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# Highway Design C E 427

GPA 3.96

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This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charley Wintheiser DVM on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to C E 427 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Shadi Saadeh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see /class/218763/c-e-427-california-state-university-long-beach in Civil Engineering at California State University - Long Beach.

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Date Created: 10/05/15

Aggregate Properties HMA To be Covered Specific Gravities Consensus Properties Volumetrics All matter has mass and occupies space Volumetrics are the relationships between mass and volume Superpave mix design based on aggregate and mixture volumetrics NCAT Specific Gravity G Ratio of the mass to volume of an object to that of water at the same temperature Mass Solid Volume Mass Water Volwpe Densities Density is the unit weight of a material lbft3 or kglm3 Unit weight 39y w G Yw 1000 sincm3 yw 624 blft3 yw 1000 kglm3 0 Bulk density means sample contains more than one m a gs andor volume 5 Mass 3 A nlv O e 5 mo oven dry surface voids Mass oven dry agg mass water Vol of agg surface voids Mass oven dry agg Vol of agg Phase Diagram Phase a change in state eg solid liquid gas V mass Gs yw Volume Mass Weight Water permeable Aggregate Properties Gradation Q Few points of contact Poor interlock shape dependent High permeability WV 0 mi 2 1 swioyo 5 Good interlock quot f Low permeability it 1 as Only limited sizes Good interlock Law permeability Use 045 Power Gradation Chart Blend Size Definitions maximum size nominal maximum size Gradation Limits control points restricted zone 045 Power Grading Chart Percent Passing 100quot 80 60 Example 40 4 75 mm sieve plots at 4 750 45 202 20 0 39 0 1 2 is Sieve Size Raised to 045 Power 13 045 Power Grading Chart Percent Passing 100 80 60 40 20 maximum density line 0 P 0 075 3 6 118 236 475 95 125 190 Sieve Size mmqcl laifsed to 045 Power 14 Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size one size larger than the first sieve to retain more than 10 Aggregate Size one size larger than nominal maximum size Percent Passing 100 max density line restricted zone control point 110111 max size 1 236 475 95 125 190 Sieve Size mm Raised to 045 Power NCAT Superpave Aggregate Gradation Percent Passing 100 Design Aggregate Structure 0 r t 075 3 236 125 190 Sieve Size mm Raised to 045 Power NCAT Superpave Mix Size Designations Superpave Nom Max Size Max Size Designation mm mm 375 mm 375 50 25 mm 25 375 19 mm 19 25 125 mm 125 19 95 mm 95 Max size lt 12 AC lift thickness Larger max size Increases strength Improves skid resistance Increases volume and surface area of agg which decreases required AC content Improves rut resistance Increases problem with segregation of particles Smaller max size Reduces segregation Reduces road noise Decreases tire Target Gradation Acceptable gradation band specified Mix design selects a job mix formula JMF which falls within band and meets design criteria Superpave 5 nominal sizes 375 25 19 125 and 95 mm Four sieve sizes used to set upper and lower limits Staying out of the restricted zone in suggested to minimize problems With natural sands Blending Stockpiles Basic formula for combining stockpiles to achieve a target gradation is pAaBbCc p rcent of material passing given sieve size Cg percent passing given sieve for each agg a b c decimal fraction of A B C to be used NCAT 3921 Blending Stockpiles Plot individual gradations Plot specification limits Can be used for initial assessment Can blend be made from available materials Identification of critical sieves Est trial proportions All possible combinations fall between A and B Percent Passing 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Gradation B Gradation A 0075 03 18 475 Sieve Size mm NCAT No poss combination of A and B will meet spec Percent Passing 100 90 Gradat39on B Gradation A 80 70 60 50 40 30 2039 1o I 0 0075 03 18 475 Sieve Size mm NCAT AII poss combinations pass through crossover point Blends containing more A than B will be closer to A Percent Passing 100 Gradation A 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 39 39 20 r 39 Control points for 10 12 5 nominal max size 0 I I I 0075 03 13 475 Gradation B Sieve Size mm NCAT Trial and Error Steps Select critical sieves in blend Determine initial proportions which will meet critical sieves Check calc blend against specification Adjust if necessary and repeat above steps Blended Aggregate Specific Gravities Once the percentages of the stockpiles have been established the combined aggregate specific gravities can also be calculated Combined Specific Gravities 100 G1 100 32 Blending of Aggregates Reasons for Blending Obtain desirable gradation Single natural or quarried material not enough Economical to combine natural and process materials Blending of Aggregates Numerical Method Trial and Error Basic Formula Blending of Aggregates PAaBbCc Where P of material passing a given sieve for the blended aggregates A B C A B C material passing a given sieve for each aggregate A B C a b c Proportions decimal fractions of aggregates A B C to be used in Blend NCAT Material Agg 1 Agg 2 Used Passing Passing US Sieve 38 100 100 No 4 90 100 N0 8 100 No 16 88 N0 30 39 47 N0 50 32 No 100 24 No 200 10 AT L Blending of Aggregates Material Agg 1 First Try Used 50 remember trial amp error US Sieve Passing Batch 38 100 50 N0 4 9O 45 N0 8 3O 15 N0 16 7 35 No30 15 N0 50 05 N0 100 O N0 200 O 10d 10 88 41 3i 2 10lt 100 05 50 l 90 0545 30 0515 7 0535 3 1 O O Material Agg 1 Agg 2 Used 50 50 US Sieve Passing Batch Passing Batch 38 100 50 100 50 N0 4 45 100 50 N0 8 9O 15 100 50 No 16 35 88 44 No30 15 47 235 N0 50 0 32 1396 No 100 0 24 12 No 200 04 1Z0 Blending of Aggregates Material Agg 1 Agg 2 Used 50 50 Blend Passing Batch Pa 39 ch 38 100 so Let s Try j No4 90 45 and get No 8 30 15 a httle closer No 16 7 35 to the middle of N0 30 15 the target values N0 50 05 32 16 N0 100 0 24 N0 200 O US Sieve Material Used US Sieve Passing II 6ij 38 100 N0 4 100 N0 8 100 No 16 88 No30 47 N0 50 32 No 100 24 No 200 1Z0 Hot Mix Asphalt HMA Volumetric Properties HMA Volumetric Terms Bulk specific gravity BSG of compacted HMA Maximum specific gravity Air voids Effective specific gravity of aggregate Voids in mineral aggregate VMA Voids filled with asphalt VFA Volumetric Relationships I BSG of Compacted HMA AC mixed with agg and compacted into Mass agg and AC Gmb Vol agg AC air voids Maximum Specific Gravity 0 Loose uncompacted mixture Mass agg and AC Vol agg and AC Percent Air Voids 0 Calculated using both specific gravities Airvoids 1 gmb 100 mm Mass agg AC Vol agg AC Air Voids VOL agg AC Mass agg AC Vol agg Ac Air Voids Vol agg AC Example Calculations Air voids Gmb 2222 Gmm 2423 1 2222 2423 100 83 Effective Specific Gravity Mass dry Effective Volume Effective volume volUme of solid aggregate particle VOIUme of surface voids not filled with asphalt Effective Specific Gravity G SE Gmm Pb Gb Gse is an aggregate property Pb or Pac is the percent of binder Example Calculations Mixed with 5 asphalt cement Gmlm 2535 Gb 103 100 5 Voids in Mineral Aggregate Gmb Ps sb VMA100 1 VMA is an indication of film thickness on the surface of the aggregate Example Calculations Given that Gmb 2455 P8 95 and Gsb 2703 2455 95 VMA 100 2103 Voids Filled with Asphalt VFA 100 x VMA 39 Va VMA VFA is the percent of VMA that is filled with asphalt cement Mass Relationships Percent Binder Absorbed Pb a WeeAim G G sb se Pha is the percent of absorbed asphalt by mass of aggregate Effective Asphalt Content The effective asphalt content is the total asphalt content minus the percent lost to absorption based on mass of total mix Hot Mix Asphalt HMA Volumetric Properties Using Phase Diagrams VOL cm3 Gmb 2329 MASS g air asphalt GD 1015 Pb 5 by mix absorbed asph aggregate Gle 2705 Gse E 27 VOL ems GInb 2329 MASS g air Ma 0 asphalt GD 1015 Pb 5 by mix absorbed asph MIn 10 x 2329 x 10 2329 aggregate Gsb 27705 2731 MV XG X 1000 NCAT VOL cm3 Gmb 2329 MASS g air asphalt GD 1015 Pb 5 by mix absorbed asph aggregate Gsb E 2705 g 2731 Mb 005 x 2329 M5 2329 0116 2213 VOL cm3 MASS g air asphalt G0 1015 absorbed asph aggregate Gsb Gse 217311 Vse 2213 2731x 10 M Vsb 2213 0818 2705x 10 G X 1000 VOL cm3 MASS g air f J39r Lr 39 F G 391 absorbed asph aggregate Gs 2705 Ge 2731 V Vb 0116 0114 M 1015x10 V G X 1000 Vba 0818 0810 00018CA VOL cm3 MASS g 0076 A A asphalt 0 106 G0 1015 air V 0008 absorbed asph 39 I aggregate Gs 2705 Ge 2731 V Vbe 0114 0008 0106 Va 1000 0114 0810 0076 NCAT VOL cm3 MASS g 0076 A air A asphalt Gb 1015 V 0008 absorbed asph I aggregate Gs 2705 Ge 2731 V V V M V X G X 1000 Mbe 0106 x 1015 x 1000 0108 Mba 0116 0108 0008 NCAT VOL cm3 MASS g A 0076 A air asphalt G0 1015 0106 V 0008 absorbed asph 39 I aggregate Gs 2705 Ge 2731 V Air Voids 0076 X 100 76 VMA Vbe Va 0106 0076 x 100 182 NCAT VOL cm3 MASS g A 0076 A A 0106 V 0008 absorbed asph I aggregate Gs 2705 Ge 2731 V V Air Voids 76 VMA 182 VFA 0106 0182 X 100 582 NCAT VOL cm3 MASS g V A 0076 A air A 0106 V asphalt G0 1015 0008 39 I V V absorbed asph aggregate Gs 2705 Ge 2731 V Air Voids 76 VMA 182 VFA 582 Eff Asp Cont 0108 2329 X 100 46 VOL cm3 MASS g V A 0076 A air A 0106 V asphalt G0 1015 0008 39 I V V absorbed asph aggregate Gs 2705 Ge 2731 Air Voids 76 VMA 182 VFA 582 Effective Asphalt Content 46 Abs Asph Cont 0008 2213 x 100 04 VOL cm3 MASS g A V V V Air Voids 76 VMA 182 90 VFA 582 0o VOL cm3 MASS g A 0076 A air A 0106 V asphalt G0 1015 0008 39 I V V absorbed asph aggregate Gse 2731 Air Voids 76 VMA 182 VFA 582 Effective Asphalt Content 46 Absorbed Asphalt Content 04 Max Theo Sp Grav 2521 NCAT 66

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