Mod. 6 Lectures 1-4
Mod. 6 Lectures 1-4 ASM 104
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Hsu on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASM 104 at Arizona State University taught by Campisano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Bones, Stones/Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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MODULE 6 LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about genetic variation in modern humans KEY IDEAS Humans now populate every continent except Antarctica w low population density in areas like desert rainforest amp northern regions of Asia amp N America Race a population that is geographically circumscribed amp genetically differentiated Has its own distinct evolutionary history Considered a subspecies MAIN IDEAS Exoticism Age of Discovery colonoliasm curios etc Saartjie Baartman or the Hottentot Venusquot South African woman taken to London amp displayed exhibited Considered primitive savage bc of her physical features After death French anatomist Cuvier dissected amp displayed her organs until 1974 Linnaeus developed taxonomy amp the Great Chain of Being Classified people as Homo sapiens americanus Hseuropaeus Hs asiaticus amp Hs afer this was later modified expanded Created color stereotypes red white yellow black Positive description of Europeans amp pejorative descriptions of Native American African amp Asian people Racial ideology in the 1700s preDarwin Monogenism believed all races had the same origin Biblical Creation Polygenism believed different races had different origins contradicted the Bible amp was used to justify slavery Comparative craniometry measurement of skulls Modern day used for biological history 1800s used for determining qualities of behavior amp personality people thought skull size brain size intelligence 0 Phrenology 19th century pseudoscience Shape of the skull used to determine someone s mentalbehavioral qualities Kind of like palm reading certain areas corresponded to certain abilities like memory etc 0 Social Darwinism doesn t actually come from Darwin himself Research by Paul Broca amp Samuel George Morton on brain size Concluded that Europeans were smarter than other races men were smarter than women rich smarter than poor criminals often have large brains amp are too smart for their own goodquot French are smarter than Germans Believed poor people women etc are in lower social positions bc they are genetically deficient Brain size comparison People believed in direct correlation between brain size amp intelligence amp used this to try to show that African people who sometimes had smaller brains were closer to monkeys than humans Brain size varies between 12001700 cm2 amp involves many other variables like ratio to body size climate etc No direct correlation to intelligence MODULE 6 LECTURE 2 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about two other fields that connected biology with behavior criminal anthropology and eugenics MAIN IDEAS Criminal anthropology The Criminal Man by Cesara Lombroso 1876 Physiognomy inferring characterbehavior from physical features Atavistic features more evolutionarily primitive features thought to indicate savagery degeneracy natural tendency towards being a criminal Lombroso Thought criminals were their own separate species called Homo delinquens Based on features often common in earlier hominids like unusual height long arms weak chin divergent toe etc Popularized in Ionathan Harker s Dracula character had features that Lombroso described as criminal beaky nose bushy eyebrows large pointed ears Eugenics Greek for good genesquot Idea of controlling society by keeping people with bad genesquot from reproducing Introduced in late 19th century England dominant in early 1900s Principles Humans are unequal This inequality is genetic inherent can t be changed Genetically lesser deficient people should be kept out If it s too late they should be sterilized The Mismeasure of Man by Harvard biologist Steven Gould studied how the eugenics movement justified their practices Reify rei Latin for thing Creating a concept like intelligence that people then think can be measured amp controlled Reification of concept of feeblemindedness by eugenics movement Umbrella term for unfit social intellectual amp behavioral traits Story of Kallikak family generations of feebleminded people used to try to prove geneticism of feeblemindedness Man had children w his wife amp a feebleminded girl he had an affair w children w wife were normal while others were all feebleminded Photos of feebleminded children edited to look less human Failure why Reification Arbitrary who decides what is fit or unfit Hereditarianism assumes all behaviors are purely genetic Time dependent idea of what is fit can change over time SUMMARY Criminal anthropology was never really put into practice but eugenics was Forced sterilization programs in the US amp many European countries Fell from popularity in the US in the 1930s after Great Depression when rich bankers became poor amp returned in Nazi Germany Nazi propaganda warned the gene pool would be diluted by bad genesquot if those people were allowed to reproduce MODULE 6 LECTURE 3 INTRODUCTION This lecture goes into more detail about the biological definition of race and then discusses whether human genetic variation fits with that definition KEY POINTS Back to the definition of race from Lecture 1 a population that is geographically circumscribed all members live in one specific place amp genetically differentiated Races are considered subspecies in binomial nomenclature How races subspecies arise Almost complete geographic amp genetic isolation almost no gene ow w other populations For a period oftime long enough that Differential natural selection amp genetic drift can take place MAIN IDEAS Example of races SubSaharan baboons Multiple races of Papio cynocephalus exist P cynocephalus papio P cynocephalus Anubis P cynocephalus cynocephalus and P cyncocephalus ursin us Same species but live in different places in Africa and are genetically differentiated Expected characteristic of races Discrete genetic variation by geographic regions Distinct populations that are Easy to differentiate Biological genetic differences NOT just caused by adaptation Application to humans They do vary geographically BUT gradually not discretely Ex average skin color gets gradually darker closer to the equator Many traits wo discrete borders blood type DNA that vary independently of each other Ex blood type A is common in many different regions of the world Populations aren t easily identifiable Historically when people tried they started off w three races but then observed variation among those amp started to divide them into more amp more amp more Categories are mostly arbitrary badly defined amp based on a few very superficial traits Skin amp hair colortexture head face nose shape Lack of isolation Myth of the Primitive Isolate belief that ancient humans were genetically isolated amp didn t mate Populations were small but nomadic amp traveled great distances so were not isolated Human history involves lots of migration slave trade empires colonialism etc Modern day humans are even less isolated bc of technology Genetics Superficial characteristics used to categorize races skinhair eye color etc only account for about 610 of someone sDNA Two Europeans or two Africans could be more genetically different from each other than a European amp an Asian Natural selection convergent evolution Many of the features used to determine race are adaptivequot Head shape re ects temperature Nose shape size re ects temp amp humidity Skin color re ects UV exposure vitamin D amp folic acid Body shape re ects temp climate SUMMARY Groups populations of humans vary from each other but these groups do not fit into the biological definition of race MODULE 6 LECTURE 4 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about the features used to categorize races and how they can be explained by adaptation KEY POINTS Adaptation longterm occurs at the population level not in an individual Ex body size shape skin color Acclimatization shortterm occurs in an individual Ex tanning heart rate response to altitude goose bumps shivering sweating vasodilationvasoconstriction MAIN IDEAS Body size adaptation Bergmann s Rule in colder climates body mass increases relative to surface area to conserve heat Ex polar bears vs sun bears Allen s Rule in colder climates length of appendages decreases to conserve heat Ex arctic hare vs regular hare CONCLUSION Individuals experience acclimatization when they travel to a place with a climate different from where they came from Proof of adaptations is seen in human populations depending on whether they live closer or farther to the equator