Week 9 Water Soluble Vitmains.pdf
Week 9 Water Soluble Vitmains.pdf 2210
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Wednesday October 22, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/22/14
Human Nutrition 2210 102214 448 PM Week Nine Water Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins All water soluble vitamins act as coenzymes A protein coenzyme active enzyme B Vitamins Produce energy vitamin B ATP Deficiency o Affect Brain and nervous system need a lot of energy for these systems B vitamin Skin GI tract gastro intestinal 0 Alcohol abuse poses greatest risk for deficiencies Thiamin Functions 0 Carb metabolism helps us extract energy 0 Make ribose to form RNA 0 Maintenance of normal appetite and in normal muscle tone in GI tract Sources 0 Richest lean pork 0 High whole grains enriched cereals Deficiency o Morale vitamin o Beriberi disease I can39t I can t rare in US 0 Not producing enough energy to do things 0 Became widespread with advent of polished rice getting rid of kernel was getting rid of thiamin Recommendations 0 Depends on carb intake 0 Times of growth pregnancy lactation alcoholics Sometimes have marginal deficiencies Riboflavin B2 Function 0 Release of carb energy o Exam Flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD electron accepting coenzyme produce ATP 0 Breakdown fattyamino acid Recommendations 0 No upper level set Sources 0 Richest milk and dairy high calcium foods light sensitive Niacin B3 Functions 0 Release energy carbs proteins fats 0 Component of coenzymes involved in oxidation and reduction reactions 0 Exam NADNADP cribs cycle electron transfer to generate ATP 0 Make proteins DNA RNA Sources 0 Rich meat liver peanut butter 0 Corn is a poor source Deficiency o Pellagra rough skin 0 4 D39s Dementia thinking difficulties Diarrhea Dermatitis rash Death prolonged Niacin Tryptophan 0 Can synthesize niacin from amino acid tryptophan 0 Help us to meet needs in the body 0 Corn poor source niacintryptophan if staple foodbad 0 Synthesis of Niacin occurs by intestinal flora bacteria Toxicity 0 Used to lower cholesterol can be prescribed high amounts 0 Causes flushing and itching of skin if too high amounts 0 Niacin Rush 0 Eventual liver damage Enrichment 0 As we refineprocess certain foods we lose B vitamins o Require adding those B vitamins back to the food after processing 0 Enrichment ist Required thiamin riboflavin niacin iron folic acid recently added in 1977 Optional calcium vitamin D Pyridoxine B6 Functions Metabolism of amino acids Conversion of glycogen to glucose Deficiency rare 0 Increased need for B6 during pregnancy Recommendations 0 RDA 13 17mg o Alcoholism poses risk for deficiency Sources 0 Meat potatoes bananas o Toxicity too much toxic Folate folic acid Folate vs folic acid The synthetic form folic acid most potent form Function 0 Regeneration of cells 0 Synthesis of DNA Deficiency 0 Red blood cell formation megaloblastic anemia large immature red bloods cells 0 Neural tube deficiencies NTD sspina bifida Opening in spinal cordbrain occurs in 3rd week of pregnancy From maternal folate deficiency and genetic defect in folate metabolism 0 Pregnancy women should make sure they have an adequate intake of folic acid OOO Might become too late by the time you know you39re pregnant Lucy Wills 1931 found that yeast extract could be used to treat megaloblastic anemia RDA 0 During pregnancy increase need Sources 0 Can be enriched in foods folic acid 0 Green leafy vegetables orange juice 0 Fortified grain products with folic acid Upper level Folate o Folic acid only 0 1000mg 0 Too much folate mask a B12 deficiency much more serious condition Vitamin B12 Functions 0 Similar to folate red blood cell formation 0 Unique function maintains nerve insulation myelin sheath Absorption o Requires intrinsic factor 0 Secreted by the stomach o Binds to B12 0 Complex absorbed in small intestine 0 Average exceeds RDA o Stored in liver 0 No upper level Sources 0 Made by bacteria fungi algae meats organ meat eggs milk 0 Animal products 0 At risk vegans deficiency Deficiency o Elderly poor absorptionno intrinsic factorstomach injury Consume crystalized B12 0 Megaloblastic anemia first symptom Excess folic acid can mask this symptom o Pernicious anemia deadly anemia loss of neural function Often due to lack of intrinsic factor 0 Child vegans risk of deficiency no body storage Vitamin C ascorbic acid Functions 0 Formation of collagen Connective tissue Wound healing o Increases iron absorption 0 Antioxidant similar to vitamin E 0 Fighting a cold not much evidence Deficiency o Scurvy Symptoms poorly formed collagen abnormal bones and joint pain 2 Weak blood vessels 2 Gum bleeding 2 Small hemorrhages 2 Bruising At risk alcoholics and the poor lower class James Lind Scurvy study 1747 2 Put sailors on different diets orangelemon diet proved no scurvy vitamin C RDA o Smoker 35mgday smoking destroys vitamin C need an add on 0 Women 75mgday 0 Men 90 mgday Sources o Citrus fruits potatoes green peppers broccoli liver Toxicity o Fairly nontoxic 0 Upper level 2000mgday o GI distress upset stomach o Water soluble can excrete the vitamin C very quickly from the bodyifneeded 102214 448 PM 102214 448 PM
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