POLI 360 - Week 9
POLI 360 - Week 9 POLI 360 001
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POLI 360 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by runnergal on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 360 001 at University of South Carolina taught by David C. Darmofal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see American Political Parties in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
POLI 360 Lecture 13 0 General Elections Election rules have political biases they can benefit different parties depending on each election rule s structure Different elections rules affect different socioeconomic classes in different ways whether intentionally or unintentionally The secret ballotAustralian ballot voting style increased voting costs for lower class citizens since the secret ballot forced voters to be literate The secret ballot prevented immigrant corruption by party bosses The secret ballot also reduced voter benefits for lowerclass citizens The lack of evidence regarding party loyalty gave parties no reason to provide voters with social welfare patronage etc Essentially the secret ballot decreased voter turnout for lowerclass citizens especially Democratic turnout 0 Ballot Format 1 Party Column Ballot Candidates are grouped by party This type of ballot increases the potential for straightticket voting Of ce Bloc Ballot Candidates are grouped by the offices they are running for This type of ballot decreases the potential for straightticket voting and results in a weaker partisan split 0 General Election Continued 0 Legislative redistricting occurs every 10 years after the census is taken except in Texas because population changes and representation needs to re ect population Redistricting occurs for both federal and state offices Partisan Gerrymandering I Politicians draw districts to benefit their respective parties while also weakening the opposing party This action was named after Edward Gerry of Massachusetts who created an unconventional district that resembled a salamander Partisan gerrymandering is usually successful Ways to Gerrymander 1 Divide pockets of the opposing party forcing the party to compete in numerous districts 2 Consolidate the opposing party into as few districts as possible The gerrymandering party will be forced to concede those districts but it will increases its own chances of winning the remaining districts 0 Racial Redistricting The 1982 Voting Rights Act required states to construct districts that would maximize AfricanAmericans and Hispanic candidates chances of winning office This demand was carried out by creating majorityminority districts which are districts with clear AfricanAmerican or Hispanic majorities The partisan consequences of these types of districts is that minority voters are concentrated in only a few districts that leaned Democratic The rest and majority of the districts leaned Republican As a result all districts were different than they were before the 1982 Voting Rights Act especially in the South Majorityminority districts were eventually challenged on constitutional grounds the Supreme Court ruled that race cannot be the predominant factor in redistricting but it can be a factor Gerrymandering can backfire if a party tries to win too many districts by too small margins the opposing party may win some or most of those contested districts I Redistricters use GIS geographic information systems to determine districts boundaries
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