All the notes for the test
All the notes for the test BIOL 1000 - 001
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BIOL 1000 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Matthew Aaron Kearley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 3 cont to where the notes stop for the test Cytoskeleton overall structured of the cell Microfilaments cell shapes that change actin myosin lets muscles get bigger Intermediate filaments skeleton Microtubules move organelles around the cell kind of like the rail road of the cell 0 Make up cell extensions cilia and agella Very important in the lungs cilia catch bad things coming in and make you cough them back up Also important in white blood cells so that they can move and kill all the bad things Plant Cells 0 Central vacuole 0 Many contain 90 of the cells volume 0 Mainly water but also some unused nutrients and waste 0 Cell wall 0 Outside the plasma membrane 0 Only found in plants bacteria algae and fungus Just because they have a cell wall does not mean that they do not have a plasma membrane they actually have both a cell wall and a plasma membrane 0 Made up of cellulose structural 0 Plant cells are not very exible but they don39t need to be Plastids 0 Contain chloroplasts This is where photosynthesis takes place Chapter 4 Cell Membrane plasma membrane Phospholipid bilayer o Hydrophilic phospholipid heads and hydrophobic fatty acid tails 0 Much more exible in animals because it39s liquid Fluid mosaid model cell membrane made of proteins cholesterol and phospholipids 0 Proteins have a variety of functions Communication ldenU cann Passing stuff from cell to cell 0 Proteins and phospholipid molecules drift cholesterol stabilizes the membrane and makes sure it stays uid Regulates what goes in and out of the cell 0 Selective permeability only certain things allowed in Chapter 3 cont to where the notes stop for the test o Allows the cell to function properly if your cells don39t function properly your tissue doesn39t function properly and thus you don39t function properly 0 Things that can pass through the membrane 0 Hydrophobic molecules 0 And tiny hydrophilic molecules Functions of proteins in the cell membrane Adhesion helps the right cells stick to each other in order to form tissues 0 Communication 0 Receptor proteins that receive chemical signals from cells and allow the cells to work together 0 Serve as channels between cells to allow things that wouldn39t make it through on their own 0 Recognition proteins glycoproteins act as name tags for the cells Keeps the white blood cells from eating your cells 0 Transport takes things across the cell membrane 0 Passive transport proteins serve as channels that allow substances to diffuse pass through the membrane doesn39t use energy think of it like a highway 0 Active transport opposite direction of natural movement require energy and transport proteins against a concentration gradient think of it like a toll bridge Ex Sodium potassium pump Diffusion particles that move from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration moves down a gradient Osmosis special diffusion diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane ex Cell membrane Hypertonic less liquid more solutes Hypotonic lower concentration more liquid lsotonic 2 solutions that are exactly the same Water moves across a selectively permeable membrane out of a hypotonic solution to hypertonic solution H20 now bound to the solute and cannot diffuse back across the membrane Osmoregulation water balance 0 Water can come into animal cells until they burst but when a plant cell becomes full water pressure forces the cell membrane against the cell wall this is called turgor pressure Metabolism the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur within an organism Energy the ability to do work move against an opposing force Chapter 3 cont to where the notes stop for the test Sun is the ultimate and largest source of energy Two kinds of energy 0 Potential ex Sitting and not moving 0 Kinetic ex Movement sitting and writing running etc Thermodynamics the study of energy 0 1St law energy is never lost or gained it only transforms into different forms 0 2nCI law all energy transformations are inef cient the amount of usable energy is always going down and the amount of entropy chaos is always going up Exergonic reactions release energy reactants have more energy than their products 0 Ex ATP gt ADP Endergonic reactions require energy products have more energy than reactants Oxidized a substance that has lost one or more electrons Reduced a substance has gained one or more electron Some molecules do this very well Enzymes Proteins that speed up chemical reactions and lower the amount of energy necessary to accomplish this chemical reaction Enzymes highly speci c typically only catalyzing one reaction Substrate the substance being worked on I think of it like the enzyme is eating a sub by the enzyme When the substrate bonds to the enzyme the enzyme makes the substrate more vulnerable to chemical reactions 0 The way I was told to remember it was if you try throwing a piece of string in the air and cutting it you probably won t be able to but if your friend the enzyme holds the string the substrate taught then you can cut it with scissors the chemical reaction Enzymes are not permanently changed because of the chemical reaction 0 Unless you simultaneously stab your friend while cutting the string your friend is not going to be permanently altered by your cutting the string The binding site for the substrate only takes up a small amount of the enzyme 0 Just like your friends arms are not a huge amount of their body lnhibitors things that stop the enzyme from doing what its supposed to do Temp and pH affect an enzymes ability to work this is called a range of tolerance above or below this range the enzymes won39t bond correctly o If the enzyme is made to hot then its shape will change and it will no longer be able to do its job Denaturing o Enzymes work best in a pH between 6 and 8 except for the ones in your stomach Chapter 3 cont to where the notes stop for the test Aerobic respiration requires oxygen C5H1205 602 I Respiration energy ATP Coenzymes transport hydrogen and electrons NAD and FAD take electrons and hydrogens to become NADH and FADH2 0 Act as the delivery system of electrons and hydrogens to the electron transport chain 3 Stages of Respiration 1 Glycolysis only stage that doesn39t take place in the mitochondria instead it takes place in the cytosol a Glucose becomes pyruvate glucose is broken in half b Creates 2 ATP i NADchanges to NADH 2 Krebs cycle which does take place in the mitochondria a Prep reactions take place during glycolysis ifl understand correctly i NAD reduced to NADH ii Pyruvate changed to acetyl units and C02 is put off as waste b Krebs cycle i Creates 2 ATP ii Acetyl CoA made into C02 iii NAD becomes NADH iv FAD becomes FADH2 3 Electron Transport Chain ETC Makes 32 ATP NADH and FADHzoxidized electrons passed down protiens Pumps hydrogen ions across the inner membrane of the mitochondria Hydrogen ions build up on one side of the membrane making the concentration high on one side and low on the other i We all know nature wants to be balanced so the hydrogen ions start moving e Movement of the hydrogen ions crossing through transport proteins produces ATP ADP ATP this is called ATP synthase f Oxygen keeps ETC clear cleans off used electrons oxygen combines with two hydrogens and forms H20 which is why you exhale condensann apem I am going to try and upload the drawing of this cycle in the review Anaerobic Respiration Does not userequire oxygen Produces less ATP 0 Used for short hard bursts of energy Chapter 3 cont to where the notes stop for the test 0 Ex Sprinting Produces lactic acid and alcohol Photosynthesis 6C02 12H20 light C5H1205 6H20 602 Allows us to breath Provides food Opposite of respiration Has to be occurring all the time Autotrophsproducers make their own food 0 Plants algae bacteria Structures in plants Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll and other pigments o This is where photosynthesis takes place Thylakoid at membrane bound sacks inside the chloroplasts Grana stacks of thylakoids Stroma uid surrounding the thylakoid with in the chloroplast Stomata pours in the surface of the leaves that let C02 in and 02 H20 out Pigments absorb certain wavelength and re ect others Chlorophylls absorb all wave lengths of light except green and yellow which they re ect Accessory pigments carotenoids anthocyanins o Carotenosis condition that occurs when you eat too many carrots and your skin turns orange Photosystem sunlight absorbed by the plant then two chlorophyll transform the collected solar energy into chemical energy Light dependent reaction 0 Take place in thylakoid Sunlight converted into ATP and NADPH Water is split which provides 02 for aerobic life Light independent reactions 0 Calvin Benson Cycles 0 Uses C02 in stroma outside of the thylakoid Takes in C02 ATP NADPH go through Calvin cycle and are turned into glucose Green house effect C02 traps heat and warms the air around it Chapter 3 cont to where the notes stop for the test Amount of C02 in the air has increased the past two centuries because of the increased use of fossil fuels and industrialization Increased in carbon dioxide means that there is also an increase in temperature Photosynthesis eats the carbon dioxide and counter act the greenhouse effect