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9/29 & 10/1 Chapter 6, 7 & 8 Notes

by: Alyssa Schutzenhofer

9/29 & 10/1 Chapter 6, 7 & 8 Notes BMS 208-03

Alyssa Schutzenhofer
GPA 3.5
Human Anatomy
Dr. Lanier

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About this Document

This is a bundle of three chapters worth of notes. I already posted one set of notes covering chapter 6 and part of 7 but this includes those notes, as well as what Professor Lanier covered of chap...
Human Anatomy
Dr. Lanier
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 6 7 amp 8 92715 1142 PM Reminder 239quotI Exam on October 20th Chapter 6 Articulated bones are joined together all attached by ligaments and maybe joints can t see all the single vertebrae or all the tiny bones in hands and feet Disarticulated Bones are not connected separated Types of Bone Shape Long Taller than they are wide and deep bones of your extremities humerus femur tibia 0 Anatomy of a Long Bone Epiphysis ends a Proximal Epiphysis closer to the trunk n Distal Epiphysis farther away from the trunk n Spongy Bone porous like a sponge open lattice of narrow plates of bone called trabeculae has space occupied by red bone marrow in the epiphysis Diaphysis In between the ends the entire length between the epiphysis a Compact Bone dense or cortical bone cells tightly pressed against each other dense solid external walls of the bone along the diaphysis Metaphysis part of the epiphysis that includes growth plates actively growing bone Medullary Cavity Inside of the diaphysis contains blood vessels nerves and fat yellow bone marrow lard In children and fetus all long bones contain red bone marrow Periosteum made of dense irregular connective tissue with two layers of tissue outer fibrous layer amp inner cellular layer on the outside of the bone contains osteoblasts which helps to rebuild the bone after fracture protect bone holds nerves and blood vessels to bone held to the bone by collagen fibers called perforating fibers these fibers are continuous with those of the bone adjacent joint capsules and attached tendons and ligaments dense connective tissue Endosteum one layer of cells thick an incomplete layer of cells that is inside and lining the medullary cavity contains osteoprogenitor cells osteoblasts amp osteoclasts when active they help build repair amp remodel bone contains epithelial cells Short Carpals tarsals just as high as they are wide 0 Sesamoid tiny seedshaped bones along the tendons of some muscles are also classified as short bones Ex Patella instances of it being present at the base of the thumb Flat bones bones of the cranium Ex frontal parietal occipital Irregular bones that don t belong in the categories above have long and short portions Ex Vertebrae hyoid Sutural sutures immovable joints of bones in between the bones of the cranium bones not present in all individuals within cranial sutures Formation of the Bone Model is hyaline cartilage entire skeleton made out of this or dense connective tissue develop into bones via endochondral ossification Ch 6 look in blackboard Exam 2 Folder for animation Cartilage Calcifies amp Periosteal Bone Collar Forms chondrocytes form holes in the cartilage matrix which calcifies blood vessels grow towards the cartilage osteoblasts form osteoid secreted hardens to form periosteal bone collar Primary Ossification Center forms in the Diaphysis cartilage calcifies and bone development advances toward the epiphyses Secondary Ossification Center forms in the Epiphyses hyaline cartilage in the center calcifies bone replaces calcified cartilage osteoclasts create medullary cavity Bone replaces cartilage except the articular and epiphyseal cartilage Epiphyseal plates ossify and form epiphyseal lines bone growth stops due to sex hormones 0 Child has epiphyseal plates adults do not Intramembranous Ossification 0 Model is fibrous connective tissue membrane 0 Formation of flat bones of skull mandible and clavicle o Fontanels are the soft spots 0 Should complete closure of all membranes in between cranial bones by age 2 and the actual thickness increases into adolescence HOMEWORK Figure 617 have a good understanding of the meaning of some of the terms Chapter 7 Axial Skeleton Bones forming the central axis of the skeleton Provides main support of the body Protects central nervous system 0 Includes 0 Skull 0 Thoracic Cage Sternum amp Ribs o Vertebral Column Appendicular Skeleton 0 Bones in the appendages limbs and the limb girdles shoulder and pelvic Includes 0 Shoulder Girdle Clavicle amp Scapula 0 Upper Limb o Pelvic Girdle Ilium ischium pubis 0 Lower Limb AXIAL SKELETON The Skull Cranial Bones O O O 1 Frontal forehead most superior anterior 2 Parietal right amp left 1 Occipital contains the foramen magnum is a hole where the spinal cord is attached in order to move our heads easily occipital condyles o 2 Temporal lateral Squamous portion flat portion extends into the middle of the skull Mastoid Process of the temporal bone behind your ear projecting under your skin External Auditory Meatus carry sound entrance to a funnel Styloid process Zygomatic processarch Medial temporal bone petrous portion 0 1 Sphenoid contains place for pituitary gland contains specific vessels that carries blood to the brain has muscles attached that allows us to chew and swallow very delicate Greater wings Form part of middle cranial fossa and orbit Lesser wings Form part of anterior cranial fossa contain optic canal Sella Turcica a depression in the bone where a pituitary gland would sit Sphenoid Sinus function is to lighten the weight of the skull amp helps us produce clearer speech all sinuses are connected 0 1 Ethmoid deep behind our nose contains cells that make it possible for us to smell direct access through little openings to the bone forms superior and medial portion of nasal septum full of ethmoid sinuses Perpendicular Plate the plate that extends farthest south Cribriform plate contains direct connection to the brain Crista Galli looks like the comb of a roosterquot allows for the attachment of connective tissue covering of the brain the superior most point O Squamous Sutures the joints between cranial bones that are immovable fibrous joints form very early Sagittal joint between the parietal bones from the superior view Coronal Lambdoid looks like Greek Lambda symbol Squamous Facial Bones O 0000 1 Mandible single bone lower jaw mandibular fossa allow movement of the lower jaw 1 Maxilla top of your jaw one of two bones right amp left 1 Palatine the far back roof of your mouth 2 Nasal 1 Vomer forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum provides lower inferior portion of the nasal septum 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae forms a little shelf in your bone increases the surface area in order to warm up and humidify air that we breathe in we want to warm it up to our body temperature 2 Zygomatic the apple of your cheek bone 2 Lacrimal bones where the tear duct projects Vertebral Regions times of Meals of the Dayquot help to remember 0 Cervical 7 0 Transverse Foramen supply blood to brain have the O passage of the vertebral artery C1 Atlas very flat vertebrae that has almost no body very thin very pronounced articulating surfaces for the occipital bone C2 Axis denseodontoid process allows for the sliding of the head to nod no Bifid Spinous Process Thoracic 12 Head of the rib attaches to the body the tubercle attaches to the Costal pertains to ribs Facet on the body of the vertebrae Lumbar 5 the body is much larger short processes Sacral sacrum 5 fused o Sacral Promontory o Sacral Foramina 0 Ala located on the lateral surface of the sacrum ear like used for attachment of the hip bones Coccygeal coccyx 35 fused The Thoracic Cage Ribs 12 attach to the sternum through costal cartilage hyaline cartilage 0 True Ribs 17 have individual cartilage 0 False Ribs 810 use the cartilage of number 7 o Floating amp false Ribs 1112 don t have cartilage attached to them 0 Sternum flat bone 0 Manubrium 0 Body 0 Xiphoid Process Hyoid Bone part of axial skeleton Typical Features of Vertebrae Body what looks like the head or mouth of the giraffe what the vertebrae looks like when looking down on one Vertebral Foramen hole in the middle of the processes 0 Vertebral Arch 0 Pedicle attaches the arch formed by the processes to the body 0 Lamina attach the processes to each other 0 Transverse Process processes that branch out to the side Spinous Process Vertebral Canal the empty space made with all the individual vertebral foramen in an articulated skeleton where the spinal cord is located Articulating Processes to articulate means to be in connection to each other What connects the vertebrae Superior and Inferior Articular Process Intervertebral Disc fibrocartilage Slipped DiscHerniated disk Intervertebral Foramen in between the vertebrae The spinal nerve passes through here 0 When the nerve is pinched it gives you false sensations pins and needles constant pain Laminectomy thin part of the lamina is removed Chapter 8 APPENDICULAR SKELETON Clavicle acromial end lateral sternal end toward the sternum medial Scapula 0 SIDE VIEW 0 Glenoid Cavity articulating surface for the head of the humerus o Acromion Process posterior process 0 Coracoid Process anterior process 0 BACK VIEW 0 Spine the acromion process extends into a shelf 0 Supraspinous Fossa the depression above the spine 0 Intraspinous Fossa the depression below the spine 0 FRONT VIEW 0 Subscapular Fossa the depression in the front 0 Medial Border toward the spine 0 Lateral Border o Inferior Angle Humerus SUPERIOR 0 Head proximal epiphysis main articulating surface extending from there there are two projections Greater Tubercle visible from anterior and posterior attachment of muscle moving forearm forms rounded contour of the shoulder Lesser Tubercle smaller located anteromedially SHAFT o Deltoid Tuberosity Deltoid muscle attaches here o INFERIOR o Medial Epicondyle Trochlea Articular surface that looks like a spool for thread 0 Lateral Epicondyle Capitulum o Coronoid Fossa above the capitulum POSTERIOR VIEW 0 Olecranon Fossa Forearm Radius lateral side of the forearm thumb side of the forearm where the radial artery passes superficial to the skin 0 Head of the Radius flat end 0 Styloid process of the radius most distal part of the bone 0 Ulnar Notch Ulna medial side 0 Head of the Ulnar at the bottom of the bone 0 Styloid Process of the ulna most distal part of the bone this and that of the radius form the wrist o Olecranon Process the elbow the hook allows the humerus to attach here 0 Trochlear Notch where trochlea sits o Coronoid Process fits with the coronoid fossa 0 Radial Notch Hand and Wrist Bones 0 Carpals wrist bones there are 8 per hand know them as a group 0 Metacarpals Body of the hand from the wrist to the hand 5 of them Thumb is number one number to five from the thumb to the pinky Phalanges of Digits entire extension all fingers have three but the thumb only has two 0 Proximal Phalanx 0 Middle Phalanx o Distal Phalanx Phalanges names position first and then number of digit Lower Limb attached by the pelvic girdle formed by two hip bones and the sacrum Os Coxa hip bone Made out of three fused bones 0 Superior Ilium o Inferior Ischium posterior Pubis anterior o Pelvis Right Left and Sacrum Iliac Crest the top of the hip bones n Anterior Superior Iliac Spine Acetabulum this bone of animals was used for carrying vinegar Superior Pubic Ramus extends towards the ilium Inferior Pubic Ramus extends towards the ischium Obturator Foramen space in the os coxae that is encircled by both the pubic and ischial rami PubicPubis Symphysis Greater Sciatic Notch through this the sciatic nerve travels to the lower limb Ischial Spine Ischial Tuberosity broad very small projection 0 Male Pelvis very narrow pelvic inlet and women more circular pelvic inlet an enlarged pelvic outlet and a broader pubic angle Necessary for survival Femur the thigh upper leg 0 Proximal end Head surrounded by articulating cartilage and fits in acetabulum Neck extends from head Anterior most bump is the Greater Trochanter Posterior view is the Lesser Trochanter o Posterior View Linea Aspera Hamstring muscles attach along this line 0 The Distal end Contains hyaline cartilage with two bumps called condyles Lateral and Medial condyles Intercondylar Fossa the deep spacing between the lateral and medial condyles Epicondyle is an attachment of connective tissue Tibia and Fibula o Tibia Medial bone takes most of the weight of our body and transfers it to the foot Medial Condyle Lateral Condyle closer to the fibula Tibial Tuberosity Anterior Crest sharp surface where two surfaces of bones come together Medial Malleolus o Fibula lateral Head Lateral Malleolus Ankle and Foot 0 Tarsals all the bones forming the ankle itself Calcaneus form the heal most inferior Talus sits atop the calcaneus forms articular surface for the tibia to sit on o Metatarsals midsole of the your foot this region is lifted into an arch which allows for transfer of pressure numbered with roman numbers big toe 1 and pinky 5 big toe medial 0 Know how many phalanges in each toe and how to name Position of phalanx and then the number of digit 0 Medial Longitudinal Arch


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