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Chapter 2: The Biological Perspective

by: Heather Caffey

Chapter 2: The Biological Perspective 42829 - PSY 121 - 003

Marketplace > Missouri State University > Psychlogy > 42829 - PSY 121 - 003 > Chapter 2 The Biological Perspective
Heather Caffey
GPA 3.78
Introductory Psychology
Christie L Cathey

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Chapter 2: The Biological Perspective Class and textbook notes from the PSY 121 class taught by Dr. Cathey. Talks about the neurons, nerves, and nervous systems of the body
Introductory Psychology
Christie L Cathey
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Caffey on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 42829 - PSY 121 - 003 at Missouri State University taught by Christie L Cathey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 2 The Biological Perspective l Neurons and Nerves Building the Network 1 2 Nervous System network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body Neuroscience branch of life sciences that deals with structure and functioning of the brain and neurons nerves and nervous tissue that from the Nervous System Biological Psychology Behavioral Neuroscience branch of neuroscience that focus on biological bases of psychological processes behavior and learning b Structure of the Neuron The Nervous System39s Building Block 1 2 1887 Santiago Ram n y Cajal rst theorized that nervous system was made up of individual cells Neuron specialized cell in nervous system that receives and sends messages from other cells a Attached to soma cell body Axon ber attached to the soma job is to carry messages out to other cells a Axon Terminals little knobs on the end of the axon responsible for communication with other cells Glial Cells primary cells that serve a variety of functions in the brain a Structure on which the neuron develop and work and that hold neurons in place getting nutrients to neurons cleaning up dead neurons communication with neurons and other glial cells providing insulation for neurons b Affect functioning and structure of neurons Myelin layer of fatter substances created by oligodendrocytes and Schwamm cells a Oligodendrocytes produce myelin in the brain and spinal cord b Schwamm Cells produce myelin in neurons of the body Wraps around shaft of axons Nerves bundles of axons in peripheral nervous system e Offers a little protection from damage and speeds up neural message traveling down the axon an c Generating the Message Within the Neuron The Neural Impulse 1 A neuron at rest is electrically charged 8 Diffusion process of ions moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Electrostatic Pressure relative balance of electrical charges when the ion is at rest Relative charge of ions inside the cell is mostly negative and outside is relatively positive Semipermeable some substances outside the cell can enter through channels in the membrance while other substances can go outside Resting Potential the electrical potential when the cell is at rest Action Potential electrical charge reversal it is in action one of one thousandth of a second a Sequences of ion channels opening all down the length of the cell Neuron res in an allor none fashion d Neurotransmission i Sending the Message to Other Cells The Synapse 1 2 3 Neurotransmitters molecules of substances inside the synaptic vesicles that are suspended in uid Synapse Synaptic Gap uid lled space between a synaptic knob and a dendrite Receptor Sites proteins that allow only particular molecules of a certain shape to t into it How do neurotransmitters get across the gap a When action potential reaches synaptic vessels synaptic vessels release neurotransmitters into synaptic gap b Molecules oat across synapse and t themselves into receptor sites opening ion channels and allowing sodium in activating the next cell Excitatory Effect turn on and Inhibitory Effect turn off a More correct Effect Synapse b Effect of neurotransmitter that is either excitatory or inhibitory at receptor sites of a particular synapse ii Neurotransmitters Messengers of the Network 1 Acetylcholine Ach a First neurotransmitter to be identi ed b Found at synapse between neurons and muscle cells hippocampus c Serves to stimulate skeletal muscles to contract but slows contractions in heart muscle Antagonist chemical substance that blocks or reduces the effects of a neurotransmitter Agonist chemical substance that mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter 4 Neuropeptides group f substances that can serve as neurotransmitters hormones or in uence the action of other neurotransmitters 5 Endorphines neuropeptide paincontrolling chemicals in the body a Endogenous morphine iii Cleaning up the Synapse Reuptake and Enzymes 1 Reuptake a process that puts neurotransmitters back in the synaptic vesicles so the synapse is cleared for the next release 2 Enzymatic Degradation speci c enzymes designed to break down speci c chemicals cears synaptic gap quickly 3 Drugs as Agonists can mimic or enhance the effects of neurotransmitters for sites of the next cell a Can result in the increase or decrease in activity of receiving ceIIs depending on effect of original neurotransmitter 4 Drugs as Antagonists blocks or reduces a ceII39s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters a Increase in activity of cell that would normally have been inhibited blocks inhibitory effect 5 Drugs interfere with regular reuptake 6 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRI blocks the reuptake of Serotonin II An Overview of the Nervous System a The Central Nervous System the quotCentral Processing Unitquot 1 Central Nervous System composed of the brain and spinal cord ii The Brain 1 Core of the nervous system 2 Makes sense of information received from the senses makes decisions and sends commands to the body iii The Spinal Cord 1 Long bundle of neurons that serves two vital functions for nervous system 2 Outer section composed mainly of myeinated axons and nerves 3 Inner section composed mainly of cell bodies of neurons 4 Afferent Sensory Neurons carry messages from senses to spinal cord 5 Efferent Motor Neurons carry messages from the spinal cord to the muscles and gIands 6 Interneurons connect afferent neurons to motor neurons 7 Re ex Arc connection of afferent neurons to interneurons to efferent neurons resulting the re ex arc iv Damage to the Central Nervous System 1 Neuroplasticity ability to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in the brain in response to experience and trauma 2 Stem Cells cells that can become any cell in the body v The Peripheral Nervous System Nerves on the Edge 1 Peripheral Nervous System made up all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord 2 Allows brain and spinal cord to communicate with sensory systems and enables brain and spinal cord to control the muscles and glands 3 Somatic Nervous System consists of nerves that control the voluntary muscles of the body b The Systematic Nervous System 1 Made up of sensory pathway and motor pathway a Sensory Pathway All nerves carrying messages from the sense to the central nervous system b Motor Pathway all nerves carrying messages from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles of the body c The Automatic Nervous System 1 Function in this system more or less automatic 2 Divided into two systems 3 The Sympathetic Division quotfightor ightquot Helps deal with stressful events by readying the body c Adrenal glands will be stimulated to release certain stressrelated chemicals into the bloodstream d Decreases digestive functions dries saliva and burn tremendous amounts of fuel e When stress ends the sympathetic division will be replaced by the parasympathetic division f If stress is too long or intense person might coHapse 4 The Parasympathetic Division a quoteatdrinkandrestquot b Job is to restore body to normal functioning after stressful situation ends c Responsible for most of the daytoday bodily functioning lll Distant Connections The Endocrine Glands a Glands and Hormones 1 Endocrine Glands have no glands and secrete chemicals directly into bloodstream a Hormones chemicals secreted b Generally slower due to hormones traveling O39QJ 2 Hormones affect behavior and emotions by stimulating muscles organs or other glands of the body ii The Pituitary Master of the Hormonal Universe 1 Pituitary Gland a Located in the brain just below the hypothalamus b Master gland controls and in uences all other endocrine glands c Controls things associated with pregnancy through hormone oxytocin d Controls levels of salt and water in body through hormone vasopressin 2 Forms very important part of the feedback system iii The Pineal Gland 1 Located in the brain directly above brain stem 2 Secretes melatonin helps track day length and seasons iv The Thyroid Gland 1 Located inside the neck 2 Secretes hormones that regulate growth and metabolism v Pancreas 1 Controls level of blood sugar in the body by secreting insulin and glucagons 2 Too little insulin diabetes 3 Too much insulin hypoglycemia low blood sugar vi The Gonads 1 Sex glands ovariesfemale testesmale 2 Secrete hormones that regulate sexual behavior and reproduction vii The Adrenal Glands 1 Two one on top of each kidney 2 Two sections a Adrenal Medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine aids in sympathetic arousal b Adrenal Cortex produces corticoids steroids and cortisol i Steroids regulate salt intake and help initiate and control stress reactions provides source of sex hormones ii Cortisol released when body experiences stress physical and psychological important in release of glucose into bloodstream during stress providing energy for brain and release of fatty acids from fat cells that provide muscles with energy b Hormones and Stress i The General Adaptation Syndrome 1 Hans Selye found of eld of research concerning stress and its effect on human body 2 General Adaptation Syndrome sequence of physiological reactions that body goes through when adapting to a stressor consisting of three stages a Alarm sympathetic nervous system activated b Resistance body settles into sympathetic division activity stage will continue until stressor ends or organism has used up all resources c Exhaustion body s resources are gone can lead to formation of stressrelated diseases or death parasympathetic division activates and body attempts to replenish resources ii Immune System and Stress 1 Immune System system of cells organs and chemicals in body that responds to attacks on body from disease and injuries 2 Psychoneuroimmunology concerns study of effects of psychological factors such as stress emotions thinking learning and behavior on immune system a Stress triggers same response as infection triggers 3 Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA hormone that aids in stress toleration 4 Positive effects of stress on immune system only work when stress is not a continual chronic condition 5 Stress reaction might be designed only for a short term 6 Heart Disease a Coronary Heart Disease CHD buildup of plaque in arteries of the heart b Prolonged stress is not good 7 Cancer can affect any part of the body cells divide and never stop a Natural Killer NK Cell immunesystem cell that suppresses viruses and destroys tumor cells i Stress has been shown to depress NK cells b Adrenaline is found to interfere with a protein that normally suppresses cancer cells c Stress can impact cancer treatment 8 Other Health Issues a Type 2 Diabetes excessive weight gain and occurs when pancreas insulin levels become less ef cient as body size increases b Stress is a contributing factor in a variety of human diseasesdisorders lV Looking Inside the Living Brain a Methods for Studying Speci c Regions of the Brain i Lesioning Studies 1 Lesioning electrical current strong enough to kill off target neurons is sent through tip of the wise a Done to animals to see what happens with part of the brain damaged 2 Can39t lesion a human so they study humans that already have some brain damage a Not an ideal way no two case studies will be the same ii Brain Stimulation 1 Less harmful way to study the brain is to temporarily disrupt or enhance the normal functioning of speci c brain areas through electrical stimulation 2 Invasive Techniques Stimulating From the Inside a Deep Brain Stimulation DBS neurosurgeons place electrodes in speci c deepbrain areas and then route electrode wires to impulse generator that is surgically implanted under the coarbone 3 Noninvasive Techniques Stimulating from the Outside a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS magnetic impulses are applied to cortex using special copper wire coiIs that are positioned over the head i Magnetic elds stimulate neurons in the targeted area of the cortex b Repetitive TMS rTMS pulses are administered in repetitive fashion c Transcranial Direct Current Stiumlation tDCS scalp electrodes pass very low amplitude direct current to brain to change excitability of cortical neurons directly below electrodes b Neuroimaging Techniques i Mapping Structure 1 Computed Tomography CT involves mapping quotslicesquot of brain by computer a Scan can show stroke damage tumors injuries and abnormal brain structure 2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI provides details that CT scan could not a Scan person is placed inside Iarge machinet hat generates powerful magnetic eld to align hydrogen atoms in brain tissues radio pulses used to make atoms spin at particular frequency and direction 3 MRI Spectroscopy aIIows researchers to estimate concentration of speci c chemicals and neurotransmitters in the brain 4 Diffusion Tensor Imaging DTI uses MRI tech to provide way to measure connectivity in the brain by imaging white matter tracts a Used to investigate many disorders and conditions ii Mapping Function 1 The Electroencephalogram EEG involves using small metaldisk or spongelike electrodes placed directly on the scalp and special solution to help conduct the electrical signals from the cortex below a Can be used to help determine which areas of the brain are active during various mental tasks that involve memory and attention 2 EEG can be classi ed according to appearance and frequency different waves associated with different brain activity 3 EvenRelated Potentials ERPs multiple presentations of stimulus are measured during an EEG and then averaged to remove variations in ongoing brain activity that is normally recorded during EEG a Allow study of different stages of cognitive processing 4 Positron Emission Tomography PET person is injected with radioactive glucose sugar computer detects activity of brain cells by looking at which cells are using up radioactive glucose and projecting the image of that activity onto a monitor a Computer uses colors to indicate different levels of brain activity 5 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography SPECT measures brain blood flow and uses more easily obtainable radioactive tracres than those used for PET 6 Function MRI fMRI computer tracks changes in oxygen levels of the blood a Can give more detail tend to be clearer than PET scans and are incredibly useful tool for research into workings of the brain V From the Bottom Up The Structures of the Brain a The Hindbrain 1 Three Primary Divisions forebrain midbrain hindbrain a Forebrain cortex basal ganglia imbic system b Midbrain sensory and motor functions c Hindbrain medua pons cerebellum ii Medulla 1 Located at top of spinal column 2 Controls lifesustaining functions such as heartbeat breathing and swallowing iH Pons 1 Larger bridge just above the medulla a Bridge between lower parts of the brain and upper sections 2 Coordinate movements of left and right sides of the body 3 In uences sleep dreaming and arousal iv The Reticular Formation RF 1 Area of neurons running through middle of medulla and pons and slightly behind 2 Responsible for people39s ability to selectively attend to certain kinds of information in their surroundings 3 Also helps keep people alert and aroused 4 Reticular Activating System RAS stimulates the upper part of the brain v Cerebellum 1 Part of the lower brain that controls all involuntary rapid ne motor movement b Structures Under the Cortex the Limbic System 1 Forebrain includes two cerebral hemispheres of the brain and a number of important structures located under the cortex in each hemisphere 2 Limbic System includes thalamus hypothalamus hippocampus amygdale and cingulated cortex involved in emotions motivation and learning ii Thalamus 1 Round structure in center of brain acts as a kind of relay station for incoming sensory information 2 Olfactory Bulbs special parts of the brain that sense of smell goes directly to rather than go through the thalamus iii Hypothalamus 1 Located just below and in front of the thalamus 2 Regulates body temperature thirst hunger sleeping and waking sexual activity and emotions 3 Controls the pituitary iv Hippocampus 1 Located within medial temporal lobe on each side of the brain 2 Instrumental in forming longterm declarative memories v Amygdala 1 Located near hippocampus 2 Involved in fear responses and memory of fear 3 Information from senses goes here before the upper part of the brain 4 KliiverBucy Syndrome vi Cingulate Cortex 1 Limbic structure that is found in the cortex 2 Plays important role in emotions and cognitive processing 3 Divided into four regions that play different roles for processing emotional cognitive and autonomic information c The Cortex vi 1 Outermost part of the brain made up of tightly packed neurons 2 Wrinkling of cortex allows more cortical cells to exist in the skull 3 Corticalization increase in wrinkling Cerebral Hemispheres 1 Corpus Callosum connects left and right hemispheres allows left and right hemispheres to communicate with each other 2 Each hemisphere is responsible for opposite side of the body a Contralateral Organization plays role in information coming from many of the senses organs to the brain 3 Bilaterally as in hearing and vision information transmitted to both sides 4 lpsilaterally as in taste and olfaction information transmitted to one side Occipital Lobes 1 Base of cortex toward back of brain 2 Processes visual information from the eyes in primary visual cortex 3 Visual Association Cortex part of the brain that helps identify and make sense of visual information from the eyes Parietal Lobes 1 Top and back of the brain under parietal bone 2 Somatosensory Cortex area of neurons at front of parietal lobes on either side of the brain a Processes information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch temperature and body position Temporal Lobes 1 Just behind temples of the head 2 Contain primary auditory cortex and auditory association area Frontal Lobes 1 Located at front of the brain 2 Higher mental functions of the brain 3 Perseveration making same movement over and over again 4 Motor Cortex control movements of body39s voluntary muscles by ending commands out to somatic division of peripheral nervous system 5 Mirror Neurons a Fire when an animal performs an action b Fire when an animal observes that same action being performed by another d The Association Areas of the Cortex 1 Made up of neurons in cortex that are devoted to making connections between sensory information coming into the brain and stored memories images and knowledge 2 Much of the brain39s association cortex is in frontal lobe ii Broca39s Area 1 Left frontal lobe devoted to production of speech 2 Named after nineteenth century neurologist Paul Broca 3 Damage person is unable to get words out in a smooth connected fashion 4 Broca39s Aphasia inability to use or understand written or spokenlanguage iii Wernicke39s Area 1 Left temporal lobe 2 Named after Carl Wernicke 3 Involved in understanding the meaning of words 4 Wernicke39s Aphasia able to speak uently but not with the right words iv Spatial Neglect 1 A person with damage to the right parietal and occipital lobes of cortex will ignore everything in the left visual eld a Sometimes following a stroke 2 Phantoms ofthe Brain Dr VS Ramachandran e The Cerebral Hemispheres Are You in Your Right Mind 1 Cerebrum upper part of the brain consisting of two hemispheres and structures connecting them ii SplitBrain Research 1 Roger Sperry 2 Left hemisphere processes information in sequence and is good at analysis 3 Right hemisphere processes information all at once and simultaneously 4 Brain is always working together as a whole in Handedness 1 Separate functions of the left and right sides of the brain are often confused with handedness a Tendency to use one hand for skills Class Notes for Chapter 2 VI Overview of the Nervous System a Network of cells carry messages throughout body b Central brain and spinal cord c Peripheral autonomic and somatic i Autonomic parasympathetic and sympathetic d Autonomic glands internal organs automatic i Parasympathetic returns body to normal ii Sympathetic ght or ight e Somatic responsible for moving the body and sensory information Structure of the Neuron a Glial and Neurons i Cell body soma ii Dendrites receive messages and information iii Axon tubelike sends messages and information iv Myelin fatty substance that protects cell builds up until around age 24 1 Multiple Scelorosis breaks down myelin v AxonTerminalSynaptic Knob vi Synaptic GapSynapsis neurotransmitters travel across the gap to send information Types of Neurons a Afferent sensory neurons b Efferent motor neurons c lnterneurons connect afferent and efferent in spinal cord d Re ex Arc just a re ex in the spine Neurotransmitters a Excitatory turning on i Norepinephrine glutamate b Inhibitory turning off i Endorphins c Excitatory or Inhibitory i Acetylcholine serotonine happiness mood appetite dopamine movement d Antagonist i Blow dart ii Chemicals that block the effect of the neurotransmitter e Agonist i Black Widow ii Chemicals that raise the effect of the neurotransmitter iii Norepinephrine morphine Neuron Growth a Neuroplasticity brain regrows and regrains Parts of the Brain a Frontal Lobe front brain b Temporal Lobe temples c Parietal Lobe sensory Q Occipital Lobe optical vision Prefrontal Cortex planning complex cognitive behaviors appropriate social behavior impulse Case of Phineas Gage Cerebral Hemispheres i Corpus Callosom connects left and right ii Left right side of the body analysis language iii Right left side of the body artistic recognition iv SplitBrain Patients epilepsy 1 Hemispheres can not communicate


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