Class Notes From 9/29-10/1
Class Notes From 9/29-10/1 PSYC 440 002
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PSYC 440 002
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PSYC 450 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Carroll on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 440 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Eugene Hubener in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Survey of Personality in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Freudian Theories Research support is weak because hypotheses are dif cult to test Freud39s theories are so abstract to try and study 0 Operationalize constructs o Achieve interrater reliability 0 Achieve validity Example of a Freudian Theory that is Hard to Test Penis Envy Someone tried to research this They used a paper pen test The dependent variable was whether the participant walked off with the pen that they used from the exam 0 Women have more penis envy than men and in return they hoarded pen more than men 0 The study did nd a systematic difference of women hoarding pens more than men Research Subport for Freudian Theories Unconscious can in uence cognitionsbehaviors Silverman 0 Example Schizophrenic males shown a movie and a clip was shown a 4000th of a sec periodically throughout the movie that said one of three things 0 This is a population that is hard to manipulate and is very resistant to change That is why this is study is impressive that the messages did in uence behavior 2 Mom and l are one 0 PT increases 3 Destroy Mom 0 PT decreases 4 Neutral Message Men talking The more sophisticated the more mature defense mechanism that we typically employ the more likely we are to be well adjusted Vaillant Harvard Study 0 Level 1 denial 0 Level 2 projection passive aggression 0 Level 3 intellectualization reaction formation 0 Level 4 altruism humor sublimation Example Small number of Harvard males study over years that gave a lot of information longitudinal study 0 Defense mechanisms in the Harvard males 0 More sophisticated defense mechanism better mental health 0 They coded trends of how they dealt with daily tasks Conscious Coping Strategies Lazarus 0 Problem focused o Emotion focused 0 Mixed Example coping is good because not everything in unconscious Problem focused strategies where you directly alter the stressor Emotion focused strategies that alter emotions use this in situations you can39t control like death and with disabilities 0 Mixed Major Findings in Research on Coping Those who use coping strategies do better than those who don39t duh 0 Plan for different situations 0 Problem focused strategies are usually better than emotion or mixed focused Trait Psychology 0 Trait o Broad individual differences in social emotional functions 0 There is a genetic component to traits 0 Internal characteristics or tendency that are relatively stable across time and situations 0 Differentiated from state state of anxiety 0 Biologically predisposed to traits and shaped by the environment though of trait psychology Example Trait happy generally all the time 0 State how you feel at the moment 0 Situational Trait Measurement De ne the trait 0 Write items 0 Select questionresponse format 0 Try out items 0 Item analysis itemtotal correlation 0 Factor analysis 0 Statistical procedure to reduce data to a smaller number of factors Smallest number of important domains 0 How many clusters are formed by looking at the interitem correlation matrix You want all the questions that pertain to one trait to cluster together and not with other traits don39t relate O o Replicate Measurement Principle 0 Reliability consistency of the measure across time and item 0 Testretest reliability consistent across items Coef cient Alpha mean of all possible splithalves Average score and you want it to be high 0 Individual purposes 90 0 Research purposes 6070 0 Note you cannot have validity without reliability but you can have reliability without validity You don39t want test retest reliability when you expect a drastic change 0 Example improvement in reading during the 1St and 2nCI grade
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