CJC 102 Week 8 Notes
CJC 102 Week 8 Notes CJC 102
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ben O'Brien on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Intravia in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to criminology in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Robert Agnew 1992 General Strain Theory GST Argued that not all sources of strain result are due to economic failure 0 Broadens anomie theory s focus beyond economic goals and success 0 Individuals who experience strain especially repeatedly over time may cope by turning to crimedelinquency Sources of strain 0 Failure to achieve positively valued stimuli Eg goals such as wealthpower are impossible to achieve 0 Loss of positively valued stimuli Eg losing a boyfriendgirlfriend or spouse moving to a new neighborhood or getting kicked out of school 0 Presentation of negative stimuli Eg child abuse or neglect hostile relationships or poor economic conditions 0 Could lead to negative effective states Anger Frustration Disappointment Depression Fear 0 Then antisocial behavior Drug abuse Delinquency Crime Violence School drop out 0 Key empirical support for GST Indicators of strain are related to crime breakup unemployment dissatis ed with schoolfriends dropping out of school People who perceive strain because their success goals are blocked are more likely to engage in crime Subcultural Theories Explains how people living in lowerclass neighborhoods react to social isolation and economic deprivation Delinquent subculture a value system adopted by lowerclass youth that is directly opposed to that of the larger society 0 Miller 1958 0 Focal concerns values that have speci cally evolved to t conditions in lowerclass environments and may result in deviance and violence Fate Autonomy Smartness Toughness Excitement Trouble Ferracuti and Wolfgang 1967 quotSubculture of Violencequot 0 O 0 Violent behavior is learned and is an adaptation to certain environmental stimuli Such as anger frustration and con ict Subcultures develop and adopt violent values that are separate from the larger more dominant culture These values emphasizejustify the use of physical force and violence as being acceptable Cloward and Ohlin 1960 Differential Opportunity 0 0 Combined concepts from both strain and social disorganization theories to generate a gangsustaining criminal subculture Type of gang Criminal Adolescents who have close ties with adult criminals o Extortion fraud theft Con ict Violent adolescents who want respect from valgangs 0 Fighting assault vandalism Retreatist Double failures 0 Drug use hustling petty theft Elijah Anderson 1999 quotCode of the Streetquot 0 0 Individuals speci cally young AfricanAmericans adopt a subculture of rules and regulations that promote the use of violence Deals with the idea of respect and building a valuable reputation by achieving and maintaining respect amongst your peers Building respect is believed to reduce victimization Individuals from impoverished neighborhoods who have unfavorable perceptions of the policejudicial systems are more likely to adopt the quotstreet codequot Must take the law into their own hands and defend themselves and others from crime and victimization lntravia et al 2013 Major Criticism 0 Social disorganization theory Ecological approach fails to consider bias in of cial crime statistics Theory fails to account for crime in af uent neighborhoods 0 Strain Research that strain is not always associated with crime Narrow focus on individuals who have limited economic opportunities 0 Subcultural theories People never violate the norms of their own groups only the norms of other groups Neglects variables that may prevent involvement in crime 0 Eg selfcontrol Bias against certain racial and ethnic groups Policies Rooted in Structural Theories Interventionpolicy strategies derived from social structural theories 0 The Chicago Area Project Central goal to assist neighborhoods in organizing their communities by 0 Making residents more aware of criminal activity 0 Improving the physical environment and quality of life within communities 0 Creating positive role models for youth 0 War on Poverty Emphasis on systematic change in urban communities to eliminate criminal opportunities as a result of poverty Eg Small business loans programs Food Stamp Act Higher Education Act etc 0 Moving to Opportunity Project MTO Randomized social experiment Includes 4600 lowincome families with children living in high poverty public housing projects Key ndings 0 Improved housing satisfaction adults felt safer and more satis ed with new housing arrangements 0 Improved adults mental and physical health 0 Had no effect on labor market outcomes 0 Had negative effects on male youth risky behavior Overview of Social Process Theories 0 Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others mainly through socialization Socialization The process through which we learn the skills knowledge values motives and roles of the group we belong tocommunities we live 0 Effect of socialization can be socialized to conform or to violate norms and values 0 Social learning theories 0 Differential association theory Edwin Sutherland 1947 Differential association People commit crime when their social learning leads them to perceive more de nitions favoring crime than favoring conventional noncriminal behavior Key Principles 0 1 Criminal behavior is learned 0 2 Criminal behavior is learned by interacting with others 0 3 Learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups 0 4 Learning includes techniques to commit crime and the motives drives rationalizations and attitudes 5 A person becomes delinquent because they have an excess of de nitions favorable to law violation over de nitions unfavorable to law violation 0 KEYKEYKEY WILL BE ON TEST 0 6 Differential associations may vary in frequency duration priority intensity Overall the theory has received favorable support Keyissues Does not take into account shortterm triggers It does not explain individuals who never come into contact with criminal authorities 0 Neutralization theory Sykes and Matza 1957 1964 0 Law violators must learnaster techniques that enable them to neutralize balance guilt before they are free to commit crimes 0 Individuals drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior 0 Techniques 0 1 Denial of responsibility quotThey made me do itquot o 2 Denial of injury quotThey have too much moneyquot 0 3 Denial of victim quotThey had it comingquot 0 4 Condemning the condemner quotEveryone steals why pick on mequot o 5 Appeal to higher loyalties quotI had to protect my friendsquot 0 Research generally nds support for neutralization theory 0 Neutralization techniques are highly correlated with involvement in gang activities 0 Social control theories 0 Containment theory 0 Social bonding theory 0 Selfcontrol theory 0 Social reaction labeling theory