Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes 41087 - AST 115 - A
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 41087 - AST 115 - A at Missouri State University taught by Robert S Patterson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Basic Astronomy in Physics 2 at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
92815 Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Surface of the Earth Plate tectonics The process of crustal development that occurs on Earth due to relative motion of about 16 plates that the crust is made of This is what leads to earthquakes ocean rifts volcanoes and recycling crust Interior of Earth Chemical differentiation The process in a semifluid object where higher density material sinks to form a central coreI and lower density material rises to from a crustI with an intermediate mantle 2 part core Semiliquid iron outer core and a solid inner iron core Inner core is solid due to high pressure Estimated condition of center of Earth Temperature of about 5000 degree K about the temp of the Sun Pressure of about 20000 toninquot2 Central Density of about 17 gmcmquot3 Earth s Magnetic Field Magnetosphere Region occupied by the magnetic field of a planet This is produced by a chargedI fluid material in the interior of a rapidly rotating planet Solar wind Charged particles ejected by the Sun Van Allen belt Charged particles trapped by Earth s magnetic field moving at high speeds Earth s magnetic fields change direction of moving charged particles The Moon Physical properties 14 of Earth s diameter about 2000 miles Mass about 181 of Earth s mass Average Density 33 gcmquot3 Surface Gravity about 16 of Earth s No atmosphere due to Moon s gravity is too weak to hold gases down Surface temperature Max 265 degree F Min 300 degree F Large temp range due to no atmosphere to trap heat Lunar Surface Features Craters Most formed by high speed impact of solid debris asteroids or meteors Large craters are older smaller craters are younger Maria quotseasquot solidified lava plains Came from cracks in the crust MountainsMountain ranges Rims of huge ancient craters Not formed by plate tectonics like on Earth Rays Whit or lightcolored streaks emanating from impact craters Due to secondary craters formation from ejecta Rilles From Earth resembles fine cracks actually long canyons formed by lava flows from collapsed lava tubes Orgin of the Moon Possible explanations 1 Fission Moon split off from Earth Capture Moon formed elsewhere by accretion and was captured by Earth s gravity Coorientation sister Moon and Earth accreted at the same time The moon formed from particles that were in orbit around forming Earth 4 CollisionEjection Theory The Moon may have formed when a young differentiated Earth was struck at a glancing blow by a young differentiated proto planet the size of Mars the material excavated then coalesced to make the Moon Ocean Tides on Earth Effect 2x daily rise amp fall of ocean level Cause The differential gravitational pull of the Moon mainly and also the Sun Water piles higher than average both on the towards and opposite side of the Moon The times of the high or low tides are about 50 minutes each day due to the Moon s orbital motion Spring tides At each new and full phase the Sun helps the Moon Neap tides At 1St and 3rel quarter phase of the Sun hinders the Moon Earth also has a tidal effect on the Moon which has caused one side of moon to always face Earth Mercury Physical properties on handout RevolutionRotation 3 rotations 2 orbits Atmosphere Very low pressure About 10quot11 bar almost vacuum like Surface Temperature Range Max 800 degree F Min 280 degree F largest range for any object in the Solar System Interior Huge iron core majority of planet Magnetic Field About 1 Earth s due to it s slow spin Spacecraft Mariner 10 probe launched in 1973 made 3 close fly bys Showed Mercury has many craters And intercrater plains smaller areas of solidified lava Mercury has many scarps which indicates that the crust shifted after craters formed Venus Earth s twin RevolutionRotation 225243 retrograde days Atmosphere C02 965 acts as a quotgreenhouse gas to trap heat Average Temperature about 860 degree F Surface Pressure About 90 bars same pressure as about 300 ft deep in the Ocean Greenhouse Effect Sunlight on Venus reflects off clouds Sunlight not scattered is absorbed by surface The heated surface emits infrared radiation that s trapped in atmosphere Some infrared escapes into space Global perpetual cloud coverage Must use radar to study Venus surface Radios pass through the clouds return signals tell what surface is like About 80 of surface is gently rolling plains with about 1600 Volcanoes or volcanic features The US Magellon probe launched in 1989 used radar to map the entire surface of Venus Venus has volcanic features with few craters Both Russian and US Successfully landed probes on the surface Probe could only last about 1 hour before it melted Russian Probe Venera 13 revealed angular rocks of probable volcanic origin Mars Surface Gravity About 38 of Earths RevolutionRotation 687 days24 hours 39 minutes 35 seconds Martian day called a sol Tilt About 252 degrees would have seasons but would be more extreme versions of our Winter Ex Winter Colder Winter Even Colder Winter Coldest Winter Satellites Both resemble asteroids and are believed to be asteroids captured from the asteroid belt 1 Phobos max dimension about 16 miles 2 Deimos max dimension about 10 miles Atmosphere Thin and dry Mostly C02 about 95 Surface pressure only about 006 bars Temperature Range Max 70 degree F Min 220 degrees F Avg 60 degrees Surface Features Heavily cratered Southern hemisphere versus smoother volcanic domes in the North Separated by Rilles Mariner s Valley of Mariners about 3000 miles long 120 miles wide and 4 miles deep Greatest mountain in a Solar System Olympus Mars Mt Olympus stands about 16 miles tall base covers about 360 miles long This mountain is an extinct Volcano Life on Mars This is an important question Many probes have been sent to Mars to gather info about the planet No organic carbonbased compounds have not been found yet
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