PSYC 3110: Prejudice Notes
PSYC 3110: Prejudice Notes Psych 3110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3110 at Bowling Green State University taught by Joshua Ricker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
PSYC 3110: Prejudice notes Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination Obesity, sexual orientation, age discrimination Categorization: Prototype o A typical number of a category o Useful for their speed o Allows for easy categorization o The closer something is to the prototype, the more likely we consider it a part of that category In vs. Out Group In group- the group we consider ourselves to be part of Out group- everyone else that is not in our group In group bias- tendency to favor your own group o Make yourself feel better about yourself o Small group- more likely to happen, or lower ranking groups in society Out group homogeneity effect- perceiving the members of the out group to all be the same Own-race-bias- we more accurately identify people of our own race o Consistent across all races o Stems from the out group homogeneity effect Prejudice- hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group on the bases of generalizations derived from faulty or incomplete information Components of Prejudice: Cognitive o Stereotypical beliefs o Difficult to change Emotional o Dislike or hostility towards a group Behavioral o Taking action to discriminate Are We All Prejudice? We quickly notice when others are prejudice Our own are more difficult to recognize These can stem from being raised in a society that breeds the prejudice itself Individual Differences that can Lead to Prejudice: Social dominance orientation o Preference to live in a society with social hierarchies o Males Perceived Vulnerability to Disease o How vulnerable do you feel you are too contracting something? Prejudice Can be conscious and intentional Can also be unconscious and unintentional Wanted $11,000 o White males: $11,362 o White females: $11,504 o Black males: $11,783 o Black females: $12,237 Not All Prejudice is Racial More instances of subtle prejudice were observed against homosexuals The same occurs for women 2 types of sexism: o Hostile- active dislike of women o Benevolent- appears to favor women but really patronizes them Justification: Not expressing prejudiced behavior takes cognitive energy Justification of our prejudice saves us from using the energy of suppressing it Other’s control over the situation influences our justification Prejudice does not always lead to negative actions Positive Feedback Positive feedback bias: o Giving more lenient feedback to those of a minority group than your own group for work of equal merit Why? o Expectation of minorities to perform worse, so you are less harsh o You feel sympathy for the disadvantaged o You feel guilty for the treatment of the other group, so this reduces guilt o You want to see yourself positively Stereotypes: Stereotype- to generalize characteristics, motives, or behaviors, to an entire group of people We apply these to all members of the group, regardless of evidence Develop at a very young age Stereotyping is an evolutionary advantageous strategy o Allows for quick categorization It is a common misconception that they are all negative o Asians are smart o Jewish people are good with money o All Canadians are nice o Black people are good at sports o Latinas are good dancers The Negative of a Positive You are labeling everybody as one It may put pressure on a specific group They distort our perception of others Where do they come from? Stereotypes are generally not formed from life experiences Come from: o “Hearsay” o Mass media o Our own minds Implicit vs. Explicit Attitudes Explicit attitudes- those you openly express o I really like pizza o I hate that show Implicit attitudes- those which you do not consciously express o Much more resistant to change o Look at reaction time Implicit Association Test Peoples implicit attitudes towards other people What has the IAT found? Whites: o 88% pro-white/anti-black bias Heterosexuals: o 83% pro-straight bias Blacks: o 48% pro-white/anti-black bias Homosexuals: o 38% pro-straight bias Is the IAT valid? Some argue that we are not measuring unconscious biases Instead, we are measuring awareness of stereotypes Split-second biases do not reflect actions March 23, 2016 Exposure to the Group Can being exposed to the group you are biased against reduced stereotypical behavior? Attributions Ultimate attribution error- tendency to make negative dispositional attributions about members of out groups o Done when insufficient information is available Self Fulfilling Prophecy The process that occurs when people: o Have an expectation about what another person is like which then… o Influences how they act towards that person, and… o Causes that person to behave in a way that confirms those peoples original expectations How stereotypes can affect performance: Stereotype threat: the apprehension that is experienced by members of the minority group o Stems from fear of confirming the stereotype o Can interfere with behavior/performance o Can be alleviated Blaming the victim- attributing the victim’s problem to their own behavior, disability, or personality A form of justification The world is “fair and just” What leads to prejudice? A possible built-in survival mechanism Economic/political competition o Realistic group conflict theory- whenever there is competition for anything, prejudice goes up Displaced aggression o Scapegoats Maintaining status/self-image Dispositional prejudice Conformity How can we reduce prejudice? Giving information that counters the stereotype? o No, people will ignore it or fight it, they do not want to change their beliefs Increase amount of contact? o Only if status is equal Make contact inevitable? o Reduces prejudice through cognitive dissonance Teamwork! Cooperative problem solving decreases hostility Muzafer Sherif boy scout study A practical application: The jigsaw classroom o Typical classrooms have a competitive nature Strive to be right Raising a hand to get teacher’s attention o Jigsaw classroom require cooperation for success Switches others from the out group to the in group
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