US HIStory Since 1877 Notes Test 3 Week 1
US HIStory Since 1877 Notes Test 3 Week 1 HIST 10613
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Harris on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 10613 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Mary Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see US Hist: Surv Since 1877 in History at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Survey of US History Notes Exam 3 03/20/2016 ▯ Lever Act 1917 Gave President control over production, prices, and distribution of food and fuel ▯ Overman Act 1918 Reinforced the president’s emerging war power ▯ Herbert Hoover Food Administration o Cut back on American food consumption o Increased food shipment overseas to troops ▯ William McAdoo Railroad Administration o Took all competing railroads and synchronized them ▯ Standard Time Act 1918 To regulate train arrival Time zones Daylight savings ▯ Bernard Baruch War Industries Board o Decided what factories did o Had power to take over factories o Could cut off raw materials to factories if they didn’t cooperate ▯ War Labor Board Tried to ensure peace between companies and Unions Established 8 hour work days and better wages ▯ Committee on Public Information George Creel Canned speeches Trying to bring everyone together Liberty Leagues Spy on neighbors o Report suspicious activity Propaganda ▯ Executive Order 1917 Federal employees could not criticize war effort ▯ Espionage Act of 1917 Automatic 20 year sentence for aiding and abetting the enemy or refusing to enlist ▯ Sedition Act 1918 No criticism of the government, flag, military, or constitution 15,000 arrested ▯ Eugene Debs ▯ Alexander Kerensky Russian people were suffering He led revolt and took over czar Vladimir Lenin took power from Kerensky ▯ 14 Points Woodrow Wilson’s plan in 1918 Germany thought they could have an honorable surrender with this treaty o They were alone in the war and decided to surrender Negotiated at Palace of Versailles in hall of mirrors o 1. Open diplomacy no more secret alliances o 2. Freedom of the seas rights of neutrals to travel on seas Britain didn’t like this one o 3. Free trade trading partners generally don’t fight o 4. Arms reductions If people aren’t prepared for war, they won’t be so anxious to fight o 6-13 other points o 14. League of Nations wanted to forget the past Europe was not ready to let past go Wilhelm abdicates; flees to Holland o Queen Wilhelmina protected him ▯ Treaty of Versailles 1919 1. Heavy Reparations 2. Germany gave up all colonies 3. Germany army and navy reduced to police forces 4. War guild clauses i. Germany was humiliated Alsace Lorrants o Contested territory o Given to France Saar o Industrial heart of Germany o Given to France ▯ 11/11/1911- Armistice Day (Veteran’s Day) 65 million went to war 8 million men died European nations owed about $13 billion to USA ▯ John Maynard Keynes Predicted another war from the treatment of Germany in the Treaty of Versailles 1919 ▯ Woodrow Wilson Made supporters angry when dealing with treaty o He only brought democrats with him to Europe o Senate angered Republicans regained control of Senate and House ▯ 1919 presented Treaty to Senate UN clause- US had to go to aid of anyone in League o US didn’t know who would be in the league o Didn’t want to give up their freedom of deciding when to go war o Senate rewrote treaty ▯ Irreconcilables Led by senator William E. Borah Opposition to League of Nations equal protection clause Henry Cabot Lodge supported them Group of senators campaigned against ratification of the treaty ▯ Wilson had stroke Edith Wilson basically became president for his last two years ▯ Election of 1920 Americans were unhappy with USA’s role in WWI Recession as economy recovered from sudden change from wartime to peacetime Spanish epidemic killed more than the war did 1 election women could vote James M. Cox (D) v. Warren G. Harding (R) o Both relatively unknown Harding invented word “normalcy” o Pro business o Won by a lot o Solid democrat south ▯ Roaring 20s Automobile became more widespread Birth rates went up People tired of reform and wanted to live WWI was an eye opener o Thousands died for what?! “decade where democracy died” few people in rural areas and census didn’t reapportion house of representatives ▯ Urban vs. Rural Split became obvious Values of people are very different City people saw country people as uncultured Active disdain for rural values Sinclair Lewis- “Main Street” o Cynical book about small town people Thomas Wolfe o “Look Homeward Angel” o Book based on hometown- Asheville, NC o Didn’t disguise characters well enough o Active disdain for rural values H.L. Mencken o Founded a magazine catering to city folk o Hated William Jennings Bryan (populist) “The New Yorker” o debut in 1925 ▯ 1920s cont’d immigration increased 65% of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe o Catholic or Jewish o Not well educated o Came from rural areas Every American wanted restrictions Rural Americans were afraid American values were at stake ▯ National Origins Act of 1924 Set quotas for ethnic groups Went to 1890 census and based quotas country’s immigrants Limitations stayed in effect until 1960s ▯ ▯
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