ned by effect on behavior depends on the impact it has on the behavior iii Positive punishment add something unpleasant when something bad occurs as the result of a behavior ex spanking or any in iction of pain being humiliated being yelled at 1 Positive refers to something being gained iv Negative punishment remove something pleasant when something good is taken away as a result of behavior losing privileges 1 Negative refers to something being taken away Table in PPT with neg vs pos reinforcement vs punishment good vs bad v Problems with punishment she ll give separate notes for this Punishment does not specify the correct behavior Punisher may act as a discriminative stimulus attention may be reinforcing Fear and anxiety model of aggressive behavior abuse vi When punishment works best 1 lmmediacy and consistency 2 explanation IV Observational learning modeling social learning a Learning that occurs by watching and imitating i Hard for behavioral psychologists to explain because it occurred without reinforcement seen as a cognitive process b Bandura and the Bobo doll experiments mwewwe Children who watched adults beat up the doll were more likely to spend more time beating up the doll used some of the same objects and language c Media violence tends to be glori ed correlational and experimental evidence indicate that exposure to media violence makes people more likely to behave aggressively when provoked only experimental will allow you to look at cause and effect affects behavior and attitudes 1 more impact on some people than others depends on home life personality etc desensitizes and primes us to perform more violence other factors
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