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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Zoe Lipner on Tuesday October 21, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/21/14
Energy 102114 526 PM The Carbon Cycle and Energy Energy transfer in nonliving systems can be explosive 0 Heat carbon in wood 02 9 CO2 H20 Energy heat and light What type of energy is formed when a match is lit Sound heat and electromagnetic What are the limits How could you immediately extinguish the flame 0 Cut off its oxygen source What is the danger of putting an oil fire out with water Calorie or calorie A measure of energy 0 calorie amount of heat needed to raise 1g of water 1 C 0 galorie amount of heat needed to raise lkg of water 1 C kilocalorie Calorimeter 0 Burns dried food to determine the amount of energy it contains 0 What substances will provide energy Proteins Carbs Lipids Metabolism amp Life Span Slowing down metabolism increases life span Higher metabolism results in toxic by products free radicals Antioxidants help break down free radicals o ie Vitamin E Vitamin C Beta carotene Free radicals attack and snatch energy from other cells to satisfy themselves What do we know about RMRBMR Not a lot Very conflicting evidence for whether higher BMR or lower BMR is better Correlations do exist with lower BMR and longevity 0 Exercise 0 Genetics 0 Sleep 0 Risky Behavior Could this be a coincidence What other factors are there Higher metabolic rates may shorten life spans because Toxic by products build up quickly and are more likely to damage DNA Transferring energy Light energy 9 transferred to electrons Chemical bonds 9 from one molecule to another Electricity 9 flow of electrons creates bonds Key players 0 Energy carriers 0 Receive 0 Store 0 Deliver Chemical carrier 2 ATP Electron carriers 2 NADH cellular respiration Pick up m 2 FADH2 cellular respiration 2 NADPH photosynthesis Deliver energy by providing electrons and hydrogen atoms to anabolic pathways Electron transport chain 0 Just like the electricity in a wire ATP synthase O VVater O O Gases O O O 0 Electricity powers a specialized enzyme ATP synthase Producers absorb it from their environment CO2 needed for photosynthesis and produced during cell respiration O2 needed for cellular respiration and produced during photosynthesis Cellular respiration takes place in 3 stages Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol 2 The first step in the breakdown of sugars amp takes place in the cytosol 2 Glucose 6 carbon molecule Pyruvate two 3 carbon molecules ATP produced NADH 2 Then 2 options Anaerobic cellular respiration 2 Glycolysis doesn39t require oxygen it is an anaerobic process Glycolysis requires the presence of NAD 39 empty electron taxi Prokaryotes have no mitochondrion Fermentation by anaerobic yeasts convert The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria 2 Produces 2 CO2 released into atmosphere 2 ATP used in reactions 392 NADH and FADH2 energy carriers that will be used in the final stage of cellular respiration Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the mitochondria 2 Oxidative phosphorylation produces the largest amount of ATP o Energy from sugars v
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