Week 7 Notes (Introduction to International Relations)
Week 7 Notes (Introduction to International Relations) 32124
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellie Gluhosky on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 32124 at University of Montana taught by Karen Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see PSCI 230X-01 in Public Relations at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Week 7 Notes (Introduction to International Relations) Conflict Resolution Operational levels o Military tactics- where individual fighters fight and use equipment for a specific target. o Operational- organization of thousands of soldiers, plans for regional conflicts etc. (region definition differs as eras differ), depends on technology. o Strategic- look at environment, decide who and how to fight, sending the specific plan down and implementing it. Conventional War- direct conflict between army units, infantry and air power, as well as Intel and naval power. Has been made more lethal but has never surpassed WWII. Goal is to take over territory. Nuclear weapons have changed our perception of conventional war. Insurgency/Guerilla- Irregular war, carrying out actual strategic plans. Easier to carry out, often works to degrade a world power. Higher level of capability than terrorism. Terrorism- to change to will of those who have taken advantage of you, typically aimed at colonial, dominating powers. Deliberate attack on civilians to compel political change. Great powers attempt to deter and defend in an attempt to contain. ISIS- terrorist acts but also effectively has taken over territory through insurgency. Use of Force in International Conflicts Decisions states must make about military force: o Whether to have military force Historically, there was no distinction between police and military. o What their military goals are: Deterrence- enough military force to intimidate others, built up military enough that it is clear to others that you could retaliate if necessary. Most states do not fight, even though most of them have military force. Defense- capabilities that can hold off any offensive attack, maintain own territory. Repellence of an attack. Offense/Compellence- specifically attempting to take over someone else’s territory. Either through brute force or through coercion (“we will maintain our presence until you do X”). o Size of force: How much is enough? How much is too much?- enough to deter but not provoke (security dilemma) as well as maintain domestic power (make citizens feel safe), but not provoke an overthrow. U.S spends as much on defense as the next nine great powers. 74% that the world spends on military force is in 10 states. o Types of forces: Conventional- infantry, very western and industrialized, historically not always the typical type of force used. Unconventional Terror- campaign, compel a state Insurgency- when terrorist threats succeed in persuading a state of its goals and are able to start attacking, often in a guerrilla-like warfare. Eventually able to capture territory. Weapons of Mass Destruction- absolute weapons (synonym), severity of their attack makes no difference where you aim them, allow for great deterrence capabilities. o Control of Forces- very challenging and necessary thing to control forces politically. Why?- must be targeted to the will of the adversaries with the least force possible. Coordination- deliver people to the scene, keep them fed, water, shelter, keep them informed etc. very logistical. o Fog of War (Clausewitz)- once it begins very hard to see what is going on as well as keep soldiers aware, clear lives of communication, etc. Ex. When U.S accidentally bombed the Romanian Chinese embassy. Authority- soldiers are highly motivated when defending their own land, but lose motivation when on the offense, necessary to have a hierarchal chain of command to keep soldiers from fighting. o WWI, British would force soldiers to attempt to take territory at risk of huge death toll, soldiers refuse to fight, mass killing of deserters. How?- clear rules, clear punishment, established chain of command. Importance of emphasizing the legitimacy of the war and regime. Nuclear Strategy o Conventional vs. absolute weapons- conventional bombs will take out a house or start a fire, absolute (WMD) will incinerate an entire city. o Conventional vs. nuclear strategy Goals- conventional- victory, NS- survival Strategy- conventional- fight, can afford to lose some soldiers, offense/defense, safe to attack, NS- detterent strategy, threaten to retaliate (no state that has nuclear weapons has had its homeland attacked by states that it can threaten to retaliate against), nuclear states have a mutual interest in controlling nuclear weapons. Ensuring that North Korea maintains control of its nuclear forces. Tactics- keep up with territory (conventional), NS- second-strike force o Effects of Nuclear Weapons Cold wars among the possessors (fear and danger around nuclear weapons) Deterrence is easy and robust. Nuclear weapons are attractive to states involved in international conflicts or who are vulnerable to international intervention (North Korea) Number of countries with nuclear capabilities is actually quite small (most countries feel secure). Efforts to defend vs. nukes are offensive, because nukes are relatively cheap, great power competition is increasingly economic. o Case Study: Iran Iran and U.S have come to a kind of deal that Iran would stop its nuclear weapons program if in return the U.S will lift economic sanctions. Nuclear capable- states that have the economic and technological capabilities to create a nuclear weapon. Structural Realist theory- states with low levels of security are more likely to obtain nuclear weapons than states with high levels of security. o Best explanation Neoliberal interdependence theory- states whose economies are highly dependent on international trade are less likely to obtain nukes than states whose economies are less dependent. o Relatively inconclusive Iran- moderate security, however can be considered relatively unsecure due to ethnic tensions and general instability in the Middle East, could predict a break in nuclear deal, depending on whether or not their security holds.