CHAPTER 6 OF SOCIOLOGY
CHAPTER 6 OF SOCIOLOGY Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology
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Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Smith on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology at Georgia State University taught by Professor Banton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Social Sciences at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
CHAPTER 6 OF SOCIOLOGY DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL Deviance Any behavior, belief or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs. Clarifies rules Unites a group Promotes social change Crime Behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and or other negative sanctions. Juvenile delinquency A violation of the law or the commission of a status offence by young people. Social control Systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance. Criminology The systematic study of crime in the criminal justice system, including the police courts, court, and prisons. Functionalist Perspectives Strain Theory: Robert Merton The proposition that people feel strain when they're exposed to cultural goals that they aren't able to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals. Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion Opportunity theory: Richard Cloward/ Lloyd Ohlin Lower class the delinquents subscribe to middle-class values but cannot attain. As a result, they forget they form gangs to gain social status. Conflict Perspectives Critical Approach: Karl Marx , Richard Quinney The powerful use of law and criminal justice system to protect their own class interest. Feminist Approach: Kathleen Daly , Meda Chesney- Lind Liberal feminism views women’s deviance as arising from gender discrimination Legitimate opportunity structures Circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels. Symbolic Internationalist Perspectives Differential Association Theory: Edwin Sutherland The proposition that people have a greater tendency to deviate from the societal norms when they frequently associated with persons who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity. Rational Choice Theory of Deviance The proposition that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions. Social Bond Theory: Travis Hirschi The proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person's ties to society our weekend or broken. Labeling Theory: Howard Becker The proposition that deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants and they, in turn come to except the label placed upon them. Primary Deviance: Edwin Lemert The initial active rule breaking. Secondary Deviance: Edwin Lemert Deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior. Tertiary Deviant Deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as a non- deviant. Crime Categories Occupational Crime Illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs. Corporate Crime Illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and what it support. Internet Crime Illegal acts committed on the Internet including FBI related scams identity theft and fee fraud. Organized Crime A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit. Political Crime Illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials or illegal and unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make political statement. Terrorism The calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government organization or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective. Criminal Justice System The local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, and adjudicate crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals. Punishment Any action design to deprive any person of things of value because of some offense of the person is thought to have committed.
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