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Week 1 Notes

by: Annabelle Shaffer

Week 1 Notes BSC197

Annabelle Shaffer
GPA 4.0
Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Wade Nichols

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Week 1 notes for BSC 197
Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Wade Nichols
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annabelle Shaffer on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 10/04/15
Wednesday August 19 2015 BSC 197 Week 1 Notes Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life This is the first week so notes will be shorter than normal These notes are meant to supplement Dr Nichol s powerpoint slides which are available on Reggie Net These notes were taken from lecture WF not Monday this week because it was just syllabus stuff Hierarchy of Life As you probably know from past science classes the cell is the basic unit of life Cells communicate to form tissues It may be different cell types combing to form a tissue but the cells could also be identical Tissues communicate to form organs which then communicate to form organ systems Organ systems eventually lead to organisms There is a saying that says that two brains is better than one It is similar in the case of cells tissues and organs A group of cells functioning together is better than just one cell on its own This is known as an emergent property definition the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Diversity of Life There is a great variability in organisms including classification environment etc Classification of organisms Domain is based on cell type Domain Bacteria Domain Archea less complex no nucleus Domain Eukarya more complex has a nucleus Kingdom Prokaryotae Protoctista Wednesday August 19 2015 Fungi Plantae Animalia Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Evolution through Natural Selection I m sure you have heard of Darwin and his finches in the Galapagos Basically a long time ago a scientist named Charles Darwin traveled to the Galapagos to study natural selection Natural selection is the process of those best suited for their environment surviving and reproducing ln natural selection the organisms who are poorly suited for their environment die out Natural selection starts with a species with a variety of genetically inherited traits Obviously since the traits are different some traits will help an organism more than other traits Some organisms will die off due to poor genetic traits without reproducing The organisms that survive wi reproduce leading to more organisms with the preferred traits Energy Flow Energy originates from the sun Nearly all organisms depend on the sun s energy even we do Many organisms get energy directly from the sun such as plants Many organisms get energy from the sun indirectly by eating those plants For example when you eat a hamburger you are indirectly relying on the sun for energy You re getting energy from the burger The cow ate grass which got energy from the sun to go through photosynthesis Once energy has been captured organisms can and will become very competitive overH Wednesday August 19 2015 Scientific Method Most scientific research is hypothesis driven However it does not have to be One major example of nonhypothesis based research given in class was the human genome project Many research projects are exploration based You can never prove a hypothesis Scientists work to provide support for their hypotheses or work to disprove them When a hypothesis has a large amount of valid scientific work backing it it is considered a theory Model Systems Many people find it odd that fruit flies are often used for scientific research Scientists use a model that shares a similar trait with the organism they actually want to study Laws dictate humans cannot be used in early stages of research so other organisms must be used This is the end of Wednesday s Lecture Notes August 19 2015 This is the start of Friday s Lecture Notes August 21 2015 Reminder First online EC quiz is up It is due Monday at 8 am Abundant Elements in Biology The most abundant elements in biology are Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen and Nitrogen By weight oxygen makes up much of the human body Other elements commonly present in biology are Phosphorous Calcium Magnesium Potassium and Sulfur Organic material comprises a surprisingly small amount of elements only 25 elements Atomic Structure An atom consists of three basic particles that is all this class will be dealing with anyway you can separate electrons into quarks but there is no reason to concern yourself with that for this class The nucleus is basically a ball of positive charge that is central in an atom The nucleus houses the protons and the neutrons of an atom Due to the weight of the protons and the neutrons the nucleus is relatively easy compared to the rest of the atom Protons positively charged sub particles that exist in the nucleus Electrons negatively charged sub particles that orbit the nucleus Wednesday August 19 2015 Neutrons neutrally charged sub particles that exist in the nucleus The atomic mass and atomic number of an atom are not to be confused The atomic number is how atoms are identified on the periodic table and is the amount of protons in an atom of a certain element The number of protons does not change for an element For example if the number of protons in Oxygen goes from 8 to 6 it is no longer an Oxygen atom It would be considered an isotope of Carbon Atomic mass is roughly equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons An ion is an atom that has a difference in the number of protons verse electrons giving it a positive or negative charge This often occurs when an atom gains or loses electrons through ionic bonding A neutral atom is an atom with an equal number of protons and electrons An isotope is an element that has the usual number protons but has varying amounts of neutrons For an example look at Carbon Carbon12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons Carbon14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons The atomic mass differs for isotopes so the atomic mass listed for an element on the periodic table is actually a weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes for that element Chemical Bonding and Electron Shells Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons Polarity plays a role in covalent bonding Polarity is basically how strong of a pull an atom has on electrons The more polar atom gets more of the shared electrons making polar covalent bonding an unequal sharing of electrons The most polar element is Fluorine lonic bonding is the give and take of electrons Atoms with 1 or 7 electrons in the outer shell are the most reactive The atom with 7 valence electrons Valence electrons electrons in the outer shell wants to steal 1 electron while the atom with 1 valence electron wants to give their electron away They give and take electrons to reach a stable outer shell 2 or 8 valence electrons depending on the atom Electron shells generally hold 8 electrons with the exception of the first shell The first shell only holds two electrons Shells after that all hold 8 in very large atoms the very outer shells can hold more than 8 electrons In an orbital shell holding 8 electrons there are 4 slots for electrons each holding two Electrons only double up if forced This was meant as a basic chemistry lecture Email with questions ashaff2ilstuedu This is the end of Friday s Lecture notes August 21 2015


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