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Week 5 Notes: Lecture Notes

by: Alex

Week 5 Notes: Lecture Notes IAFF 1005

GPA 4.4
Intro to International Affairs
Susan Sell

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About this Document

Here are the lecture notes for this week guys, as well as the notes on the assigned readings. There were three assigned readings for this week, "A World Without Power", "David's Friend Goliath", an...
Intro to International Affairs
Susan Sell
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 1005 at George Washington University taught by Susan Sell in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/04/15
IAFF 1005 92915 Power and Order in the International System Three views on power and order The New Dark Ages What if US declines and no one rises What if no ones takes power Niall Ferguson quotapolarityquot Structural weaknesses of US Dependency on foreign capital China Reduced troop levels Attention deficit Demographic trend in Europe A retirement haven in northern Europe A Chinese bubble economy Fragmented lslam Russia built borders around Syria Russia is sharing intelligence with Iraq Iran and Syria A return to the 19203 Or the 9th10th Century Return to old outdated systems such as fascism Globalization of worldwide crime Smuggling of immigrants The Outlaw Sea William Langewiesche The spread of disease because of globalization Ebola These are quotproblems without passportsquot David Loves Goliath Why is no one balancing against US power States IOVe The free rider system and the benefits they get from letting the US lead Security guarantees Maybe no other state is strong enough to counter the US Does the US play a uniquely positive global role We keep the world generally safer but there are some places such as Iran where we only intervened for own personal gain US would rather have partners unlike past imperial powers United Nations Obama wants a coalition to fight against lSlS Everyone complains but no one is eager to have the US step down or retreat Fragmented political system access points voice We allow states within the order to participate in our political system AntiAmericanism is a useful political tool IAFF 1005 Continued Liberal Hegemony Who commands and who benefits The states within the US security umbrella enjoy the benefits of US protection US as a producer of world order Distinctively open and rulebased Public goodsrulesvoice 92915 The faCt that it Clidn t look like we were following the rules in 2003 when we invaded Iraq Made us look more like a bully Military pacts and security Alliances and cooperative security Relations are more weblike than strict domination Consent balance and coercion are all present Evidence of minimalism pluralism and solidarism Ongoing tensions between two objectives Upholding the rules of the system Unilateral use of force against enemies Drone strikes Hegemony cannot long rest on military might alone The World According to Kissinger quotChaos threatens side by side with unprecedented interdependencequot Need a new order that accommodates Russia China and Islam A world of disorder They need us and we need them economically IAFF 1005 Niall Ferguson A World Without Power Pgs 3239 92415 If the U3 retreats from ite hegemonic role who will take its place No one there will be a new Dark Age In the history of world politics there is always a hegemon or there is always a state attempting to become the hegemon The view in the 803 was that like all empires the US and Russian superpowers would eventually overstretch and their positions would be replaced by China and Japan By 2001 when the US had not overstretched its power and had ved thorough the German and Japanese challenges it was argued that the ascending new challenge would likely be China or the European Union Power is not a monopoly History hates a hyper power and eventually powers will rise up and will fall back to a multipolar world What if we are heading towards a world with no hegemon A world with no hegemony may be the realistic alternative to US hegemony Apolarity could result in a new anarchic Dark Age an era of waning empires and religious fanaticism regional plunder and pillage in the world s forgotten places economic sluggishness and civilization withdrawal into secured enclaves Pretenders to the Throne Reasons to the result of a power vacuum Clay feet Of The US COIOSSUS the US s increasing reliance on foreign capital in order to finance increasing private and public consumptionThere is a shockingly small volunteer army that is spread thin due to constant military intervention US interventions in the past century have mostly all been short lived quotOld Europequot grows older demography will most likely destine the EU to decline in international importance Fertility rates are decreasing and life expectancy is increasing causing the median age to rise and the dependency ratio to increase Europeans must either adapt US immigration policies or accept their aging declining population Chihe s coming economic crisis there is an important incompatibility between the free market based on private property and rule of law and the Communist monopoly on power which creates corruption as well as transparent fiscal monetary and regulatory institutions Production is far ahead of consumption leaving the economy dependent on expons The fragmentation 0 lelemie CiVi39izatiOhi Birthrates in muslim societies are more than doubling the European average meaning these countries will eventually put immense pressure on Europe and the US There is a great divide between those Muslims who want a peaceful life within the West and those pulled toward the revolutionary Islamic Bolshevism of renegades Each potential hegemony of the 21st century has characteristics of decline and Islam lacks the resources necessary to make itself a superpower Dark and Disconnected IAFF 1005 Niall Ferguson A World Without Power Pgs 3239 92415 The last true example of apolarity was in the 9th and 10th centuries among the remains of the Roman Empire Western leadership was split among the pope who led Christendom and Charlemagne s heirs who divided up his shortlived empire due to the Treaty of Verdum 843There really was no credible emperor until Otto in 962 and even was only a mere prince China was in a dip between dynasties Olga was lying the foundation for the future Russian Empire in 957 in Kiev Africa had its miniempire in Ghana Central American had its Mayan civilization The world was broken into multiple separate civilizations Without strong secular polities religious questions usually created serious uproars religious institutions set the political agenda The vikings were savage and violent people repeatedly destroying everything in their path and leaving nothing It was odd how the future lay in creating small political units such as the Venetian republic or Alfred the Great s England arguably the first thing close to a nationstate in European history created in 886 Superpower Failure Could an apolar word today create an era similar to that of Alfred Yes but with troubling differences What about the growing pretensions to autonomy of the supranational bodies created under US leadership after WWII The United Nations The International Monetary Fund IMF The World Bank The World Trade Organization Each one considers itself a representative of the international community The reality of the apolar era of the 9th and 10th century was political fragmentation This is also true today Humanity has entered a time characterized as much by disintegration as integration Flows of information and means of production empower multinational corporations and nongovernment organizations Flows of destructive technology empower criminal organizations and terrorists These groups can now operate wherever they want Writ of the international community is more and more confined to a few strategic cities Because our world is more populated a Dark Age would be much more dangerous tension between states would occur more often Technology would allow us to all but quotobmeratequot a City A Dark Age would cause a reversal of globalization leading to economic sluggishness and depression The US would become less social Islamist extremist invasion of the European Union would become inevitable the Communist system would spiral into a crisis and Western investors would lose out The wealthiest ports for the global economy New York Rotterdam Shanghai would become targets for pirates and plunderers Terrorists could easily target oil tankers aircraft carriers and cruise liners while we busied ourselves upping airport security IAFF 1005 A World Without Power 92415 Niall Ferguson Pgs 3239 Limited nuclear wars could begin in North Korea and end in the Middle East AIDS and Malaria would continue to spread death in Africa IAFF 1005 David s Friend Goliath 92415 Michael Mandelbaum Pgs 5056 No one loves Goliath The shocking thing is the lack of the world s response to the US like its response to Goliaths in the past States as powerful in the past as the US is said to be now had their power checked the states joined together to block Goliath Revolutionary and Nepoleonic France late 18th and early 19th century Germany WWI amp II and the Soviet Union the Cold War Complaints of the US s international role are met with no antiAmerican alignment This is the most striking characteristic of 21st century international relations Explanation for why US power has not been blocked Accusations leveled at America are mostly false the US does not put other states in danger nor does it act without thinking of the interests or wishes of others The US plays a positive global role the governments of most other countries understand this even though they have specific reasons not to say as much Benign Hegemon Although the US has been accused of being an empire the US does not control nor aim to control the politics or economics of other societies With the exception of Iraq no foreign venture has had any economic value or strategic importance Military intervention was undertaken to Rescue distressed people stop ethnic cleansing dispose dangerous tyrants etc US goal has been to build stable effective governments and then leave as quickly as possible America the Accessible Critics say the policies the US applies beyond the borders are bound to affect others yet when it comes to deciding on these policies nonAmericans have no say This is not true for US foreign policy as a whole because the US political system is fragmented There are multiple points of access Because it is easy to be heard in the American government the US has become a mediator among conflicting states The World s Government US military helps keep order in the world The US guarantees the safety of states and their neighbors by ensuring that the states under direct protection do not come to power such as Germany and Japan and threaten their neighbors The US has also taken responsibility for dealing with the spread of nuclear weapons to unstable states and terrorist organizations Although some states may not always agree with how the US tries to prevent this they still endorse it The US contributes to economic matters and international trade IAFF 1005 Michael Mandelbaum David s Friend Goliath 92415 Pgs 5056 Most of the confidence needed to go through with transactions and the protection in which this confidence stems in the international economy comes from US policies The US Navy patrols shipping lanes in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to ensure the safe passage of commerce Working through the IMF the US helps carry out tasks central banks perform within countries such as bailouts The US is the quotconsumer of last resortquot US purchases Japanese cars Chinesemade clothing and South Korean electronics and appliances The US established close relations in many major oilproducing countries and extended military protection to the largest producer Saudi Arabia The US did not set out to become the world s government Services originated in the Cold War in order to combat the Soviet Union Inevitable lngratitude AntiAmerican sentiments are neither surprising nor undesirable Criticism is vital Neither failure to acknowledge US and global role nor array of criticism of means that the leaders of other states are unaware of the advantages it brings them The continuation of the US as the world s government depends on the willingness of the American public to maintain the costs involved Social security and Medicare pose the greatest threat to the US IAFF 1005 Ikenberry Illusions of Empire 924 Pgs 144154 The BUSh adminiStraltion s War on Terror invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan expanded military budget and controversial 2002 National Security Strategy have put the US under scrutiny by the rest of the world When power is revealed it evokes response TOday the American empire is thought of in many different ways Neoconservatives celebrate the quotempire squot liberal power that spreads democracy and eliminates tranny terrorism military aggression and weapons proliferation Critics of the empire worry about unnecessary spending a negative impact on the economy and the possible threat to institutions and alliances that have secured US national interests since WWII The E Word A Since 911 the rise of unipolarity and the simultaneous crumbling of sovereignty is new and dangerous 1 Is it because of the formation of an empire B If the US is an empire it is the first of its kind 1 it has a habit of following harsh imperial policies in the Middle East and Latin America 2 Otherwise the US has participated on mutually agreed upon terms a This is true in three aspects 1 US provides public goods for cooperation of other states 2 Power is exercised through rules and institutions 3 Weaker states in the order are given access to the policymaking process The Global Racket A Johnson s claim that ever since the end of WWII the US has become a quotmilitary juggernaut intent on world dominationquot 1 Empire based on bases not territory B US alliance system has created a stable open political system Pax Americana A According to Ferguson the US is a liberal empire that upholds rules and provides public goods by maintaining peace guaranteeing freedom of the seas and skies and managing a system of international trade and finance B American imperialism was pursued in order to achieve antiimperialism 1 During the Cold War the main goal of the US global rule included the enforcement of economic openness even if that meant forcefully integrating states into the order C Fundamentally supports an empire 1 What Ferguson calls a iiberai empire schoiars caii a iiberai hegemony D A world of decentralized competing states many of which aren t democracies would lead to chaos 1 Open markets are not easily sustained without the support of a powerful state E Challenges of peace and economic development noted by Ferguson are best overcome by advanced democracies working together Imperial Insecurity IAFF 1005 Ikenberry A Illusions of Empire 924 Pgs 144154 Barber claims that the US continually disregards the framework of cooperation and law needed to fight terrorist anarchy when they plead a right to unilateral action preventive war and regime change Foreign policy centered around the use of the military against unstable states shows a misunderstanding of the consequences of global interdependence and the character of democracy 1 DC can t run global order driven by military action and fear of terrorism The world is too complex and interdependent to be ruled by an imperial power Provides a cautionary note for liberal empire enthusiasts 1 The two goals of a liberal empire enforcing the rules of the international system and employing the military power against enemies of the US order usually conflict 2 Threats posed by terrorism and weapons of mass destruction are not enough to justify the US s liberal empire V Balancing Act A B D Mann argues of a new imperialismquot that is powered by a radical vision where unilateral military power drives US rule and overcomes global disorder There is an imbalance between the military and the political and economic capabilities of the US 1 This causes an imbalance with the military outweighing the political and economic capabilities disregarding the US leadership and creating more terrorists and unstable leaders Four types of power oirive the rise and faii of states 1 Military political economic and ideological 2 The US is a quotmilitary giant a backseat economic driver a political schizophrenic and a ideological phantomquot Mann and Barber both make the point that an empire built solely on military domination will not endure Vl Empire Unraveling A B C D Todd believes the long term decline has already begun The world is exiting an era of US domination DC may want to run a liberal empire but the world is finding itself less and less reliable upon the US Two impiications follow the US s condition of economically dependent and financially useless 1 The US is becoming a global economic hunter supporting itself through a system of quottribute takingquot It can no longer combine its own economic gain and the economic advancement of others 2 A weakened US will stoop to desperate actions to retain its hegemonic position Identifies this behind confrontations with Iraq Iran and North Korea Ability of any state to dominate the international system depends on its economic strength Vll Rulers or Rules A B If the US is an empire Ferguson s liberal empire is more convincing than Johnson s military empire US has engaged in imperial policies toward weak countries but relations with Europe Japan China and Russia can t be denied as imperial even when neo or liberal is added Not an empire but a USled democratic political order IAFF 1005 Illusions of Empire 924 Ikenberry Pgs 144154 D The empire debate misses the development of the long peace among great powers 1 Explained by capitalism democracy and nuclear weapons


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