Highway Design C E 427
Popular in Course
Popular in Civil Engineering
This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charley Wintheiser DVM on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to C E 427 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Shadi Saadeh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/218763/c-e-427-california-state-university-long-beach in Civil Engineering at California State University - Long Beach.
Reviews for Highway Design
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/05/15
V CE 427 Highway Design Dr39 Shadi Saadeh W Welcome To CE 427 Textbook T d H39 h THAFHBELH IEHWAY raffle an 9 way EMEHNEEHWG Engineering Nicholas J Garber Les rer A Hoel 4Th edi rion Hicmulas J Gm mr Lusm FL Hun References Highway Capacity manual HCM TRB Special Ee ort 09 Transportation Research board 2000 ition A policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2000 American Association of State highway and Transportation Officials Institute of Transportation Engineers Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices 2000 California Department of Transportation Highway Design Manual 5th edition 199 Oglesby and Hicks Hi hway En ineering 4th E ition 1990 John Iley and ons Additional references might be cited during the lectures Highway Surveys and LocaTi on PRINCIPLES OF HIGHWAY LOCATION Office s rudy of exis ring informa rion Reconnaissance survey Preliminary loca rion survey Final loca rion survey Office sTudy of exisTing i nformaTion DaTa should be obTained on The following characteristics of The area Engineering including Topography geology climaTe and Traffic volume Social and demographic including land use and zoning paTTerns EnvironmenTal including Types of wildlife locaTion of recreaTional archeological siTes and The possible effecTs of air noise and waTer polluTion Economic including uniT cosTs for consTrucTion and The Trend of agriculTural commercial and indusTrial acTiviTies Reconnaissance survey The objec r of This phase of The s rudy is To iden rif several feasible rou res each wi rhin a band 0 a limi red wid rh of a few hundred fee r Feasible rou res are iden rified by a s rereoscopic examination of The aerial ho rographs Taking i n ro considera rion fac rors suc as Terrain and soil condi rions Serviceabili ry of rou re To indus rrial and popula rion areas Crossing of o rher Transpor ra rion facili ries Such as rivers railroads and h Direc rness of rou re Preliminary locoTion survey Preliminary olignmen rs are used To evoluo re The economic and envir39onmen rol feasibility of The alternative r39ou res Economic Evoluo rion Envir39onmen rol Evoluo rion EnvironmenTal EvaluaTion The environmen ral i mpac r s ra remen rs should include A de railed descrip rion of al rerna rives The probable environmen ral impac r including The assessmen r of posi rive and nega rive effec rs An analysis of shor r rerm impac r as differen ria red from longTerm impac r Any secondary effec rs Probable adverse environmen ral effec rs Any irreversible or irre rrievable resources rha r has been commi r red Final LocaTion Survey I r will include a de railed r39ou re of The selec red r39ou re Ver rical alignmen r Hor39izon ral alignmen r LocaTion of RecreaTional and Scenic RouTes Three addiTional facTors should be considered in The locaTion of recreaTional and scenic rouTes Design speeds are u5ually low and Therefore 5 ecial provisions should be made To discourage fasT riving LocaTion should be Such ThaT The conflicT beTween The driver39s aTTenTion on The road and The need To enjoy The scenic view is minimized LocaTion should be Such ThaT minimum disrupTion is caused To The area Location of Highways in Urban Areas In addi rion To fac ror39s discussed under39 office s rudy and reconnaissance sur39vey o rher39 fac ror39s Tha r significanle influence The loca rion of highways in urban areas include Connec rion ro local streets Righ rofway acquisi rion Coordination of The highway sys rem wi rh o rher39 rr39anspor39fa rlon sys rems Adequa re provisions for39 pedestrians Principles of Bridge LocaTion The basic principle for locaTing highway bridges is ThaT The highway locaTion should deTermine The bridge locaTion noT The reverse When The bridge is mosT cases The resuITing highway alignmenT is noT The besT HIGHWAY SURVEY METHODS Highway surveys usually involve measuring and compu ring horizon ral and verTical angles ver rical heigh rs eleva rions and horizon ral dis rances Surveying Techniques can be grouped in ro Three general ca regories Ground surveys Remo re sensing Compu rer graphics Ground surveys The fofasfa on is used for measuring angles in bo rh ver rical and horizon ral planes dis rances and changes in eleva rion Through The use of Trigonome rric levels The level is used for measuring changes in eleva rlon only A ro ral s ra rion is bo rh an elec rronic Theodoli re and elec rronic dis rancemeasuring deVIce EDM The ro ral s ra rion enables one To de rermine angles and dis rances from The i ns rrumen r ro o rher poin rs An EDM device consis rs mainly of a rransmi r rer loca red a r one end of The dis rance To be measured and a reflec ror at The o rher end DigiTal Survey AdvancemenTs SignificonT odvoncemenTs in survey Technology have been made in recenT Years ThoT reflecT The worldwide revoluTion in wireless and communications Technology Survey DoTo CollecTors MulTiloyered InformoTion Global PosiTioning SysTem Surveys Remote Sensing Remote sensing is the measurement of distances and elevations by using devices located above the earth such as airplanes or orbiting satellites using Global Positioning Satellite systems GPS The most commonly used remotesensing method is photogrammetry which utilizes aerial photography Photogrammetry is the science of obtaining accurate and reliable information through measurements and interpretation of photographs displaying this information in digita form andor map form Remofe Sensing This process is fos r and economical for39 large projec rs bu r can be very expensive for39 small pr39OJec rs The successful use of The me rhod depends on The Type of fer39r39oi n Difficul ries will arise when if is used for39 rer39r39oin wi rh The following chor39oc rer39is rics Areas of Thick foresf Ar39eos fhof confoin deep canyons or39 fall buildings Ar39eos fhof phofogroph as uniform shades The breakeven size for39 which pho ro romme rr39y can be used vor39ies be rween 30 and 1 0 acres depending on The cir39cums ronces of The specific project Ob raining and In rerpre ring Aerial Pho rographs The photographs are Taken from airplanes wi rh The axis of The camera a r a near ver rical posi rion Til ring of The camera up To a maximum of abou r 5 degrees al rhough on average This value is abou r 1 degree Obtaining and Interpreting Aerial Photographs The overlap in the direction of flight is the forward or end overlap and rovides an overlap of about 60 percent for any wo consecutive photographs The overlap in the direction perpendicular to flight is the side overlap and provides an overlap pf about 25 percent between consecutive flight Ines Figur me ha and Side amiaps in Auiai Photography ObTaining and InTerpreTing Aerial PhoTographs Each poinT on The ground is phoTographed aT easT Twice which is necessary for obTaining a Three dimensional view of The area The four marks A B C and D ThaT appear in The middle of each side of The phoTographs are known as fiducial marks seT of poinTs on The ground ThaT can be easily idenTified on The phoTographs as conTro poinTs The device is called sTereoscopes or sTereopIoTTers soumz mmgmpmwmommm39rmmpnmuaniammagnumLmiomwm wi pg iiiii n Scale IT a PoinT on Ver rical Pho r0qmph I H I I I 1 I 1quot hiquot Srhcmatic If a Singl Aeria P n mgrap rI 39IS ne Ie IK Bu r ONquot f The focal leng rh and OK H hm The scale a r M is fH hm Similarly The scale a r poin r P is The fH hp and The scale a r Nquot is fH hn In general The scale a r any poin r is given as S f Hh Scale aT a PoinT on VerTical PhoTograph l H 3 5 scale aT a given poinT on The phoTogr aph 1 focal lengTh of camera lens H flying heighT fT h elevaTion of poinT aT which The scale is being deTer39mined fT Thus even when The axis of The camera is per39fechy ver39Tical The scale on The phoTogr aph varies from poinT To oinT and depends on The elevaTion of The poin aT which The scale is To be deTer39mined Example mpIe 141 Compuling amazon ofa Faint mm an Ami Phuwgraph A I respcmivcly The scales m Illesa points on me photograph arc mowo and mm respectively Delermin me cleva on in mint 5 it me scale m Cis mom Solution Use Eq 141 lo solve for rum mng Point A Pom B Sincef 05 ft and I i 500 10000 X 05 H 5500 ft Elevauan 3 Paint C15 E hc kg 2 5500 Anon 15mm Example Example 142 Computing Flying Htight of an Airplane Usad in AerialV Photography Vertical phumgraphs are m be taken of n area Who sc mean ground Ell ifat id RUDD ft If the scale of the photographs is approximately 1111009 determ ying height Focal length of the camera lens is 15quot 39 Solutlnn f 75 in 0525 ft 3 01325 5 151060 H mm H 11375 ft DisTcmces and ElevaTions from Aerial PhoTogr aphs Figure 1411 is a schema ric of a sfer eobair of ver ficalf 0 me or fhogon poin r A Therefor39 are The c phofogr a disfance consecu r DisTances and ElevaTions from Aer39ial Pho rographs This radial shif r is known as The parabx and is an i mpor ran r parame rer39 when eleva rions and dis rances are To be ob rained from aerial pho rogr39aphs DisTances and ElevaTions from Aerial PhoTogr aphs Ll 1 1 f v where H ying 11qu n n eiovnlinn am given point u 7 39w m llm given poim m B win 1 local lunglh N he caner The X and Yeoordlna res of any paint also can be found from mel parallax by using The expression for scale given in Eq n D VI 7 w rm 7 6quot Th1 scale at the image 0f 3 mntml paint an an aerial phmmgraph is 39 the elevation 01quot the paint is 13m It The fucal langth if tha camera 1311515 min the elevations of paints B and C and the horizontal ground dism them far the follmwiug data Aim detamine the parallax at B if til ZUU ft H 1 coordinate 0n axisof left photograph 6quot y CDprdinai ua an axis of left ph mgl aph 3quot Scale on photcpgraph 111500 Solutian For m control puim 1 s maimo or H 3110011 Thus 115 eleva ans a1 8 and Care aund 10 be 1 0 17500 3300 r h m b DU 1 g 1 17400 8800 ch 39 quotr 1 X1 us1175oo 3750110111111 Eq 144 Y1 117500 4375 11 1mm Eq 145 c 70120117400 11115111 Y 4 n12117400 580011 111 dismncc beween B and C using 15111431 D 37511 7 1111502 4375 51110 1960000 2030625 199755 11 11 111111111X at B is 05 x 200 pg 7 W 001143 11 1mm Eq144 Pa 025 x 2m x V A ms 00114311 fmeq 1 5
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'