Week 1 Reading & Lecture Notes
Week 1 Reading & Lecture Notes CH 221
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarina Rubin on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 221 at University of Oregon taught by Nell B in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry >3 in Chemistry and Biochemistry at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Notes Day 1 Tuesday September 29 2015 953 AM women in science application on canvas Guidance from a peer quotJUMPquot Grading Hour exam October 22 700pm 25 November 12 700pm 25 Final Exam December 9 500pm ALEKS 5 Connect Register Saphng Onine homework system no homework out of the book costs money 68 I think whole year Clicker questions will be asked every class a form of quiz participation forget clicker 2 days to answer questions on paper and turn them in only two times per term Office Hours Thursdays 45pm Klamath 107 Fridays 12pm Onyx 171 New Section 1 Page 1 Day 2 reading and class notes Tuesday September 29 2 15 82 PM Reading Notes 11 Central theme macroscopicscale properties and behaviors Energy is conserved not destroyed situations of lower energy are favored over situations of higher energy when more energy is needed the potential energy is less stable when less energy is needed the potential energy is more stable 12 The alchemical tradition quotperfectionquot purer forms of substances The medical tradition medicine and chemistry together The technological tradition why a substance changeshow to predict its behavior 13 Mass Kilogram Kg Length Meter m Time Second 5 Temperature Kelvin K Electric current Ampere A Amount of substance Mole mol Luminousintensity Candela cd 1 meter 1094 yd 1 cm 03937 in 1 in 254 cm 1 mL cmquot3 1 L 1dmquot3 Density massvolume K C 27315 C K 27315 F 95C 32 C F 3259 Day 2 Notes Chapter 1 Solid organized patterns Liquid upper surface Gas very far apart and disorganized Properties New Section 2 Page 2 Substance a type of matter with a defined fixed composition Example an orange orange color round shape soid juicy acidic bumpy fruit Physical Chemical Color Melting point Shape Density Taste Flammability react with oxygen Physical change changes but doesn t change composition water freezing then melting still H20 Chemical change composition does charge dekaZU SQHFtifle e gffmfdg39iczri rtz C through water creates oxygen gas Summary of Properties 1 Physical property characteristic of substance without interacting with another substance Physical change alter physical properties not composition 3 Chemical property characteristics of a substance as it interacts with another substancechanges into another substance 4 Chemical change composition does change converted into other substance Iquot Physical vs Chemical properties of copper physical Chemical Malleable rusting Phase Transition Diagram 218 PLxASQ S Ode a lnalisilmguisliquk e Ur z E The large drawmg I is not 00 scale A In A P t 4 AAA 4 New Section 2 Page 3 The large drawmg is nortoo scale A scale drawing looks 0K I W Max252 P A S 39 L 100 33974 CO 2 S gupe tied 1mm l u 391 d5 Reversible Ice to liquid heating Liquid to ice cooling Liquid to gas heating Gas to liquid cooling Energy ability to do work 1 Potential energy due to the position of an object 2 Kinetic energy due to motion Energy is always conserved never lose energy Lower energy is more stable than higher energy lower energy is more Irreversible favorable Iron nails to rust cooling weight of the floor is more stable so therefore more favorable energy is Can39t go back can only brush off rust lazy Scientific method Observations hypoth is experiments theory experiments eel heated am Hn SS 3 meg Conn OVU5 ne suppong 3W fog who 90m Locum Math yay SI Units Mass Kilogram Length Meter the distance light travels in a vacuum 1299792488 seconds Time Second Temperature Kelvin Electric current Ampere Amount of substance Mole Luminous intensiy Candela Prefixes Tera T G iga G New Section 2 Page 4 Mega M Kilo k Hecto h Deca da Base Deci d Centi c Milli m Micro p Nano n Pico p femto f Mass will always be the same constant gt 39e thg VQ D2 3 Weight can vary depending upon gravitational field Pun M 6 h Hnlc Whomt 6F subslmvx C Q New Section 2 Page 5 a Reading Notes 15 Ir every measurement has uncertainty i O l L Uhc tl oanrD We usually assume an uncertainty and drop the sign certain and uncertain digits are considere fil fllf fllEl 7 Sig figs here we go i Z 3 1 Make sure the measurement has a decimal point 390 l 2 Start at the left and move right until you reach the first nonzero digit 005 3 3 SI 3 3 Count that digit and every digit to its right as significant M ZEROS 1 If there is a decimal point and the zeros lie either after or before it they are significant ex 11300 has 5 6500 has 2 gil 0500 4 5i 5 795 2 If there is no decimal point we assu e that the zeros are not significant unless told otherwise 3 A terminal decimal point indicates that zeros are significant ex SOOmL has 1 sig fig but Sq nL has 3 Arithmetic Operations 1 Multiplicationdivision answer should mimic the number of sig figs of the measurement with the fewest sig figs 2 Additionsubtraction answer should mimic the number of sig figs of the measurement with the fewest decimal places exact numbers have no uncertainty Error 1 Systematic error values that are either all higher or all lower than the actual value 2 Random error values that are higher and lower than the actual value Precise measurements have low random error Accurate measurements have low systematic error and usually random error Day 3 Notes New Section 3 Page 6 Conversion factor ratio is used to express a value in terms of a different unit Kilometers km to miles mi 1609km 1 mi 1km 06214 mi ZOSNE Ev gl Q 5 Redmehol zoskm ip qm how WW Ml l 7 Tltmmmi 3i 0 in that W mktsl39 393 Qq OQQ H Ollon k CSQAQW mnt 990l QQQQ 3342 k amp Q 0 Q32 58 i A 00qu W 3 3 JXQXN Ollmm 39 g9 mg in a 5 3 mpln Zoh mm Vimx Speeches lwxi leOl VV New Section 3 Page 7 m M39l W gtWl S gt A s gtnvlt 3 9q bog DONX 5x Meow N m ltsgsoiaoCpo Moon Y 4 Pod HMS 4000MB wattle gtioov mvdn m 93 m 1 3Q 35 51 Gig 3 393 4000M sawi l4l2539i W Density d illlass 9 05 a at 3 Vo UlM 0m W temperature dependent intensive property independent of amount of substance b Substance Physical State Density glucmii 7 Hydrogen gas 020000899 9 Oxygen gas 10M 139 Grain alcohoi liquid p739 07 Water liquid 11998 Taiblie salt solid 215 New Section 3 Page 8 D NQ U M9 HMwa Water liquid 998 Table salt solid 215 Aluminium solid 20 Lead solid 11 3 Gold solid 193 At ream temperature 20am and nermei etmeepherie pressure Term 1012015 1029 AM Screen Clipping Temperature Heat is energy not temperature temperature is the measure of how hot or cold something is relative to another Kelvin VIC Sign 777 g r i I i i absolute temperature scale begins at 0K absolute zero T T 3939 5 Celcius Co based on freezing and boiling point used all around the world Fahrenheit F 1012015 1037 AM Screen Clipping Uncertainty Every measurement has uncertainty never exact uncertainty usually in the rightmost digit More sig figs more certain in the measurement Lgt if mb f accueociL Qingagj 2 0 3amp0 95 Lunczraiodn Significant Figures Rules 1 Make sure measurement has a decimal point 2 Start at the left move right until first nonzero digit 3 Count that digit and every digit to the right as significant 6095 O 3 gt wok Ti mifffa i 3 81f 53 12914570003 0 56 335 4200 4 Si fi93 2000 lbs ssig F16 qfA New Section 3 Page 9 ooo kgi 35L OOO gEsQ day 390 Cm 454 New Section 3 Page 10 WZOOCW 2 Si L n 55 5 kw sawH1342 ho 0 on modvk g 12000i T L 3 ChWm m a MS Thursday ct ber 1 Z 15 1 232 PM Reading Notes 21 Terminology 0 Substances elements and compounds are called this 0 Element the simplest type of matter with unique physical and chemical properties one atom amp cannot be broken down 0 Macroscopic can be seen color density combustibility 0 Submicroscopic more detailed and not obvious to see the make up of the atoms unique properties of the atoms 0 Molecule an independent structure of two or more atoms bound together 0 Compound two or more different elements that are bonded chemically 0 Elements are present in fixed parts by mass each unit of the compound consists of a fixed number of atoms of each element 0 A compound39s properties are different from the properties of its elements 0 Mixture consists of two or more substances that are physically together not chemically can vary in their parts by mass retains many of the properties of its components C cker Kinetic Energy falling down a flight of stairs less effort Physical change butter melting solid to liquid 3 39 j 33 WOOEWXL 1 r h A Swwlogmz M Day 4 Notes Sig figs in calculations 10003721mL 5203 ML Iless exalm h k 3031372ml gt goglrvxl L vow CM 01quot be 66 Cthwn ms gout if 39eOLSL doe4min lacW L Koo noun 423755 399 3039 7 7 3 New Section 4 Page 11 N 423755 3 l7 quot O W quot 3M 20le39mL Addition amp Subtraction The answer contains the same number of sig figs as the measurement with the fewest decimal places 7350 e 3 decimal was 1 lo 437lqu 41 5 mama was Multiplication and Division The answer contains the same number of sig figs as the measurement with the fewest sig figs 73qm A 5796 Rounding rules 1 If the digit removed is greater than 5 the preceding number increases by 1 2 If the digit removed is less than 5 the preceding number stays the same 3 If the digit removed is a 5 the preceding number is increased by 1 if its odd and stays the same if it is even If the 5 is followed by zeros rule 3 is followed If the 5 is followed by nonzero numbers rule 1 is followed 4 Always carry extra sig figs in multistep calculation and round to the proper of sig figs at the end ExamPlfs 39 Round to 3 Sp n lquot lO39nS m 70m I l nilg m l D m y ozgwm M l HEPUHMKW New Section 4 Page 12 ozs wm 7CJ M L1Hg 00m l am I 391 lilglwx 5 jam in I130 M 9 quotTam When working with divisionmultiplication and additionsubtraction must round when switching between sets of operations 433 x l 735gt 7350062 14 2 d 3 lZsz Han wL 95 A3 095 AL 39 qgmL 200mL O 498 3QML Exact numbers t nb gti39cvrthEexac gl f39 39 th f39 l exac num ers ono mg 0 eamoun Slg Igsm e Ina answer ho I 30 counted numbers do nothing to the amount of sig figs in final answer gt 395 UbJCdd 539 i Lgt 24 0t ppl8 5 33 Measuring in the Lab 0 Mass balance 0 Volume graduated cylinder volumetric glassware more precise For digital instruments the uncertainty is in the last number For analog glassware estimate next digit uncertainty is in the estimated digit Accuracy and Precision accuracy how close the value is to quotthe true valuequot right target precision the reproducibility same place Error systematic values are too high or too low can correct random values are both higher and lower than actual value always round Chapter 2 Atoms Elements Compounds and Mixtures can always breakdown anything into parts i 39 S bowlOm wk smm h I OJ WQSgt alummumgf zob m mj 3 U 6 ma a 3 Wilma matter is classified into 3 types 0 Elements New Section 4 Page 13 0 Compounds f ho wo cumws 0 mixtures humagmzous New Section 4 Page 14
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