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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Zoe Lipner on Tuesday October 21, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/21/14
Metabolism 102114 525 PM Why are frogs green but can39t make their own food Specialized labor force of cells o Photosynthesis photoautotrophs requires pigments o Pigments any substance that can absorb light energy Radiate it as heat Radiate it as light Convert it to chemical energy o Chloroplast contain pigments that can convert light energy into chemical energy o Cellular respiration extracting energy from organic molecules Anaerobic universal means of energy production 9 wo the presence of oxygen 2 No oxygen required 2 Quicker but less energy produced 2 Photoautotrophschemoautotrophs photoheterotrophs chemoheterotrophs Aerobic 9 special for eukaryotes 2 Requires oxygen 2 Requires mitochondrion 2 Longer but more energy produced 2 Eukaryotic photoautotrophs amp chemoheterotrophs Energy in living systems Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in the body o Basal metabolic rate basal energy expenditure Measure carbon dioxide expulsion After sleeping 8 hours and fasting 12 hours More accurate o Resting metabolic rate Whenever patient is available resting energy expenditure Easier o Estimate equation Age sex height and weight What is the likely range for most women in the room for BMR 11001500 calories What is the likely range for most men in the room for BMR 17502000 calories Why is there a difference in men vs women Men have more muscle 0 Women have more fat o Muscle requires more energy to maintain and therefore more calories used Kickstart your metabolic engine The speed of your metabolism is a measure of how much energy your body uses for everything from reproduction to fighting off pathogens to walking down the stairs to thinking Restingbasal metabolic rate RMRBMR depends on o Metabolism Genetics Activity Foods you eat Environment Work Life AGE 2 every 10 years after 20 OOOOOOO All living cells require energy Metabolism Metabolic pathways o Assemble o Disassemble Enzymes Metabolism Coupled pathways in the body usually involve several reactions There may be several intermediates Each intermediate has its own enzyme 0 A9ENZYME19B9ENZYME29C9ENZYME39D Enzymes in metabolism If enzyme 2 isn39t formed properly what is the result o Accumulation of B What is enzyme 339s substrate 0 C What enzyme is responsible fr the production of D 0 A B C How does this relate to lysosomal storage disease Enzyme function Enzymes depend on random collisions Multiple enzymes may be located close together This maximizes molecular collisions to maximize the reactions that occur Energy in living systems Energy is the capacity of any object to do work amp can be found in every atom molecule particle and object Work is defined as the capacity to bring about a change in a defined system Energy can be expressed in many forms kinetic or potential energy o Potential energy Chemical Stored mechanical Nuclear Gravitational o Kinetic energy Electromagnetic Heat Mechanical Sound Electrical The laws of thermodynamics apply to living systems The first law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of any closed system remains the same over time o Energy cannot be either created or destroyed The second law states that the natural tendency of the universe is to become less organized over time o Constantly combatting the second law Take home message o The universe contains a fixed amount of energy o Energy can be neither created or destroyed O Thermo effect of feeding TEF Amount of energy it takes to digest your food o What is the difference Is the food made up of monomers that can be absorbed easHy Is the food made up of one type of macromolecule The role of energy in living systems Cells must capture store and use energy to counteract the effects of the second law of thermodynamics The chemical reactions needed to maintain order are not 100 percent efficient as they lose metabolic heat to the environment Heat energy is the energy found in the random motion of particles in a system that can be transferred to other particles in the system Why do we need energy To power the reactions in our cells o Some reactions occur naturally O