Bio 110 Week 7 Notes
Bio 110 Week 7 Notes BIOL 110 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 110 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Thomas L. Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Biology Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Bio 110 Week 7 Notes Review What is the most important process of life 0 Using energy to create order Chapter 6 Reproduction 0 Introduction 0 You are the end result of an unbroken lineage going back over 35 billion years The first cells arose through abiogenesis as metabolically active rocks Reproduction is an essential process of life Reproduction ensures the continuity of life Reproduction and adaptive evolution I Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes 0 O O 0 better suited to its habitat This process takes place over many generations and is one of the basic phenomena of biology O Reproduction and DNA replication I DNA replication is the process by which a double stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules Replication is an essential process because whenever a cell divides the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic information or DNA as the parent cell Eukaryotic reproduction it s mostly sexual O The paradox of reproduction I Why combine two sells into one I Why cut your potential mates in half 0 Having two sexes leads to Sexual Selection 0 61 Binary Fission 0 Learning objective 0 Explain the advantage of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes 0 Definition reproduction of a cell by division into two approximately equal parts 0 Prokaryotes reproduce asexually by binary fission 0 Example E coil in humans 4377 5 416 genes 5million base pairs I E coil genome remains small due to natural selection 62 Horizontal Gene Transfer 0 Learning Objective 0 Explain the role of horizontal gene transfer on evolution of life 0 Horizontal Gene Transfer AKA Lateral Gene Transfer 0 Refers to the transfer of genes between organisms in a manner other than traditional reproduction 0 Horizontal Gene Transfer VS Vertical Gene Transfer 0 HGT is not sexual reproduction Implicated in the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria Antibiotic resistance is a problem in the meat industry Works because the genetic code is universal VGT It contrasts with vertical transfer the transmission of genes from the parental generation to offspring via sexual or asexual reproduction O O O O 0 What exactly are we 0 The ancestors to mitochondria transferred about 500 genes to the nuclear genome O Viruses have inserted their genes into our ancestors I 100000 viral fragments in our genome I 8 of our genome is from viruses 0 Viruses have inserted their genes into our ancestors I One gene provided the code for a protein that allows the placenta to attach to the uterus I Viruses shaped the evolution of mammals 63 Eukaryotes and Mitosis 0 Learning Objective 0 Explain the importance of mitosis in eukaryotic cells 0 Eukaryotes evolved to be more complex 0 Mitochondria to produce ATP 0 Larger in size 0 Membrane bound organelles to compartmentalize the functions of the cell 0 Eukaryotic DNA is linear found in chromosomes diploid O The human karyotype 23 pairs of chromosomes 0 Mitosis is a sexual reproduction O Eukaryotic DNA in linear chromosomes 0 Produces genetically identical daughter cells 0 Mitosis is incredibly complicated A i 0N replication 0 Numerous proteins are involved 0 Mitosis is important for growth and development 0 Understanding mitosis will lead to cures for cancer Fun Fact NASA confirms liquid water on Mars 0 Improves our chances of finding life on mars Cool Organisms of the Day 0 Carnivorous Plants 0 Pitcher Plants 0 Sundew Plants 0 Bladderwort Plants 0 Venus Flytrap 2 One bacteri m Review 0 Prokaryotic Genomes O Remain small due to natural selection 0 Prokaryotes have small genomes and reproduce by binary fission 0 Horizontal Gene Transfer 0 Combines two whole genomes together into one organism O HGT has a large effect on evolution including mammals 0 Mitosis 0 Is asexual reproduction in eukaryotes O Produces genetically identical offspring 0 Is important for growth and development 0 Creates two diploid daughter cells 64 The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction 0 Learning Objective 0 Describe the leading theories to explain the evolution of sexual reproduction Sexual Reproduction O Producing a new organism by combining genetic information from two individuals of different sexes Genetic Recombination 0 Production of offspring with combination of traits that are different from the parents The Paradox of Sexual Reproduction O Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction SR offspring only 50 related to parents SR can break up favorable combination of AS offspring is 100 related to parents 0 Theory 1 Mitochondria Endosymbiosis in a nutshelll l u 3 One bacterium new engulfs the other lives inside the other I ci 5 The internam bacteria are passed mm from generatinm a generation I Mitochondria produce lots of energy Also produce damaging free radicals They can cause damage to DNA If the cell dies you do too With two copies of DNA at least one is a working allele and helps with DNA repair Mitochondria do not like to compete with unrelated mitochondria 0 Theory 2 Getting rid of deleterious alleles pat grandpa pat grandma WELEWT IHPE matlgninm ma I Example Floppy ears in modern dogs is a disadvan I 39 I v I Deleterious alleles can build up in a population if 0 Theory 3 Sexual reproduction enhances genetic variability quot w 65 Meiosis Increases Genetic Diversity 0 Learning Objective J 0 Explain how meiosis increases genetic diversity user sms 0 Meiosis produces haploid gametes O Describes a cell that contains a single set of chromosomes we term napioi39dcan also refer to the number of chromosomes in egg or sperm cells which are also called gametes 0 Humans are diploid with 46 chromosomes and 23 pairs 0 Human Karyotype I Most living things have chromosomes or units of genetic information in their cells The number and appearance of chromosomes vary among species A karyotype is the number size and shape of chromosomes in an organism I Humans gametes are haploid and they have 23 chromosomes 0 DNA condenses to chromosomes 0 Sister chromatids are replicated chromosomes 0 Homologous chromosomes for a tetrad O Crossing over occurs I The exchange of genetic material on chromosomes during meiosis 0 Random Independent I Assortment of chromosomes I The exchange of genetic material on chromosomes during meiosis 0 Random Fertilization I Gametes randomly fuse of 70 trillion possibilities 66 Why have two sexes 0 Review 0 Theory 1 Mitochondria did it I Which sex donates all the mitochondria cytoplasm and organelles I Mitochondria do not like to compete with unrelated mitochondria 67 Sexual Selection 0 If there are two sexes 0 One sex choose a mate based on certain features I Example Lager tails or Intricate feathers 0 Good Genes Theory 0 Female Choice I Which traits are important to the females 0 Examples Sexual Selection colorful male and drab female 0 Northern Mockingbird Males and females are identical but males sing and females are silent The females choose the males based on their song 0 Male Choice I Certain aspects of females are the result of male choice I Scientific studies show women can lead men to being cognitively impaired 68 The Birds and the Bees 0 They are nothing like us 0 Haplodiploidy 0 Male ants have no fathers but they have grandfathers I Social ants and bees have haplodiploidy I Queen ants lay egg and serviced by the males 0 Males are haploid while females are diploid I Is a seX determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid 0 Parthenogenesis O Reproduction from an ovum without fertilization especially as a normal process in some invertebrates and lower plants 0 Females reproduce asexually I Every individual is a female 0 Offspring are female clones I Females must still simulate copulation I Females aphids are born pregnant 0 Sequential Hermaphroditism 0 Is a type of hermaphroditism that occurs in many fish gastropoda and plants Sequential hermaphroditism occurs when the individual changes seX at some point in its life 0 Protogyny Female to Male I It s complicated 0 Sneaker Males 0 Large males hold territory but small males sneak in 0 Size matters not 0 SeX Determinism Genetics X and Y chromosome in mammals Genetics W and Z chromosome in birds Genetics Haplodiploidy in ants bees and wasps Environment temperature of the eggs when they are incubating I Females develop from lower temps and the males develop from higher OOOO temps 0 Environment depends on who is present 0 Flowers are for reproduction O Attract pollinators to spread pollen End of Week 7 notes 0 Also Week 8 Notes will hopefully be upload by next Friday or Saturday at the latest Thank you for using Studysoup and have a great three day weekend
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