Mod. 6 Lectures 5-8
Mod. 6 Lectures 5-8 ASM 104
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Hsu on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASM 104 at Arizona State University taught by Campisano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Bones, Stones/Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
MODULE 6 LECTURE 5 INTRODUCTION This lecture describes more examples of human adaptation and acclimatization MAIN IDEAS Adaptation to hypoxia Hypoxia low oxygen density found at high altitudes In populations that live at high altitudes larger lungs amp hearts are selected for bc they can process oxygen more efficiently This is an adaptation NOT acclimatization bc one person s lungs or heart won t grow if they travel to a higher altitude Instead they experience altitude sickness Increased heart rate amp breathing rate hyperventilation bc heart amp lungs can t get enough oxygen Headache pulmonary amp cerebral edema Adaptation vs natural ability Tibetan Sherpas indigenous people near Mount Everest population level adaptation to high altitudes Reinhold Messner European man first ascent of Mount Everest wo supplemental oxygen natural ability Acclimatization to hypoxia Mt Everest climbers have to climb up and down small sections several times not just go straight up so that they gain altitude slowly amp allow their body to acclimatize body starts producing more oxygencarrying cells Skin color Based on melanin production of melanocytes melaninproducing cells amp how much melanin each one carries More melanin darker skin less melanin lighter skin UV exposure Too much UV exposure is damaging amp can cause cancer Darker skin more melanin can protect from skin cancer BUT this probably doesn t affect adaptation bc skin cancer often develops later in life after reproduction has already occurred The body needs UV to process vitamin D so not enough can cause vitamin D deficiencyrelated diseases like rickets abnormal curvature of bones UVB Destroys folate which is needed to build neural tubes amp produce sperm Destroys sweat glands gt overheating CONCLUSION Traits commonly used to determine race like skin color should not be used for this because they are actually due to adaptation selective pressures MODULE 6 LECTURE 6 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about bioarchaeology KEY POINTS Epidemiology studying determinants dynamics amp distribution of disease Morbidity sickness Mortality death Major categories for causes of death in humans Infectious microorganisms passed from one host to another malaria smallpox Chronic degenerative related to aging lifestyle or environmental toxins diabetes cancer etc Accidental occupational accidents due to risktaking behaviors Interpersonal violence con ict between people MAIN IDEAS Epidemiological Transition Theory shift over time from infectious diseases related to underdevelopment to chronic noninfectious diseases characteristic of developmentmodernization Infectious diseases still more common in underdeveloped countries third world vs first world Proposed by Omran in 1971 associated with the Industral Revolution Age of Pestilence high mortality from infectious diseases low life expectancy Age of Receding Pandemics lower mortality higher life expectancy improved sanitation amp healthcare Age of ManMade Diseases even lower mortality amp higher life expectancy but more death from chronic degenerative diseases Important question in epidemiology was this the earliest epidemiological transition or had another one occurred before Major diseases in America 19th century cholera tuberculosis croup fevers in ammations measles mumps scarlet fever typhoid fever in uenza Today heart disease cancer stroke accidents diabetes circulatory diseases Paleopathology study of disease using the skeleton Limited only to diseases that affect the skeleton Osteological Paradox someone can die from a disease that didn t affect their skeleton or that didn t have time to bc they died so fast amp their skeleton will still appear healthy Infectious diseases that affect the skeleton Tuberculosis eventually destroys vertebrae amp face Leprosy related to tuberculosis Disfigures hands feet nose amp hard palate Syphilis destroys nose soft palate amp cranium Generalized metabolic stress Studying stress general health can be more informative than studying specific diseases because Specific diseases may not affect the skeleton People could have been very unhealthy even if they weren t exposed to specific diseases Indicators of stress Growth arrest lines Horizontal white bands on bones shows that growth stopped bc of stress on the body often seen in children Hypoplasia Growth arrest lines in teeth Metabolic disorders that affect the skeleton Iron deficiency anemia bone lesions in eye socket cribra orbitalia or cranium porotic hyperostosis Vitamin D deficiency rickets abnormal curvature of long bones Vitamin C deficiency Bone infections Periostitis infection of outer layer of bone Osteomyelitis systemic bone infection can lead to pusdraining holes in the bone MODULE 6 LECTURE 7 INTRODUCTION This lecture focuses on dental indications of health and addresses the question introduced in Lecture 6 of whether there was another epidemiological transition prior to the one coinciding with the Industrial Revolution MAIN IDEAS Dental problems Heavy wear dominant problem throughout most of prehistory Grittier food less advanced food preparation Nerves are exposed to infection that spreads amp leads to death Cavities Bacteria degrade sugar into lactic acid which breaks down enamel Earliest evidence found in Paranthropus robustus 1815 million years ago Dental surgery Earliest evidence 759 thousand years ago Site in Mehrgahr Pakistan 6 individuals found with drilled teeth Relationship of dental problems to diet Eating foods with a lot of sugar causes cavities This didn t happen until agriculture began amp people started to eat corn which is high in sugar This is how we know there WAS an earlier epidemiological transition which lines up with the shift from food gathering to producing Correlation of cavity rate with maize consumption is evidenced by carbon isotope analysis of teeth Why did food production cause problems Usually went along w more settled lifestyle villages had poor sanitation insects amp rodents carried diseases Hookworms schistosomiasis parasite contracted from infected water Corn was a main product amp is not very nutritious Domesticatedfarmed animals carried diseases Pigs amp ducks in uenza cattle tuberculosis goats Mediterranean fever rats typhus amp bubonic plague sheep scrapie High population density More rapid spread of diseases herd diseasesquot Emergence amp reemergence of infectious diseases Old diseases can evolve resistance to treatments amp reemerge decades later SUMMARY Paleolithic baseline mobile hunter gatherer lifestyle 4 million10 thousand years ago Three main epidemiological transitions 1 Shift to food production amp more sedentary urban lifestyle more infectious diseases Industrialization fewer infectious diseases 3 Postindustrial world emergence of new infectious diseases amp reemergence of old diseases that are more resistant evolved N MODULE 6 LECTURE 8 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about forensic anthropology KEY POINTS Forensics connects legal amp medical fields Study of skeletal remains Parts of forensic investigation Determine if the remains have medicolegal significance Less than 50 years old Death certificate is going to be issued for that person Help recover the remains Archaeological excavation techniques recover maximum possible evidence Identify the remains Basic demographics sex age ancestry etc Identifying features DNA medical history idiosyncrasies unique or strange physical attributes Cause of death interpretation of crime scene 1 Basic Information Identification of sex Eliminates half of population Determined by shape of pelvis amp body size Age Younger people growth of teeth amp bones Adults joint deterioration Less amp less specific w older people Ancestry Estimates social idea of race Not very accurate 2 Positive Identification Linking idiosyncratic unique features to medical records Information that can t be determined from forensics Weight Left or righthanded Occupation Sex of preadults Age of adults within 5 years Whether a woman has had children Many diseases 3 Crime scene reconstruction Peri or postmortem fractures near time of death or long after Blunt force trauma Sharp force trauma stabs cuts etc Projectile trauma gun shots
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