Ch 5: Making a Living
Ch 5: Making a Living ANTHROP 2202H
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHROP 2202H at Ohio State University taught by Lexine Trask in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Ch 5 Making a Living Cohen developed 5 adaptive strategies foraging horticulture agriculture pastoralism industrialism Foraging O O O O O 0000 0 most cold areas big game hunters more biodiversity in warmer areas people rely on nature to make a living most foragers turned to food production and even today s foragers have some reliance on food production into contact with outsides government missionaries food producing neighbors requires less work than farming traditionally correlates with the band social unit and with a mobile lifestyle modern foragers live on marginal lands correlation an association between two or more variables such that when one changes the others also change band basic unit of social organization among foragers a band includes fewer than 100 people often splits up seasonally division of labor based on gender men usually hunt women usually gather but differs between societies Horticulture O O O nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time uses simple tools slash and burn shifting cultivation shift plots rather than their settlements Agriculture 0 nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor differs from horticulture by using land continuously and intensively requires more labor results in permanent changes to the land irrigation canals and terracing provides a greater long term yield relies on just a few staple foods and results in sedentary living and larger population densities irrigated fields are capital investments that increase the value labor necessary to maintain and build terraces is great long term yield per area is far greater and more dependable than horticulture sedentary populations because of permanent fields and large populations o irrigation ditches become repositories for organic waste chemicals and disease microorganisms 0 leads to deforestation which has direct effect on the ecosystems o specialize in few staple crops decreasing diversity Pastoralism 0 people who use a foodproducing strategy of adaptation based on caring for herds of domesticated animals typically use their herds for food consuming the meat blood and milk 0 they follow their herds in an annual trek nomadism movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group with their animals 0 transhumance one of two variants of pastoralism in which part of the populations moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages Economy a population s system of production distribution and consumption of resources mode of production way of organizing production a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools skills and knowledge 0 capitalist or kin based usually division of labor is based on age and gender but specific tasks differ in every culture means of production land labor technology and capital major productive resources 0 land as a means right to it through kinship and marriage manufacturing linked to age and gender ie if married women customarily make baskets then most married women know how to make baskets craft specialization reflects on the social and political environment rather than the natural environment alienation in industrial societies work and the workplace are separate from one s social essence o labor becomes a commodity to be paid for whereas in nonindustrial society labor results in a product that the owner is proud of and can do with the product what heshe likes economic anthropologists focus on the systems and the individuals separately classical economic theory our wants are infinite but our means are limited 0 how people use scarce resources maximizing profits peasants small scale agriculturist living in a state with rent fund obligations 0 rent fund taxes to superiors government landlords or other people who take advantage of them three principles that guide exchanges o the market principle profitoriented principle of exchange that dominates in states particularly industrial states goods and services are bought and sold and values are determine by supply and demand o redistribution major exchange mode of chiefdoms many archaic states and some states with managed economies o reciprocity governs exchange between social equals major exchange mode in band and tribal societies reciprocity continuum regarding exchanges a range running from generalizes reciprocity through balanced reciprocity to negative reciprocity usually used in foraging and tribal groups someone gives a gift how fast until it is reciprocated coexistence of exchange principles within North American society redistribution taxes welfare programs reciprocal exchanges between child and parent or invitations to parties potlatch competitive feast among lndians on the North Pacific Coast of North America 0 during it sponsors give away food blankets copper and other items in return for prestige and enhance one s reputation o linked local villages and strengthened relations 0 from it could gain material wealth