Modern America-week5 notes
Modern America-week5 notes Hist 12071
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US History: Modern
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Schmidt on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 12071 at Kent State University taught by Brenda Faverty in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Modern America in History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Modern History 92615 Chapter 21 This is an online class so the text book information is important Text Book REVEL for American Stories Volume 2 Access Card 3rd Edition H W Brands T H Breen R Hal Williams Ariela J Gross 2014 ISBN13 9780134082370 Chapter 21 Toward Empire 18651902 211 Why did Americans look outward in the last half of the nineteenth century 212 What were the causes and results of the war with Spain 213 What were the various viewpoints about the acquisition of empire after the war with Spain Introduction 0 Theodore Roosevelt 0 He believed that nations needed to fight to prove power and spirit 0 War with Spain reasons I Free Cubaand get rid of Spain I quotthe benefit done to our people by giving them something to think of which isn t material gain I Army and navy needed practice 0 1898he was assistant secretary of the navy I Rooseveltjoined the army which led him to presidency 0 Rough Riders natural soldiers 211 America Looks Outward 0 18905 0 Before 1890s westward expansion territories included Louisiana Territory Florida Texas California Arizona and New Mexico 0 Expansion in 1890ssettlement for naval bases trading outposts and commercial trade routes 0 Samuel F Bemis I quotthe great aberration 0 Walter LaFeber O O O I quotThe United States did not set out on an expansionist path in the late 1890s in sudden spurofthemoment fashion The overseas empire that Americans controlled in 1900 was not a break in their history but a natural culmination Isolationism I quotA belief that the United States should avoid entanglements with other nations Imperialism I quotThe policy of extending a nation s power over other areas through military conquest economic domination or annexation Charles Darwin s theory of evolution I The Origin of Species o The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life I Human and social development I Theodore Roosevelt o quotThe nation that has trained itself to a career of unwarlike and isolated ease is bound in the end to go down before other nations which have not lost the manly and adventurous qualities John Fiske I Wanted AngloSaxon racial superiority Josiah Strong I Expansionist I AngloSaxons to civilize and Christianize inferior races Secretary of State William Henry Seward I 18611869 I Expansive policy I He wanted an empire that stretched to Latin America and west to Asia 0 Including Canada and Mexico I Hawaii and other islands to Asia are considered a quotbottomless market for farm and manufactured goods I 1867a treaty with Russia to receive Alaska 0 To combine western Canada with America 0 Wanted Mexico City to be a capital James G Blaine I Served as secretary of statewith Presidents James Garfield and Chester Arthur in 1881 I Wanted closer relations with Latin America I Frederick T Frelinghuysen 0 Changed Blaine s approach 0 Wanted to find Caribbean markets for American goods 0 Tried to present treaties with Mexico Spanishruled Cuba and Puerto Rico the British West Indies Santo Domingo and Colombia I Blaine was in the State Department in 1889with President Benjamin Harrison 0 Wanted to annex Hawaii 0 Attempted to acquire naval bases in the Caribbean 212 War with Spain 0 18905 0 Main focus was PanAmericanism and tariff reciprocity o InterAmerican Conference in Washington on October 2 1889 o Delegates from 19 American nations 0 Agreements to promote trade 0 Formed the International Bureau of the American Republics I Later named PanAmerican Union I Exchanging political scientific and cultural knowledge Grover Cleveland 0 1895he brought US close to war with Britain 0 Because boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana 0 Secretary of State Richard Olney o Pressing the Monroe Doctrine o Denying European nations to be involved with US affairs 0 Salisbury British prime minister o Rejected Olney s ideas 0 Monroe Doctrine was an international law 0 Rejected due to the Venezuelan boundary Hawaiian sandswere a way to engage in Asian markets 0 1800s quotCrossroads of the Pacific Treaty of 1875 o Allowed Hawaiian sugar to enter US Treaty 1887 o Granted US use of Pearl Harbor 0 Harbor for naval strategists McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 o quotended the special status given Hawaiian sugar and awarded American producers a bounty of two cents a pound 0 Sugar production dropped 0 Unemployment rose 0 Property values decreased 18802000 vessels 0 48 could fire guns 1883 Congress allowed 4 steel ships to be built 18851889 0 30 more steel ships The bases were involved with markets of Latin America and Asia 0 Cuba and Puerto Rico compromised Spain s empire 0 1868 to 1878 o The Ten years War 0 Failed to get independence Depression of 1893 Damaged Cuban economy WilsonGorman Tariff of 1894 prostrated it 1896 Raised duties on sugar 0 40 Sent General Valeriano Weyler Nicolau 0 Commander sent to Spain quotreconcentrationquot policy Yellow Journalism quotTo sell newspapers before and during the SpanishAmerican War publishers William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer engaged in blatant sensationalization of the news which became known as quotyellow journalism Although it did not cause the war it helped turn US public opinion against Spain President McKinley quotuncivilized and inhuman Spain s conduct New government in Madrid McKinley ordered the Maine to Havana to demonstrate strength The New York Journal 0 February 91898 0 Published a stolen letter from Enrique Dupuy de Lome 0 Who was a Spanish minister o The letter said McKinley was weak quota wouldbe politician and quota bidder for the admiration of the crowd 0 De Lome resigned February 15 1898 o The Maine was attacked in the Havana harbor by an explosion o 266 dead 0 Could ve been a result of internal reasoning 0 Americans blamed Spain Teller Amendment 0 quotIn this amendment to the declaration of war on Spain in 1898 the US pledged that it did not intend to annex Cuba and that it would recognize Cuban independence after the SpanishAmerican War The SpanishAmerican War 0 McKinley called for 12500 volunteers 0 1 million responded 100000 volunteers 30caliber KragJorgensen rifles Spanishhad modern Mausers smokeless powder 0 o o 0 Americans believed I quota foreign war should be fought by the hometown military unit acting as an extension of their community II o Invasion in Cube 14 of them were African American 1898 4 African American regiments I Twentyfourth and Twentyfifth Infantry and the Ninth and Tenth Cavarly I Battle of San Juan Hill Location Year From Hawaii 1898 Annexation Cuba 1899 Spain Puerto Rico 1899 Spain Guam 1899 Spain Philippines 1899 Spain 213Acquisition of Empire 0 August 121898 0 Met in White house Spanish representatives and McKinley to sign prelim peace agreement US received more land and more responsibility Spain granted independence to Cuba Spain ceded Puerto Rico and Pacific island of Guam to US Allowed Americans to Manila until an agreement over the Philippines was issued McKinley believed that the Philippines were a problem I Puerto Rico was located too close to the mainland I Philippines was very populatedan advantage 0 McKinley didn t want to give islands back to Spain 0 He finally decided to annex the Philippines In October 1898 representatives of the US and Spain met in Paris to talk about the peace treaty 0 Spain agreed to recognize Cuba s independence 0 Cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the US Treaty of Paris 0 quotTreaty in December 1898 ending the SpanishAmerican War Under its terms Spain recognized Cuba s independence assumed the Cuban debt and ceded Puerto Rico Guam and the Philippines to the US AntiImperialist League 0 quotAn organization formed in 1898 to fight the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish American War Members opposed acquiring overseas colonies believing it would subvert American ideals and institutions Membership centered in New England the cause was less popular in the South and West 0 These antiimperialists argued that the annexation of the Philippines would violate republican principles PhilippineAmerican War OOOOO O O O quotA war fought from 18991902 to quell Filipino resistance to US control of the Philippine Islands Took 4300 American lives 50000200000 Filipino lives Americans used brutal tactics Burned houses tortured people and executed prisoners 0 Protected quotzonesquot Bryan tried to turn the election of 1900 into a debate over imperialism 0 Didn t work McKinley won with patriotism and prosperity Taft encourages Filipino participation in government Open door policy quotThis policy established free trade between the US and China in 1900 and attempted to induce European nations and Japan to recognize the territorial integrity of China It marked a departure from the American tradition of isolationism and signaled the country s growing involvement in the world Encouraged 3 agreements 0 quotNations possessing a sphere of influence would respect the rights and privileges of other nations in that sphere o quotThe Chinese government would continue to collect tariff duties in all spheres o quotnations would not discriminate against other nations in levying port dues and railroad rates within their respective spheres of influence