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Highway Design

by: Charley Wintheiser DVM

Highway Design C E 427

Charley Wintheiser DVM

GPA 3.96

Shadi Saadeh

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About this Document

Shadi Saadeh
Class Notes
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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charley Wintheiser DVM on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to C E 427 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Shadi Saadeh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/218763/c-e-427-california-state-university-long-beach in Civil Engineering at California State University - Long Beach.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Bituminous Materials Presentation was made available by the Federal Highway Administration FHWA Background 0 Asphalt 0 Tar Soluble in petroleum Resistant to products petroleum products Generally a by Generally byproduct product of petroleum of coke from coal distillation process production Can be naturally occurring 11 9 m in I r 39 mv tu Iai azglimm First US hot mix asphalt HMA constructed in I I I P4 I39 my mtng m am ff Ulk 1111 U UU D if Tf m 1 f o Tm mum 2 Ult gtU am l mmmagdj a smmwj gzzg Veameaamh Background 0 Each lake asphalt source very consistent Used solubility test to determine source lnsolubles differed substantially between sources 0 Demand for paved roads exceeded the supply of lake asphalts in late 1800 s Led to use of petroleum asphalts PetroleumBased Asphalts o Asphalt is waste product from refinery processing of crude oil Sometimes called the bottom of the barrel 0 Properties depend on Refinery operations Composition crude sourcedependent Gasoline Kerosene Lt Gas Oil Diesel Asphalt Cement Components 0 Asphaltenes Large discrete solid inclusions black High viscosity component 0 Resins Semisolid or solid at room temperature Fluid when heated Brittle when cold 0 Oils Colorless liquid Soluble in most solvents Allows asphalt to flow LIGHT DISTILLATE PUMPING FIELD STORAGE STAT39ON MEDIUM DISTILLATE HEAVY DISTILLATE TOWER DISTILLATION REFINERY PROCESS UNIT STORAGE TUBE HEATER GAS COOLERS ASPHALT CONDENSERS AND CEMENTS AIR BLOWN FOR PROCESSING INTO ASPHALT EMULSIFIED AND CUTBACK ASPHALTS PETROLEUM SAND AND WATER STILL Types 0 Asphalt cements Generally refinery produced material Air blown asphalt cements o Cutbacks Asphalt cements cut with petroleum solvents o Emulsions Mixture of asphalt cement water and emulsifying agent PUHPDSE aMnnmfncmre rmfing usphnlls lmprnva Iemperlure suscapiibi i39ly nl Fewviscnsii y wczwm resii SCHUBEEE 1NCIHERATDH STmL CBHTAIHEH E ASPHALT SHIMMER F 14595nu1i ASPHALT FLUX a N w 7 w 39 FUEL 250am ASPHALT39 w HEATER ELDWER l quotBLDWN ASPHALT NHEELDWING OF ASPHALT Cutbacks 0 Rapid cure RC Naphtha or Gasoline High volatility of solvent Tack coats surface treatments 0 Medium cure MC Kerosene Moderate volatility 0 Slow cure SC Low viscosity oil Low volatility Prime coat dust control Emulsions o Emulsifier gives surface charge to asphalt droplets suspended in water medium Anionic Negative charge Alkaline Good with limestones positive charge Cationic Positive charge Acid Good with silica gravels negative charge Purchasing of Asphalt Cements 0 Need to be able to specify desirable characteristics 0 Desirable characteristics have evolved over time and with increasing technological advances 0 Purchasing requires specifications Early Specifications a Lake Asphalts Appearance Solubility in carbon disulfide 0 Petroleum asphalts early 1900 s Consistency Chewing Penetration machine 0 Measure consistency Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Durability Purity Safety Others Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Describe the viscosity or the degree of fluidity of asphalt cement at a specified temperature Asphalt cement is a thermoplastic material Standard temperature for comparison Grading based on consistency at standard temperature Measure of hardening aging Consistency tests Penetration Viscosity Softening point Ductility test Routine PI l 1 WEE 25 Why Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Durability tests Thin Film Oven Test TFO Rolling Thin Film Oven Test RTFO Pressure Aging Vessel PAV Purity Tests Solubility test Safety Tests COC Method Other Tests Specific Gravity Spot Test Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Viscosity of Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer Measure of the resistance to flow of the fluid Viscosity applied shear stress I rate of shear Units Poise P Pas 1 N slm2 1 Pas 10 P ASTM D 2171 Determines the viscosity of Asphalt using vacuum capillary viscometers Test is conducted at 60 C why Limitations range 0036 20000P Newtonian liquid Shear rate 9 shearing stress u shear stress I shear rate NonNewtonian liquid Ratio is not constant Place viscometer in water bath W E w eecee w eimdme me em W E w ece ty ff Mlmlimmwm ma ew e W E mime eiiam lasm ei vjyxeem meme T2 E me mikmwm me ev e e eemeem meal K E eambmt en faeter Timing a Marks 4 Fill Line y t 1 S 0 C m V e t m 0 S b A Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Absolute Viscosity at 140 F 60 C Significance and Uses 0 Characterizes the flow behavior 0 Specification requirements 0 Evaluate inplace material Measures the resistance to flow of a as W 5 1 Whig 89 a VIM 2m 0 m m We w sy wa g mpmm 0 czmnmg Wm f Nieme em U We E Km ews ty Timing Marks Charge the viscometer to 39 f 1739 f39f39g39 39 aha 39 Wat9 ame mm mm 9 Wm 03 a K gt3 mm rm Timing Marks Fill Line Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Kinematic Viscosity at 275 F 135 C p Gravity spghaltxmment m1 Abs Vis P Kin Vis St X Sp Gravity 800 mx103 824 Also Vis PaS 824 P0isesloll 0824 Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Kinematic Viscosity at 275 F 135 C Significance and Uses 0 Characterizes the flow behavior 0 Specification compliance 0 Mixing and compaction temperature Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Penetration Test at 77 F 25 C Empirical measure of the consistency of asphalt cement semisolid solid as determined by measuring how far a needle penetrates into the AC 0 ASTM D5 Test is performed at 25 C 77 F why Units 1 penetration unit 01mm 0 sec 5 sec penetration 100 g T Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Penetration Test at 77 F 25 C Procedure Pour AC in standard penetration cup Place in water to the test temp Place sample under needle Test temp 25 C 4 C Apply load H00 gm iorr 5 sec 200 gm for 60 sec Measure penetration depth 8 mm depth reported as 80 pen Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Penetration Test at 77 F 25 C Uses Penetration grading Specifications compliance I contamination Evaluate inplace material Evaluate damage due to overheating Temperature at which an asphalt cement can not support its own weight and starts flowing 39 1 quot e a Ew wte tmema Mme at whieh hse hm ews Thermometer N Sieel Bail Sample U Fill a brass ring with AC m Hcem Ri emp mmemem e f 5 m i m Recemdl Q i wmwh A e imke 39ii We m M 1 i mm AT g 2 Thermometer N lSteel Ball Sample Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Softening Point Ring and Ball Method Uses 0 Specification compliance mostly in Europe 0 Roofing asphalts in US Ability of the specimen to stretch without breaking 2 1 I r l i K L r 1 3 I r quotV 4 quot a quot v 1 I n in Y a r I L l I r x i 1 x I v V quot PH Em Wtif th mim Wtif g i mity t mi g wity 0 Ht iim E i L d wg LUWW y z l v 39139 o Pwimllm5m m 39 39 39 n i y 77 o MW Hmtim m m HHEQHHPOW l l I l l 5 i 5 l 3 2 39 I 39 1 3 z 3 5 39 3 I I 39 l r Distance between centers 1115 to 1135 mm Total length of briquet 745 to 755 mm Distance between clips 297 to 303 mm Shoulder 68 to 72 mm Radius 1575 to 1625 mm Width at minimum crosssection 99 to 101 mm Width at mouth of clip 198 to 202 mm Distance between centers of radii 429 to 431 mm Hole diameter 65 to 70 mm Thickness 99 to 101 mm Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Consistency Ductility Uses Specification compliance A measure of tensile properties Evaluate compatibility of blends Evaluate effects of heat I aging Low temperature cracking potential Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Durability 0 Durability tests Thin Film Oven Test TFO Rolling Thin Film Oven Test RTFO Pressure Aging Vessel PAV Simulate aging of the binder during productionconstruction and mass E 6mm g WE Q ML rm gammam 9mm 6111551 w mum MSW mm mm M gwm Emma mag Laigg m 3mm wan mm W 5 G lt5 RIM mgm 3 F mm mm b m kg r ETE1 1 W5D Q Mini M n ZOSS lnl Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Durability Thin Film Oven Test TFOT Uses 0 Indicate approximate property changes in HMA plant operations Viscosity penetration ductility 0 Yield residue that approximates the asphalt condition as those used in pavement 0 Indicate amount of volatility oss Simulate aging ofthe binder during Vp roquctionlconstruction and mas 38 Eta 8 0 E aspa Em gamw 858 mam am 8mm 0 MWE o 9 mm mga g mam Z7 mm o wait in mm d E 0 Rwy quot jwm39 lgr NERO r w g mmk wra mail G M M i 39 loss W x100 1211 mm Maym me mg kg may z39m39 Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Durability Rolling Thin Film Oven Test RTFOT Uses Indicate approximate property changes in a conventional HMA plant viscosity Rheological Properties Basis for Asphalt Residue AR viscosity grading Specification compliance 0 Indicate amount or volatility Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Durability Pressure Aging Vessel Test PA 0 Simulate long term aging of the binder during service Subjecting the RTFO residue asphalt to hardening conditions in a Pressure Aging Vessel Pour asphalt in standard pan about 50gm Place in sample rack Place rack in vessel Set test condition Result aged binder RTFOPAV residue air pressure temperature pro pressure vessel sample rack 070 kPa 300psi mp 90 100 110C Timamp20 1 asphalt sample pan 50 grn 7 Refined AC Pure Bitumen soluble in Carbon disulfide Determine the detl ree of solubility in TCE of asphalt materials ha ng ittle or no mineral matters VtH39ea v39 S nstltuen t 39 gs ii i olved ETD a ll WV 0 ame a o mml lce WEEa t f lg am Q insoluble mass of msolfuble mlatenals X100 mass 0 samp e mass of sample mass of insoluble materials X 100 soluble purity 2 mass of sample Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Purity Solubility Test Uses 0 Indication of asphalt purity 0 Required at or above 99 0 Specification compliance Determines flash point ignite of asphalt cement v m l Us rm Tim pew ame Hquot I V d L quot ui m x t I V 3917 at e n a 339 S L 1I E J 4 I I E quot5 quot 39 939 m i 3quot jaw gt m J r 139 o EEHH image Mp w m aep ma emem ml 0 che empe a me aee a ema ame we me maee em MI M We H weeit m 9 few we wh eh aema Reew img F aeh P i im F F Fife imiii ewe a m Temmimg f f m U m U m M 4m m We Thermometer Stop Valve Small 1 1 1 1 1 F lame 1 A 4 J I 1 I 39 Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Safety Tests Cleveland Open Cup Method Uses Safety during handling Material quality specification compliance Presence of highly volatile and flammable materials Comments Well above temperature used in HMA production Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Others Specific Gravity Density of SemiSolid Bituminous Materials Pycnometer Method Density mass per unit volume of material Specific Gravity relative density ratio of the mass of a given volume of a material to the mass of the same volume of water at the same temperature VjW ASTM D70 Determines the specific gravity and density of semisolid asphalt cements by use of a pycnometer Specific gravity 60 I 60 F means both asphalt and water are at 60 F Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Others Specific Gravity Uses 0 Converting volumes to unit of mass 0 Mix design analysis Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Others Spot Test of Asphaltic Material Indicates whether the asphalt was thermally cracked molecules Split during manufacture damaged Applicable to petroleum based AASHTO T102 Developed by Oliensis Crude form of paper chromatography Drop of asphalt naphtha mixture on filter paper Uniform brown stain test negative OK Darker area at center test positive Xylene to Heptane also used Asphalt Cement Physical Test Categories Other Spot Test Uses 0 Indicate cracked asphalt 0 Significance questionable 0 Specification compliance Questions w A I 3 V 5 39 7 39 m


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