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Chapter 8 Vocabulary Notes

by: Naida Adams

Chapter 8 Vocabulary Notes PSYC 1000

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1000 > Chapter 8 Vocabulary Notes
Naida Adams
GPA 2.4

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About this Document

Use this sheet to create flash cards and better familiarize with this weeks vocabulary
Introductory Psychology
Christyn Dolbier
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/20/16
Chapter 8 ​MNEMONIC​  Vocabulary:    Term:  Definition:   Connection:  memory  the persistence of learning over    time through the storage and  retrieval of information.   recall  a measure of memory in which the    person must retrieve information  learned earlier, as on a  fill­in­the­blank test.  recognition  a measure of memory in which the    person need only identify items  previously learned, as on a  multiple­choice test.  relearning  a measure of memory that    assesses the amount of time saved  when learning material again.  encoding  the processing of information into  Sounds like  the memory system–for example,  “decoding”:  by extracting meaning.  processing the  unknown ​ information  to better understand by  extracting meaning  storage  the retention of encoded  retention= continued  information over time.  possession.  You put  your things in storage  to keep possession of  it.   retrieval  the process of getting information    out of memory storage        sensory memory  the immediate, very brief recording  Sensory (​ Senses)→  of sensory information in the  feelings, feelings are  memory system.  usually brie​and not  prolonged  short­term memory  activated memory that holds a few  items briefly, such as seven digits  of a phone number while dialing,  before the information is stored or  forgotten.  P Sherman 42 Wallaby  way Sidney  long­term memory  the relatively permanent and  Long­term →  limitless storehouse of the memory  permanent and  system. Includes knowledge, skills,  limitless memory   and experiences.  working memory  a newer understanding of  Working → active,  short­term memory that focuses on  conscious   conscious, active processing of  incoming auditory and visual­spatial information, and of information  retrieved from long­term memory.  explicit memory  memory of facts and experiences  that one can consciously know and  “declare.” (Also calledeclarative  memory.​ )  One of the first  explicit albums →  declare​d corruption in  the police system  (declarative  memory)    effortful processing  encoding that requires attention and   conscious effort.  automatic processing  unconscious encoding of incidental    information, such as space, time,  and frequency, and of well­learned  information, such as word  meanings.  implicit memory  retention independent of conscious  Opposite of explicit →  recollection. (Also called  NONdeclarative  nondeclarative memory.​ )  memory  iconic memory  a momentary sensory memory of  Icon: a picture/  visual stimuli; a photographic or  image → visual  picture­image memory lasting no  stimuli a photo or  more than a few tenths of a second. picture image.     Icons on the computer  are small pics → the  memory lasts for a  small amount of  time   echoic memory  a momentary sensory memory of  Sounds like echo​  →  auditory stimuli; if attention is  when you shout  elsewhere, sounds and words can  something from one  still be recalled within 3 or 4  place it repeats for 3  seconds.  or 4 seconds times  elsewhere   chunking  organizing items into familiar,    manageable units; often occurs  automatically.  mnemonics  memory aids, especially those  *This vocabulary sheet  techniques that use vivid imagery  is an example.  and organizational devices.  spacing effect  the tendency for distributed study or   practice to yield better long­term  retention than is achieved through  massed study or practice.   testing effect  enhanced memory after retrieving,    rather than simply rereading,  information. Also sometimes  referred to as ​etrieval practice  effec​ortest­enhanced learning​   shallow processing  encoding on a basic level based on  Shallow​→ not deep   the structure or appearance of  words.  deep processing  encoding semantically, based on    the meaning of the words; tends to  yield the best retention.  hippocampus  a neural center located in the limbic   system; helps process explicit  memories for storage.  flashbulb memory  a clear memory of an emotionally  significant moment or event.    long­term potentiation  an increase in a cell’s firing    (LTP)  potential after brief, rapid  stimulation. Believed to be a neural  basis for learning and memory.   priming  the activation, often unconsciously,    of certain associations, thus  predisposing one’s perception,  memory, or response.  mood­congruent memory  the tendency to recall experiences    that are consistent with one’s  current good or bad mood.  serial position effect  our tendency to recall best the last  Serial posit​→   (arecency effect and first items (a  serial numbers (list of  primacy effec​ in a list.  numbers)   Remembers the first  and last items.   anterograde amnesia  an inability to form new memories.  Sounds like “enter a  grade”, when entering  a new grade at school  you receive new  memories.  Amnesia → is the  inability to form  memories   retrograde amnesia  an inability to retrieve informatioRetro → old, the  from one’s past.   past  proactive interference  the disruptive effect of prior learning Pro → before, prior   on the recall of new information.  Interfere → disrupt     retroactive interference  the disruptive effect of new learning Retro → old, the  on the recall of old information.  past  Interfere → disrupt  repression  in psychoanalytic theory, the basic    defense mechanism that banishes  from consciousness  anxiety­arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.  misinformation effect  incorporating misleading  False memories   information into one’s memory of an event.  source amnesia  attributing to the wrong source an False memories   event we have experienced, heard  about, read about, or imagined.  (Also callesource misattribution)  Source amnesia, along with the  misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.  déjà vu  that eerie sense that “I’ve    experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may  subconsciously trigger retrieval of  an earlier experience.    


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