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Social Psychology

by: Ryan Watsica

Social Psychology SOC 335

Ryan Watsica

GPA 3.89

Julius Marlowe

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Julius Marlowe
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Watsica on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 335 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Julius Marlowe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see /class/218739/soc-335-california-state-university-long-beach in Sociology at California State University - Long Beach.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
THE Paasmmmw 9r Sm l qrrMAN39s DRAMATMRGWAL MQPEL A The Dramaturgical Model 1 All the World s a Stage 2 The Performance B Impression Management 1 The De nition of the Situation 2 Expressions and Impressions 3 Front Stage Back Stage 4 Accounts Excuses amp Justifications 5 Self Enhancement and Ingratiation 6 Self Awareness Self Monitoring and Self Disclosure A The Dramaturgical Model ErVing Goffman is probably one of the most important sociologists in relation to the self His book Presentation of Self remains an important book in this eld Goffman s approach is sometimes referred to as the dramaturgical model 1 All the World s a Stage From As you Like It All the world s a stage And all the men and women merelyplayers They have their exits and their entrances And one man in his time plays many parts His acts being seven ages Atfirst the infant mewling and puking in the nurses arms And then the whining schoolboy with his satchel And shining morningface creeping like a snail Unwillingly to school And then the lover sighing like afurnace with a woeful ballad Made to his mistress eyebrow And then the soldier And thejustice The sixth age shifts into the lean and slipperedpantaloon With spectacles on nose andpouch on side His youthful hose well saved a world too wide For his shrunk shank and his big manly voice Turning again toward childish treble Pipes and whistles in his sound Last scene ofall that ends this strange eventful history In second childishness and mere oblivion Sans teeth sans eyes sans taste sans everything 2 The Performance Our life in this model is simply a series of performances While I am standing here I am engaged in a performance in which I am trying to convey not only information about Goffman to you but information about me through the confidence in which I speak on the topic the manner in which I do so the mastery of speaking in public and so on You of course are engaged in performances ofa lesser magnitude but a performance none the less For example you may wish to sustain the impression that you are interested in the material which may involve feigning or pretending you may wish to do so to in uence or create a favourable impression of your self When you leave this room you will move into another performance perhaps eeting perhaps ongoing as will I The main elements of performance involve the strategies of impression management B Impression Management 1 The De nition of the Situation Central to Goffman s concern is his notion of impression management In this he argues that all social situations or two or more people involve attempting to persuade others of your definition of the situation If for example you are buying a stereo the salesperson is attempting to construct a definition of the situation that will suggest that you need to have this high end and pricier product because you are a discerning individual with good tastes while you are trying to construct a definition which suggests that while you appreciate good music you also have financial considerations but you don t want to look too cheap either So it becomes somewhat of a struggle Furthermore a good sales representative will try hard to persuade you that he is not really a salesman at all in the sense of putting a hard sell on you he will try to convey sincerity as well as try to gauge the level of intimacy he may have with you He will attempt to make connections with your interests your musical tastes and so on to keep the transaction more like a friendly conversation than a sales pitch You however are aware of the fact that he is a salesman and are trying to avoid providing him too much information that he may be able to use in his efforts to persuade you 2 Expressions and Impressions We create impressions through what Goffman calls sign vehicles which includes both our language as well as our body language We create impressions by our expressions And there are two different kinds of expressions 1 The expressions we give primarily the things we say and the intentional poses facial expressions smiles surprise etc and other controlled body language we emit 2 The expressions we give o which are the elements of our expressiveness over which we have less control the inconsistencies between what we say and what we actually do the body language which gives us away in some situations What are our self presentation motives 1 achieve personal goals 2 present a consistent and positive view of our self to the world 3 conform to social norms 3 Front Stage Back Stage Impressions are managed within contexts settings such as comediens magicians professors preachers each of whom works in particular settings Also important is ourpersonalfront sex age hair style clothing etc We may in fact alter these things to suit the situation Young doctor trying to look older for patients The front stage of our life performance occurs in situations in which we interact with others in public or professional settings A waitress for example will try her best to keep a cheery disposition while she is dealing with customers even cantankerous ones and even if she isn t feeling well whereas she may go back to the kitchen and talk about those cranky whiny customers This would be somewhat more back stage behaviour The most back stage behaviour occurs in one s home environment where you can stretch and be yourself Situated Identities A situated identity is the self that can be identified with the role one is currently playing They define us in reference to the role we are playing at a given time We need to have our identity situated before we can proceed in an interaction If you confuse a customer with an employee in a store the interaction is confusing until the situation is clarified and the roles are properly identified Here is where impressions including first impressions come into play as they can situate a person s identity 4 Accounts Excuses amp Justi cations Accounts are statements that people provide to explain a behaviour that was unanticipated or improper Two types of accounts Excuses attempt to lessen responsibility Justification an attempt to suggest that the behaviour had some positive outcome 5 Self Enhancement and Ingratiation Any attempt to in ate our credentials statuses etc Any attempt to alter the situation through a attery b agree with others beyond your true beliefs c do favours d falsely present self to others in favourable light 6 Self Awareness Self Monitoring and Self Disclosure When our attention is focussed on the self we talk in terms of self awareness We do this within our private self that part of the self in which attitudes cannot be perceived by others The public self is that part which is given away by our mannerisms and behaviours People differ to the degree to which they are self aware and the consequences that this entails Self Monitoring Once we become accomplished actors we get better at self monitoring so that we become more attuned to the reactions of others and adjust our behaviour accordingly and on the y Hi self monitors are very aware of their social situations and pick up cues Lo self monitors are the opposite Self Disclosure This is the means by which we can regulate what others know about us Depth Breadth Intimacy Soc335i I Hicks Marlowe Discussion Exercise 09 Note Taker Group Members 5 ptseach Social Influence and Persuasion Chap08 1 Identify the main ideas involved in the following concepts and their functions or effects in attempts change 2 3 4 01 the attitudes andor behaviors of others a attitude change vs compliance f bilateral threat and effects of differential power b use of power vs authority g threat vs promise and issues with using each tactic c source vs target h effectiveness of mass media and media campaigns d negotiation I persuasion e mutual deterrence vs conflict spiral j central vs peripheral routes in attitude change The elaboration likelihood model addresses the processes by which messages produce attitude change a What is the central route to persuasion what does it involve on the part of the target and what factors are most important when elaboration is used in processing a message via the central route b How is the peripheral route to persuasion different and what factors are most important in attitude change when this route is used What 3 main elements are involved in the communicationpersuasion paradigm a Identify the main ideas of the following characteristics of the sources of the message and describe the conditions under which they will be more and less effective in persuasive attempts 1 communicator expertise include effects of target involvement and knowledge and the sleeper effect 2 communicator trustworthiness include effects of vested interests and source39s identity 3 attractiveness and likability of the communicator 4 social impact theory and the effects of multiple sources of communication b Identify the main ideas of the following characteristics relating to the message designed to persuade and describe the conditions under which they will be more and less effective in persuasive attempts 1 message discrepancy and its interaction with source credibility 2 fear arousal messages 3 onesided vs two sided messages c Identify the main ideas of the following characteristics relating to the arget of persuasion attempts and describe the conditions affecting the extent to which they will be persuaded by the communicator andor the message 1 involvement with the issue and its relation to communicator credibility and strength of argument 2 need for cognition 3 distraction Although attitude change may lead to behavior change often the source is primarily interested in compliance ie behavior change itself whether or not it is accompanied by attitude change a Identify and provide examples of French and Raven39s 6 main resource bases of power b How does influence based on promises and threats from persuasion How do influence attempts based on threat differ from those based on promise c How do the factors magnitude and credibility affect compliance attempts based on threats and promises d What is the SEV model of compliance and what majorfactors are involved in the model e What are the main problems associated with using threats and promises in compliance attempts Many attempts to change another39s behavior is based on authori y ratherthan raw power a What is the basis of authority as a compliance technique and how does it relate to the idea of social system b What are some of the main factors that will affect whether a target will obey or defy the orders of an authority c Briefly describe how the following factors work to increase the target39s ability to resist influence and persuasion attempts and the conditions under which they will be effective inoculation forewarning and reactance Soc335l Social Psychology Hicks Marlowe EXCHANGE THEORY PRINCIPLES 12 main working assumptions a People attempt to maximize psychological quotprofitquot Profitrewards minus cos b Balance comes with optimal costreward situation 2 Value of Rewards Exchanged a Valueneed hierarchypreference ranking b Scarcity actual or perceived of resources exchanged eg deprivation satiation c Alternative sources for samecomparable resources 3 EvaluationAnalysisAction re a quotComparison Levelquot average of past similar exchanges affects satisfaction b quotComparison Level forAIternativesquot lowest level of payoffs willing to acceptgiven actual perceived alternativesmay be affected by conscience norms ability to see possible alternatives affects stability 4 Sampling Outcome action extrapolated from available outcome information more info more realistaccurate analysis new exchangeseg quick sales beginning relationships more affected by any one outcomequotlaw of large numbersquot Outcome Matrix 5 Rules Governing Exchange Relations a quotNorm of Reciprocityquot must repayor relationstatus changes b quotFairnessquot or quotDistributive Justicequot outcomes should be proportional to investmentsunderanger overguilt 6 Specific Application quotPowerquot POWER general def ability to control other people39s behavior a Power function of others dependence on what you offer b Dependence function of 1 motivational investment 2 alternative sources c Main Bases or Types of Power 1 Reward Power based on ability to provide rewards Coercive Power based on abilityto punish 3 Referent Power based on identification 4 Expert Power based on specialized knowledge 5 Legitimate Power based on accepted norms d Power Balance can have HighLow BalancedUnbalanced relations 1 Balanced usually more stablesatisfyin 2Unbalanced more dynamic interesting potentially costly re costs for both in starting new relation e Power Change through altering either party s dependence Tactics can be re real or perceived resources 1 Alternatives increase yoursd ecrease theirs 2 Delivering Rewards increase own skillssabotage other Propaganda build up perceived value of own productreduce theirs Time Perspective lengthen yoursshorten theirs E Soc335ilHicks Marlowe Discussion Exercise 8 Note Taker Group Members 5 ptseach Symbolic Communication and Language Chap7 N a J 0quot Identify the main ideas involved in the following concepts and provide examples that show how they are related to the processes of communication a back channel feedback f Halls 4 spatial zonesquot of interaction b the 3 models of communication g personal space violations and reactions 0 proxemics h sociolinguistic competence d paralanguage l theory of speech accommodation e kinesics body language j standard speech vs nonstandard speech The text argues that verbal language is our most important form of communication What advan tages does verbal language offer over nonverbal communication What if any types of information might be 4 more quot 39 L quot Professions work groups teenagers musicians prostitutes and other categories of people may use a specialized language that involves significant symbols orjargon that is common to their subgroup members a Identify at least two different groups and some terms they may use the meaning of which would not be readily understood by other groups Include what the terms mean b Why are these special terms used and what functions do they serve for the group Box 72 pages 182 183 discusses research on flirting courtship signaling focusing specifically on the behaviors women use in flirting a summarize the main findings of this research b identify and compare your own flirting techniques and discuss the extent to which the research accurately reflects your experience 0 discuss the main ways in which males and females use different techniques for flirting Everyday conversation is actually a pretty complex phenomenon Summarize the main theoretical ideas used in conversational analysis to describe the processes of initiating conversations taking turns providing feedback and coordinating the behaviors of the participants of conversations


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