Introduction American Government
Introduction American Government POSC 100
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POSC 100 COURSEPACK Section 07 Class Number 3435 800850 AM MONDAY WEDNESDAY AND FRIDAY CBA140 Spring 2009 DR CHRISTOPHER DENNIS Table of Contents Syllabus pages 38 Materials for Examination 1 Study Guide for Examination 1 page 9 Materials for Examination 2 Study Guide for Examination 2 page 10 Materials for Examination 3 Political Parties and Economic Issues pages 1119 lncome Inequality in the United States pages 2026 Study Guide for Examination 3 pages 2728 Materials for the Final Examination TakeHome Final Examination Essay pages 2934 There is No New Study Guide for the Final Exam Use Study Guides 13 POSC 100 Introduction to American Government Spring 2009 Dr Dennis Office Hours MW 9930 10451055 SPA227 Home Phone 562 5977287 I encourage you to call me at home with your questions While you won t reach me on Monday try from 430630 on Wednesday and from 200600 all other days I don t have a message machine Office Phone 562 9854711 use email I rarely check phone messages Website wwwcsulbeducdennis email cdenniscsulbedu University Course Description Introductory survey of American Political Institutions politics and policy including government and politics in California Constitutional foundations and current controversies Satisfies the general education requirement and the California teaching credential requirement Course Description This is a course about American Government California Government and politics The course is designed to teach how government works help you decide what kind of society you want and to help you obtain more of the society you desire Among the course39s more specific objectives are the following to promote a better understanding of American Government and politics encourage you to take a continuing interest in the subject of government to help you function more effectively as a citizen and to encourage you to think constructively and critically through analytical exploration of relevant materials Course Obiectives and Outcomes Upon completion of POSC 100 Students will know A and B be able to do the following A Content Standards 1 The student will be able to articulate an understanding of the relationship between politics and society including factors such as class race ethnicity and gender 2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the ideological foundations of the Constitution 4 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the comparative forms of government such as federalism republicanism direct democracy oligarchy etc 4 The student will develop an understanding of the complexities of political participation Who participates What are the means of participation How can students become active in politics 5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the evolution and development of American political institutions including the Presidency Congress the judicial system cabinet agencies independent agencies political parties interest groups elections news media organizations social movements etc 6 The student will be able to identify andor explain and critically assess hypotheses which purport to explain outcomes of US and California governmental institutions These may include institutionalism materialism elite theory pluralist theory etc 7 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and functions of American political institutions at the national state and local levels 8 The student will demonstrate an understanding of California s place in the following contexts the world the US and local communities B Application Standards 1 The student will be able to place himherself within the context of American political system and identify how hisher own life chances are shaped by political institutions 2 The student will engage in selfreflection on herhis own political orientation its origins and its consequences 3 The student will demonstrate hisher ability to critically assess political writing past and present political conditions and the role of citizenship in America s representative democracy 4 The student will demonstrate skills in political research by formulating and testing hypotheses Assessment Your grade is determined by four equally weighted components maximum of 100 points each There are three midterm exams The midterm exam on which you score lowest relative to the scale used for that exam is automatically dropped For example if it takes a minimum of 92 points to earn an A on exam 1 and you score 91 you would have made a high B and have been one point below an A If on the second exam you scored 89 when 89 was the lowest possible A you would have made an A on exam 2 Thus your performance was better on exam 2 even though your raw score was higher on exam 1 In this example exam 1 would be dropped If you miss a midterm exam for M reason it is automatically the exam dropped If you miss two midterm exams and wish to take a makeup exam you will have to show a valid excuse within week after the second missed exam was given The final exam is comprehensive and cannot be dropped Each of these test counts 25 of your grade Thus 75 of your grade comes from examinations The remaining 25 of your grade is the cumulative total of your ten highest quiz scores There will be a total of 12 quizzes Your two lowest scores will automatically be dropped If you miss a quiz for M reason it is automatically dropped Any petition for a makeup quiz must come within one week of the date the quiz was given You will need a very substantial excuse in order to qualify for a makeup quiz eg surgery etc Excuses such as oversleeping traffic etc will not be accepted The quizzes are unannounced and will cover the current reading assignment class lectures since the previous quiz and current New York Times editorials by Paul Krugman and David Brooks Questions from these editorials may also appear on examinations Currently Krugman s editorials are on Monday and Friday while Brook s editorials are on Tuesday and Friday They can be accessed at wwwn imescom click on Opinion on the leftside of the screen Only editorials from 210 days prior may appear on a quiz For example a quiz on Friday would not contain a question from either a Krugman or Brook s editorial appearing on that same day However Friday editorials could be on a quiz the following Monday Examinations will consist ofm essay and objective questions The examination questions are drawn equally from class lectures and readings Many of the questions from the lectures cannot be answered from the readings Additionally you cannot score highly on quizzes you do not take Therefore class attendance is essential You grade is calculated by the cumulative total points on your best two midterm exams your cumulative total from the 10 quizzes you score highest on and your score on the final examination I do not average Ietter grades For example if you make the lowest A on every component up to the final exam and make one point below an A on the final exam you will make a B in the course Conversely if you make three points above the minimum A on one exam and one point below an A on each of the other three components you will make an A in the course In the first example three A grades and one B grade resulted in a final grade of B However in the second example three B 6 grades and one A grade resulted in a final grade of A Thus it is the strength within the letter grade you make and not the letter grade alone that determines your final grade Put another way all A grades are not equal The system just outlined rewards you more for making a high A rather than a low A In my opinion this system is much fairer than a system where you average the letters and omit using the individual point totals those letters represent Policy on Reasonable Accommodations for Students with Disabilities If you have a disability that requires some modification in testing procedures please see me I will be glad to assist you You should also seek the assistance of Disabled Student Services Textbooks The texts for the course are Coursepack for POSC 100I The American Democracy 9th alternate edition by Thomas Patterson hereafter Patterson and The 2 Solution by Matthew Miller hereafter Miller Additionally you will need to read the New York Times editorials by Paul Krugman Monday and Friday and David Brooks Tuesday and Friday at wwwn imescom click on Opinion on the leftside of the screen over the course of the semester Schedule of Topics and Readings I Constitutional Foundations and Public Opinion A The US Constitution We will examine the theoretical underpinnings of the Constitution Among the questions we will explore What was the intent of the framers of the Constitution What is democratic theory How does the Constitution operate today What is a federal system 1 Patterson Chapters 13 due read by 211 B Civil Liberties and Civil Rights We will examine the fundamental protections of liberty the Constitution provides Additionally we will discuss the Civil Rights movement and its impact on the law and society 1 Patterson Chapters 45 due read by 218 In preparing for the exam make sure to use the study guide on page 9 of the coursepack Remember that about 60 of the test material comes from the lectures and cannot be found in the textbook C Examination 1 223 You will need Scantron form 882 for each examination ll Mass Politics and UnElected Polic akers Political Partici ation Political PartiesI The MediaI Elections the Bureaucracy and the Judiciary A Public Opinion Political Participation and Voting We will discuss the origins and content of public opinion in America Which citizens hold which opinions Why do citizens hold the opinions they do Of what consequence is public opinion for the operation of democracy in the United States Who participates in politics and what effect political participation has on policymakers Finally we will discuss which groups in the electorate support which candidates and why this is important 1 Patterson Chapters 67 due read by 32 B Political Parties and Interest Groups We will discuss the role that political parties play in our electoral process Significant emphasis will be given to the policy differences between the parties Additionally we will examine the role of interest groups and to what extent they alter the content of public policy 1 Patterson Chapters 89 due read by 39 C The News Media We will look at the impact of the news media on public opinion 1 Patterson Chapter 10 due read by 316 D The Bureaucracy and the Judiciary We will examine the role power and impact of the federal bureaucracy Additionally we will examine the role power and impact of federal state and local courts 1 Patterson Chapters 1314 due read by 323 In preparing for the exam make sure to use the study guide on page 10 of the coursepack E Examination 2 325 Ill Elected Policmakers and Public Policy A The Presidency and Congress We will discuss how powerful the president is Furthermore we will examine the impact of presidential partisanship on public policy Additionally we will examine how Congress operates 1 Patterson Chapters 1112 due read by 48 B Public Policy Challenges We will examine issues that government needs to confront over the next decade eg health care 1 Miller pp 365 due read by 415 C Specific Policy Proposals l We will examine specific policy proposals for health care and education and their political viability 1 Miller pp 69137 due read by 422 D Specific Policy Proposals ll We will examine policy proposals for reducing income inequality and campaign finance reform 1 Miller pp 138216 due read by 429 E Building Public Consensus for Change 1 Miller pp 219262 due read by 56 F Examination 3 513 In preparing for the exam use the study guide on pp 2728 of the coursepack There will be many questions and points from the Miller book on both Exam 3 and the Final Exam Students who don 39t read the Miller book typically receive one letter grade lower than they otherwise would IV Final Examination Monday May 18thI 810 am The materials on pages 9 34 of the coursepack will be useful Pay particular attention to the take home final examination essay pp 2934 Regardless of the reason if you do not submit a printed copy of the essay at the time of the final exam you will lose 10 points Printed copies are not accepted after the time of the final exam Furthermore each additional day late lowers the final exam essay score by 10 points Just so it s clear if vou do not have a printed copy of the final exam essay ready at the time of the final exam you have to email the essa cdennis csulbedu and that automaticall lowers your score 10 points If you email the final essay the day after the final exam you lose an additional 10 points ie you would have already lost 20 out of the possible 30 points for the final essay That may critical be to your grade That s the risk you take when you leave something to the last minute You cannot use completing or printing the final essay during the time period of the final exam as an excuse either to take a makeup final exam or get extra time to complete the final exam if you start late during the time period the final exam is given That won t fly If you do not have a printed copy of the essay ready to submit at the time of the final exam email it to cdenniscsulbedu Study Guide 1 You will need green Scantron form 882ES Since all written answers are to be answered on the exam itself you will not need a bluebook Approximately 60 66 of Exam 1 comes from the notes with the remainder being from the textbook The questions from the textbook are not covered in the lectures Thus to do well you will need both a good set of class notes and a solid knowledge of the textbook The structure of Exam 1 is as follows 45 multiple choice 25 short answer and 30 essay While I won39t tell you the guestionsI the following concepts and themes that I discussed in class will be very important on the test Take each Supreme Court case I discussed and be able to answer what the court decided and why it is important Why were the Articles of Confederation our governing document for such a short period of time De ne and explain the difference between the freedom quottoquot and the freedom quotfromquot Was the US Constitution written to promote the freedom quottoquot or the freedom quotfromquot Why What were areas of agreement and disagreement among the founding fathers Why wasn39t a bill of rights included in the constitution How does the constitution change to t changing circumstances eg the Great Depression of the 1930s Under what circumstances is free speech reduced What free speech standard provides the least freedom of speech What is the purpose of the establishment clause ls school prayer constitutional Does political speech have more or less protection than commercial speech What are the conditions under which the police may conduct a search without a warrant What are the quot 39 L the r 39 39 and judicial selfrestraint views What are the Miranda protections and how have they been weakened over time From the textbook it would be helpful to know the following How is American political culture different from European political culture Distinguish between a democracy a republic and a representative democracy What does the concept of limited government mean How did the economist Charles Beard view the constitution What is the difference between civil rights and civil liberties What is the separation of powers and why is it a basic tenet of the constitution What is the major counterweight to business What is the difference between a federal and a unitary system What does equal protection mean in the context of race ethnicity gender or ageincome What is the importance of the gender gap What has been the impact of the 1964 and 1968 Civil Rights Acts Does busing work Study Guide 2 As with Exam 1 you will need green Scantron form 882ES Since all written answers are to be answered on the exam itself you will not need a bluebook Like Exam 1 approximately 6066 of Exam 2 comes from the notes with the remainder being from the textbook The questions from the textbook are not covered in the lectures Thus to do well you will need both a good set of class notes and a solid knowledge of the textbook The structure of Exam 2 is the same as Exam 1 45 multiple choice 25 short answer and 30 essay While I won39t tell you the guestionsI the following concepts and themes that I discussed in class will be very important on the test How do the distinctions between economic and noneconomic issues and abstract and specific issues help us understand public opinion Using the definitions I discussed in class be able to define and differentiate between liberalism and conservatism How does the quotfour celledquot diagram The Voters The Republican Party The Democratic Party and Libertarians thus four quotcellsquot differentiate between the parties If you were a Democratic strategist what type of issues would you stress What is socioeconomic status How and why is socioeconomic status related to public opinion How and why is socioeconomic status related to political participation Why are political parties important Why is the difference between cadre and mass membership political parties important Why does America use a cadre party system What is absolutist individualism and why is America so committed to it Does the term quotpolitical rightquot mean liberal or conservative How do the left and right differ on noneconomic priorities Which groups of voters tend to vote Republican Which groups of voters tend to vote Democratic Which groups of voters are crosspressured ie have some factors pulling them toward the Republicans and others pulling them toward the Democrats Which issues tend to work in the Republicans favor Which issues tend to work in the Democrats favor What was the thrust of the Reagan s Son vision of America What was the thrust of the 100 America vision Which vision was more popular From the textbook it would be helpful to know the following Do most Americans understand and apply ideological frames of reference According to Jacobs and Shapiro what is the relationship between public opinion and public policy What is the role of the family in political socialization How much attention do Americans pay to politics Why What is the difference between partisan realignment and dealignment What is the difference between a political party and an interest group What is a quotfreeriderquot and how do quotfree ridersquot effect the ability of groups to organize What is pluralist theory What is the effect of interest groups on public policy In the view of the author of your textbook how well does the press perform the role of quotpublic representativequot What is proportional representation and how does it impact smaller political parties Do candidatecentered as opposed to partycentered campaigns increase or decrease the public39s in uence on of ceholders Why How would the author of your textbook describe the role of the bureaucracy in public policy What prompts major shifts in the Supreme Court39s decisions Political Parties and Economic Issues I Unemployment and In ation as Redistributive Economic Issues this discussion draws heavily from Hibbs The American Political Economy A Both unemployment and inflation alter the distribution of economic benefits and burdens in society B The electorate is concerned about unemployment and inflation In virtually every year since the great depression of the 19305 that we have not been in a war an economic issue almost invariably unemployment or inflation has been named by a majority of Americans as quotthe most important problem facing the country todayquot C The Costs of Unemployment a Monetary Costs each additional percentage point in unemployment yields a decline of about a tenth of a percentage point in the share of income going to the poorest and next poorest 20 of American families For example if the share of income going to the poorest 20 of American families was 54 then a one percentage point increase in unemployment would lower this share to 53 Hibbs p 80 b As unemployment compensation replaces only between 22 to 37 of lost income unemployment still has very important conseguencesI especially for the poor Hibbs p 58 c In terms of the total US economy a one percentage point increase in unemployment lasting a year is accompanied by a decline in quotrealquot after inflation output of about 2 In 1984 dollars this would mean a loss of about 75 billion dollars or about 880 w household Hibbs p 51 d The nonmonetary cost of unemployment is also quite high A sustained one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate ultimately produces 30000 extra fatalities per year through increased crime loss of health benefits alcoholism suicide etc Hibbs p 50 By contrast it is worth noting that we lostjust under 60000 people in the Vietnam War D The Costs of Inflation 1 Due to appreciating home values and indexed government benefits the poorest 80 of American families are relatively unaffected by inflation HoweverI the richest 20 do tend to lose ground because corporate profitability in quotrealquot terms declines as do the value of dollar denominated interestbearing securities eg stocks bonds etc adapted from Douglas A Hibbs The American Political Economy Harvard University Press pp 88 89 2 As living standards declined during the last period of hi h inflation the mid 1970searl 1980s the above relationship will be difficult for many to believeI so let me explain by using two scenarios to exemplify possible responses to the increase in US gas prices caused by the OPEC cartel39s actions in the 1970s ener roducers are re resented below b quot asquot and non energy producersthe overwhelming bulk of the ublic are re resented b quotchickenquot Scenario 1 Year 1 Year 2 Chicken Gas Chicken Gas 100 lb 100 gal 75 lb 125 gal In the above scenario there was no inflation because the increased price of gas was offset by a corresponding decline in chicken prices While there was no inflation this nevertheless means that the living standards of nonenergy producers would decline by 25 Scenario 2 Year 1 Year 2 Chicken Gas Chicken Gas 100 lb 100 gal 105 lb 175 gal ln scenario 2I there was 40 inflation but the relative price of chicken to gas is the same as in scenario 1 in year 2I chicken is 60 of gas in both scenarios Even though the inflation rates of the two scenarios are greatly different the resulting changes in living standards are the same The key is that the terms of trade between energy and nonenergy commodities changed in an adverse manner for those not in energy on this see Hibbs pp 121122 Thus adverse changes in the terms of trade when coupled with low increases in productivity not the inflation rateI are what caused living standards to decline in the US over much of the recent past quotrealquot compensation was one percent lower in 1987 than 1978 Challenge SeptOct 1988 pp 18 and 25 When the US had low or zero inflation rates over man ears e 1880 1910 we were usin scenario 1 to adiust to relative price changes Due to the relatively low downward flexibility of wages and prices because of longterm contracts the minimum wage and expectations by business and labor that government would pursue countercyclical policies to minimize recessions we have used scenario 2 to 14 adjust to relative price changes in the postWorld War II era E Probably the best argument for lowering inflation is that high inflation causes uncertainty which in turn reduces savings and investment However the costs of lowering inflation by inducing a recession are more damaging to savings and investment than inflation at least over the rates of inflation the US has experienced in recent decades see Hibbs pp 107117 Note the poor savings investment and productivity increases during the ReaganBush years see Hibbs p 109 Samuel Bowles David M Gordon and Thomas E Weisskopf articles in the Journal of Economic Perspectives Winter 1989 pp 107134 and Challenge JanuaryFebruary 1991 pp 49 F The Relationship Between Unemployment and Inflation 1 While there is no stable longterm tradeoff between unemployment and inflation it does seem to be true that to lower either enerall re uires shortterm u to two years increases in the other As unemployment decreases spendable income increases which tends but doesn39t have to lead to price increases hence inflation 2 Two useful measures in understanding the relationship between unemployment and inflation are 1 the natural rate of unemployment which is the unemployment rate needed to keep the inflation rate constanttoday this is approximately 4 2 the quotcorequot or quotunderlyingquot in ation rat which is the commonly reported consumer price index minus the volatile items of food shelter and energy 3 The Blinder Rule a 1 percentage point increase in unemployment above the natural rate of unemployment endured for a year lowers the quotcorequot or quotunderlyingquot inflation rate 12 of 1 percent see Douglas A Hibbs The American Political Economy Harvard University Press pp 294296 Interview with Alan Blinder Challenge MayJune 1984 p 29 Benjamin Friedman quotEvolution Prevailsquot Challenge JulyAugust 1988 pp 5051 a Example of the Blinder Rule to lower the quotcorequot or quotunderlyingquot inflation rate from the 96 level that it inherited in early 1981 to approximately 46 by 1984 the Reagan administration had to keep unemployment 10 annual percentage points higher than the natural rate of unemployment which was approximately 6 at that time Thus only those percentage points of unemployment above 6 would contribute to lowering the quotcorequot or quotunderlyingquot inflation rate The prediction that 10 annual percentage points of unemployment above the natural rate of unemployment would be necessary to lower the quotcorequot or quotunderlyingquot inflation rate 5 percentage points from 96 to 46 was very close to the actual amount In 1984 dollars this cost approximately 900 billion dollars in lost output or approximately 180 billion dollars per point During the early 1980s this 900 billion dollar loss represented approximately 25 of a typical year39s GNP see Hibbs pp 295296 G How Voters View the UnemploymentIn ation Tradeoff 1 A useful concept in understanding the politics of unemployment and inflation is the marginal substitution rate which is the number of percentage points that unemployment would have to decrease if inflation increased by one percentage point for the President39s support within the group to remain the same Democrats Independents Republicans 90 20 15 Source Hibbs p 177 2 ThusI if 80 of Republicans supported President Bush and inflation then increased 1 percentage point which hurts Bush and unemployment decreased 15 percentage points which helps Bush Bush39s popularity among Republicans would remain at 80 3 Signi cance a political bias in favor of reducing in ation a in virtually no case is a president better off politically by reducing unemployment if inflation increases by the same amount and b2 Democratic voters are less averse to in ation than either Independents or Republicans because it takes less of a reduction in unemployment to satisfy Democrats for a one percent increase in inflation than Republicans or Independents 9 vs 15 or 20 Thus as Democratic Presidents are more strongly supported by the poor who are more adversely affected by unemployment wouldn39t one expect that Democratic administrations would produce lower unemployment and higher inflation than Republican administrations H The Impact of Partisan Control on Economic Outcomes 1 Removing the effects of changes in the natural rate of unemployment and exogenous shocks egI the OPEC oil increases of the 1970sI after four years Democratic administrations produce unemployment rates approximately 2 lower and quotcorequot inflation rates approximately 4 higher than Republican administrations These differences are largely the result of quotlooserquot monetary and fiscal 17 policies pursued by Democratic administrations see the discussion in Hibbs pp 248254 a While the Democratic administrations could not probably sustain an unemployment rate 2 lower than the Republicans indefinitely they will lower it faster than the Republicans and will not be willing to let it increase as high in order to reduce inflation as will the Republicans b Additionally unemployment targets by political parties increase ieI they will tolerate high unemployment as inflation increasesl a The unemployment targets typically increase about onetenth of a percentage point for each additional percentage point of sustained inflation Hibbs The American Political Economy p 253 2 The impact of partisan political control on the distribution of income a The Distribution of Net Income money income plus income underreporting fringe benefits capital gains education benefits less taxes b The ratio of net income of the richest 20 of American families to the poorest 40 of families is typically around 20 ie the richest 20 of the families have twice as much net income as the entire poorest 40 today the richest 20 have over 3 times as much money income as the poorest 20 the difference is that net income subtracts out taxes and includes the value of many government programs thus government does reduce inequality one large reason why liberals like government much more than conservatives 18 c After eight years of a Democratic administration this ratio would decrease from about 197 to about 175 whereas with a typical Republican administration it would increase from 197 up to approximately 205 calculated from pp 470 and 485 of Douglas A Hibbs and Christopher Dennis Income Distribution in the United States American Political Science Review 1988 d Money Income ie not including taxesI etc Over the 19482000 period income inequality the ratio of households at the 80th percentile to households at the 20th percentile despite adverse changes in technology etc would have decreased slightly under continuous Democratic control of the Presidency while continuous Republican control would have caused ineguality to increase more than 80 percent faster than it actually did Larry M Bartels Princeton University Partisan Politics and the US Income Distribution 19482000 paper presented at the 2002 meeting of the American Political Science Association e All income groups at least up to the wealthiest 51 gain more under Democratic than Republican control However the poor gain at a much faster rate underthe Democrats so inequality is lower underthe Democrats than the Republicans even though in absolute dollars the wealthy gain more under Democraticthan Republican control Larry Bartels Unegual Democracy 2008 I The Macroeconomic Priorities of Political Parties in Comparative Perspective SocialistLabor Center Right Democrats Republicans Full Employment Price Stability Equalization of Income Distribution Price Stability Economic Expansion Economic Balance of Expansion Payments Full Employment Equalization of Economic Income Distribution Expansion Price Stability Balance of Full Payments Employment Balance of Payments Equalization of Income Dist Source Hibbs quotPolitical Parties and Macroeconomic Policyquot APSR December 1977 p 1471 1 As one moves from left to right note how Iess egalitarian the priorities tend to be b There is a much greater difference between the Left and Center than between the Center and Right 20 Income Ineguality in the United States I The Distribution of Income in the United States and Other Democracies 197585 Comparative Data and US Overtime 1971 1981 2001 US Japan UK Sweden US US US Richest 10 233 224 234 281 Richest 20 399 375 397 417 435 438 501 NextRichest 20 250 231 248 210 245 250 230 Middle 20 179 175 170 168 173 168 146 NextPoorest 20 119 132 115 131 106 102 87 Poorest 20 53 87 70 74 41 42 35 Source Berry Bourguignon and Morrisson pp 6263 in Lars Osberg ed Economic Inequality and Poverty and httpwwwcensusgovhheswwwincomehistincie3htm 1 Net Income measure monev income plus income underrportmg education inkind benefits less taxes would raise the share of income going to the poorest 20 by about 15 to 20 B Changes in Upper Limit Constant 2005 Dollar Income 19752005 1975 1995 2005 Dollars Percent Poorest 20 15590 18317 19178 358 230 Middle 20 45347 53428 57660 12313 272 Richest 5 102748 143740 166000 63252 616 Note the figure for the top 5 is the lower limit while all others are upper limits the 15590 is the highest family income of the poorest 20 Source httpwwwcensusgovhheswwwincomehistinchO1arhtm Interpretation 21 a While the US appears as egalitarian as most when you examine high income categories it is less egalitarian for the poor b Note the how much moreI in both dollar and percentage terms the top 5 gained than other income groups over the 19752005 period 2 Additional Data Sources reveal that by far the larqest income qains of the last two decades have gone to the richest 1 a From 1979 to 1997 the aftertax income ofthe richest 1 increased by 157 while for families near the middle of the income distribution the increase in aftertax income was approximately M Krugman For Richer New York Times October 2002 p 2 b Return of the Gilded Age Income Shares within the Richest 10 Share to Richest Year 10 1 12 of 1 110th of 1 1100th of 1 top 1 of 200 top 1 of 1000 top 1 of 10000 1920 381 144 109 53 16 1940 444 157 116 56 17 1960 316 83 55 21 6 1970 315 78 51 19 5 1980 328 81 55 22 6 1990 388 129 97 49 18 1995 401 133 98 49 18 1998 414 145 111 60 25 2004 429 162 125 69 28 1 Today the richest 1 has as much income as the poorest 40 c Income Minimums and Averages 1998 Group Top 2 of 1 Top 110th of 1 Top 1100th of 1 Source for b and 0 Dr Emmanuel Saez website httpelsaberkeleyedusaez Minimum Income 81700 107400 230000 316100 790000 3620000 Average Income 94000 143000 267000 494000 1490000 9970000 ie families movin in an out of either the richest 20 or the poorest 20 only 36 go from either the richest 20 to the poorest 20 over a decade there is not that much mobility 1 While there is some mobilit a For example the average income of families earning over 100000 in 1983 was 176000 and over a surrounding 7 year period was 153000 Krugman Peddlling Prosperity pp 142143 C Relative CrossNational Income Comparison 1 N In the early 1990s the average American household in the richest 10 of American households had 567 times as much income as the typical household in the poorest 10 of American households ln virtually all other OECD nations the corresponding ratio was between 27 to 38 Smeeding Challenge Magazine SeptOct 1996 p 48 Income Distribution within Firms ln 1970I in the USI the average CEO made approximately 30 times the income of the lowest paid worker in the firm In 1995I this ratio had risen to 1401 Today Japan and Germany have approximately the same 301 ratio the US had in 1970 from the book entitled Winnertake All by Robert Frand and Philip Cook as reported on The News Hour with Jim Lehrer Friday January 12 1996 a Reportedly Disney CEO Michael Eisner makes approximately 10000 times the income of either the average or lowest paid Disney worker Los Angeles Times in the mid to late 19905 O39 A 2001 Study of MidSized Companies showed that in the US the top executives averaged 34 times the pay of the average industrial worker Corresponding figures for other nations were as follows Great Britain 24 to 1 Italy 20 to 1 France 15 to 1 Germany 13 to 1 and Japan 11 to 1 LA Times C1 June 2 2002 22 23 D Absolute CrossNational Income Comparison a In the 1990s despite the fact that the median American had an income 22 higher than the median person in Finland the Netherlands or Italy Americans in the poorest 10 had a living standard 22 below low income Finns 24 below low income Dutch and 5 below low income Italians HoweverI the wealthiest 1 of Americans had incomes 50 higher than the wealthiest 1 in the other OECD nations Smeeding Challenge Magazine Sep Oct 1996 p 49 1 Sweden The median Swedish family has a living standard roughly comparable with that of the median US family wages are if anything higher in Sweden and a higher tax burden is offset by public provision of health care and generally better public services As you move further down the income distribution Swedish living standards are much higher than in the US at the 10th percentile poorer than 90 of the population the Swedish living standard is 60 higher than in the US 2 Real GDP per capita in Sweden is approximately 16 lower than in the US Which makes Swedish productivity similar to Canada The Swedes work less take longer vacations 3 Additionally the reason that income per person in the United States is much higher than most other wealthy nationsI while low income persons in the US are often much poorer than their foreign counterparts is that the richest 13 are much more wealthy in the United States 4 Impact of the Bush Tax Cut Over the 20012010 period approximately 361 of the benefits go to the richest 1 of households The richest 1 of households receive more benefits than the poorest 70 of households combined The repeal of the estate tax which is over 20 of the value of the Bush tax cut will benefit approximately 2 of estates Half the tax is paid by estates with a minimum value of 5 million dollars and an average value of 17 million dollars sources Citizens for Tax Justice wwwct39org page 2 of Year by Year Analysis ofthe Bush Tax Cut and for parts 13 above see For Richer by Paul Krugman New York Times October 2002 www9karchiveorg click on American economy or political economy 24 E The Distribution of Wealth 1 Wealth is a storehouse of assets trustsI stocksI bondsI etc whereas income is what you live over a short period say a year 2 Estimated Distribution of Wealth in 1969 Percentage of National Wealth Wealthiest 6 of 1 250 Wealthiest 19 762 Next Wealthiest 24 172 Next Poorest 32 66 Poorest 25 00 Thurow Generating Inequality pp 1415 a Notice that the poorest 57 of the public has 66 of the nation s wealth More Recent Estimates of Wealth w a Do not have estimates over all income classes b Percentage of National Wealth Held by the Wealthiest 1 1976 218 1983 338 2000 385 Gregg Easterbrook Los Angeles Times September 17 2000 p M2 Article on Estate Tax 1 When you adjust for the fact that the above data are for the wealthiest 1 and the 1969 data are for the top 6 wealth concentration may have decreased from 1969 to 1976I but would appear to be as great today as in 1969 Recent Stock Market Gains the richest 5 of households own approximately 77 of all the individually owned stock while the poorest 80 owned just 18 a Think about the above figures when you realize that over the past decade there were periods where the stock market would increase 20 per year while growth was around 2 N 25 b The returns to capital were much greater than the returns to labor Robert Kuttner Los Angeles Times December 2 1996 column D page B5 c Worldwide Wealth Distribution Data 1 The assets of the world s top 358 billionaires exceed the combined annual income of nearly half the world s people Los Angeles Times February 16 1997 p A21 F Why Income and Wealth Figures Actually Understate the True Degree of Economic lneguality 1 Need poorer families are more likely to have remedial health and education needs 2 Supplemental Sources of Income the poor are less able to borrow money than the nonpoor 3 NonMonetary Bonuses higher social status and fringe bene ts eg a company car disproportionately go to the more affluent Okun Equality and Ef ciency The Big Tradeoff pp 70 71 a In this regard it is worthwhile to mention a study done by what is today the Department of Health and Human Services which showed that while approximately 85 of white collar professionals would recommend that their daughter or son obtain the same position as they did only 25 of blue collar workers made the same recommendation Okun Equality and Efficiency The Big Tradeoff pp 7071 G The Generational Transference of Income 1 The income and wealth inequalities discussed previously would be more defensible if parental income was unrelated to the childs eventual income a In this case where you begin would have no relationship to where your ended up 2 HoweverI your parents incomesocial status is fairly highly related to where you will end up a Income If you compare the eventual income of two children from different families on average the child from the richer family receives an annual income that is higher 26 than the child from the poorer family by approximately 3040 of the difference in the incomes of their parents 1 For example a child from a family that made 100000 per year would on average out earn a child from a family that made 25000 by approximately 25000 per year the difference in their parents incomes was 75000 33 of 75000 25000 2 Thus if later in life the child of the poorer family was earning 25000 per year and the child of the richer family was earning 50000 per year you could say that the difference was entirely due to background Source Christopher Jenck s discussion of findings of an economist at UC Berkeley email from Jencks 3 Mobility The children born into the poorest 20 of households had a 42 chance of ending up in the poorest 20 themselves a 24 of ending up in the next poorest 20 and only a 6 chance of ending up in the richest 20 Conversely those born into the richest 20 of households had nearly a 40 of ending in the richest 20 themselves while barely a 6 chance of ending up in the poorest 20 a Father s and Son s incomes in the US correlate at about 43 an average of several studies and is higher in the US ie less mobility than in the Scandinavian countries Germany and Canada Socioeconomic factors ie intelligence schooling parent s wealth etc account for only about 13 of the variation Mobility is limited in the US but we don t know why Rags to Riches A Century Fund Guide to the Issues 2004 wwwtcforg and Larry Bartels Unegual Democracy 2008 4 Note that the Bush Tax Cuts e the errnanent repeal of the estate tax will decrease mobi L by makinq it easier for the wealthy to transfer their wealth to their children and by leadinq to reductions in government programs egl the Pell Grant Proqram that help children from lower income families move up the economic ladder 27 Study Guide 3 Exam 3 has the same structure as the two previous exams Additionally you will need the same Scantron 882 form you used on the prior exams While I won39t tell vou the questions the following concepts and themes that I discussed in class will be very important on the test I mentioned a number of quotGeneral Perspectivesquot about Congress What were they and why are they important What is the difference between dyadic and collective representation How representative is the Congress of public opinion What is the difference between the delegate and trustee models of representation Why would it be dif cult for a legislator to adhere to the delegate model What is the 95 rule What is the 40 difference rule According to policy dimension theory how do legislators decide how to vote On what policy dimensions do Democratic and Republican Congressmen differ most On what dimensions do they differ least How is the Senate different than the House of Representatives How do Democratic and Republican judges differ What is the difference between the freedom quotfromquot and the freedom quottoquot What is the essence of organic conservatism What is the world view goals and methods of individualistic conservatism What is Maslow39s need hierarchy and how is it relevant to individualistic conservatism How do individualistic conservatives think that the free market protects the freedom quottoquot What are two fundamental questions of individualistic conservatism How would major sectors of our society such as business the professions labor and the poor respond to an attempt to return to individualistic conservatism What are the four features of a right What are the three defenses for capitalism How valid is each of the three defenses Relative to the nations I mentioned what is the degree of income inequality in the United States During the 196999 period did income inequality in the United States increase or decrease What is the likely impact of President Bush s tax cuts on income inequality Who has a higher standard of living the very poor in the United States or in Sweden Relative to the other nations we examined how much effort does the United States make to reduce income inequality Over the nations we examined what is the relationship between tax rates and economic growth What makes Medicare a redistributive economic issue What does the Medicare case study tell us about how America compares to other economically advanced democracies in terms of guaranteeing economic rights What does the period after Medicare was adopted tell us about the prospect of removing a right once it is adopted How are different income groups affected by unemployment and inflation How do the political parties differ on handling unemployment and inflation Why What is the quotBlinder Rulequot What is the quotmarginal substitution ratequot How do the political right center and left differ on macroeconomic priorities From the readings it would be helpful to know the following Do presidents typically have more power in domestic or foreign policy Why From a president39s perspective what is the problem with policy experts How do presidential debates tend to effect voters How do members of Congress typically achieve reelection What is the single best predictor of how a congressman or senator will vote How strong or weak is the office of president What does Miller mean when he says the clock is ticking How do liberals and conservatives differ on how much a person s 28 economic circumstances depend upon luck How do liberals and conservatives differ concerning what government should to offset the impact of luck Take each of Matthew Miller s speci c policy proposals ie universal health coverage high poverty teacher initiative voucher trials universal preschool school construction lowincome wage subsidy patriot dollars and be able to answer the following questions 1 What are the specifics of each of his proposals eg what are the specifics of his lowincome wage policy his universal health care policy etc 2 How supportive of each of Miller s proposals are liberal and conservative policymakerselites 3 How do liberal and conservative policymakerselites differ in their response to each of Miller s proposals 4 How supportive is the public of Miller s proposals for universal health care the poor schoolteacher plan and the wage subsidy for the working poor Finally how would Miller pay for his proposals 29 Final Examination Essay Since one of the most commonly performed political acts is voting a major theme of this course has been the choices our political parties offer voters Using the definitions given in class for quotliberalquot and quotconservativequot political ideologies and the linkage between these ideologies and the Democratic and Republican parties select a political issue and discuss how accurately or inaccurately the analytic framework developed in this course predicts partisan political differences In order to ascertain the division between the Democratic and Republican parties I want you to select an issue that was voted on by either the House of Representatives or the Senate The vote you choose can be either recent or from the distant past Since political party differences can only occur where there is controversy select a vote where at least 20 of those voting voted on the losing side For example supposing you use the House of Representatives and select a vote on which 400 members voted In order to be able to use the vote at least 80 members would have to vote on the losing side because 80 is 20 of 400 Thus if the vote is 70 quotyesquot and 330 quotnoquot the vote was not sufficiently conflictual However had the vote been 80320 32080 or closer eg 100300 290110 175225 it would have been acceptable It does not matter whether the proposal was passed or defeated Since we are examining differences between the political parties you need to know the vote by party eg how many Democrats voted quotyesquot and how many Democrats voted quotnoquot Newspapers or magazines rarely give this information The source you are required to use is Congressional Quarterly Weekly Later you will find instructions for accessing CQ Weekly When examining a vote make sure you do not confuse voting quotyesquot or quotnoquot with supporting the concept Let me explain If the legislature is voting on a motion to quottablequot or quotrecommitquot the legislation voting quotyesquot on such a motion is to oppose the actual bill if the legislature votes to quottablequot a bill then the bill will not be brought up for consideration and therefore could not be enactedhence voting quotyesquot on a motion to quottablequot the bill has the same effect as voting quotnoquot on the bill itself Additionally the word quotstrikequot means to remove ie take out or delete Finally substitute means to replace part of the legislation eg substitute 6 months for 3 months You may want to use a vote on an quotamendmentquot to the proposed legislation Amendments modify ie change the legislation Much of the most interesting legislative quotactionquot is on amendments This assi nment is worth 30 oints and is due t ed at the time of the final examination Scores are lowered 10 points per day late later on the da of the final exam also counts as one da late You need to submit a printed copy of the essay at the time of the nal examination Late or emailed papers lose a substantial number of points see page 7 of the coursepack for a full discussion You cannot use completing or printing the nal essay as an excuse either to receive more time to complete the nal exam or to take a makeup nal exam The following two pages contain a sample nal exam essay ieI what your essay should look like After the sample nal exam essay there is information on how to obtain the congressional vote you will use as the basis of the nal exam essay 30 Kimberly Johnson POSC 100 Dr Dennis Final Examination Essay Issue and Importance In order to provide the funds for governmental projects citizens pay taxes Since taxes can be a sizeable expenditure for many families and individuals the question of who bears the tax burden becomes important Several years ago the US Senate voted on an amendment offered by Senator Gore DTennessee that would have raised income taxes on high income groups and reduced proposed increases in taxes that would primarily fall on middle and low income groups CQ Weekly Report October 27 1990 page 3655 if you are using the internet version you will not have a page number The purpose of this paper is to examine how Democratic and Republican senators voted on the Gore Amendment We shall now develop a hypothesis concerning how we would expect Democratic and Republican senators to vote on the Gore Amendment Hypothesis As discussed in class political issues can typically be thought of as primarily either economic or noneconomic lecture of 33003 if you do not quotdatequot your notes estimate the date Taxation would clearly be an economic issue Furthermore liberal and conservative political ideologies take very different positions on economic issues Liberals tend to think the government should try to minimize economic inequality and maintain economic security whereas conservatives value freedom of choice most highly with economic equality being much less important lecture of 33003 Additionally class lecture has stressed that Democratic officeholders are typically more liberal or less conservative than Republican officeholders lecture of 33003 Since the Gore Amendment would raise taxes on high income groups and reduce proposed tax increases on middle and low income groups it is probably best classi ed as a liberal proposal As Democratic senators are likely to be more liberal than Republican senators the following hypothesis seems reasonable H1 Democratic senators are more likely to vote in favor of the Gore Amendment than Republican senators Findings The Gore Amendment was voted on by the United States Senate on October 18 1990 The amendment was defeated by a vote of 45 to 55 Le 45 senators voted quotyesquot while 55 senators voted quotnoquot CQ Weekly Report October 27 1990 page 3655 Therefore the Gore Amendment meets the criteria that at least 20 of those voting voted on the losing side Le 45 out of 100 45 and 45 is equal to or greater than 20 31 Among Democratic senators 67 voted in favor ie quotyesquot on the Gore Amendment 3718 and 373718 3755 67 By contrast only 18 of the Republican senators voted in favor of the Gore Amendment 837 and 8837 845 18 Since Democratic senators were much more likely to vote in favor of the Gore Amendment than Republican senators 67 vs 18 the results offer strong support for the hypothesis Implications In this section of the paper you need to put your findings in a wider perspective Thus are the differences between Democratic and Republican officeholders on the Gore Amendment similar to their differences on other economic issues If so what does this tell you about American politics If not why If your results are contrary to what you expected ie hypothesized it might be that the vote was the opposite of what you thought See the third paragraph on page 1 of this handout Additionally you should check surrounding votes For example Democratic senators who you would expect to favor increases in the minimum wage might vote against a Republican amendment to raise the minimum wage 20 cents per hour in order to vote in favor of a later amendment to raise the minimum wage 40 cents per hour You should discuss your findings in conjunction with what you have read or will read in the textbook Look up your issue eg taxation civil rights regulation of business social welfare foreign policy etc in the appendix of the textbook and see if you can find a guide to how the two major political parties could be expected to differ on this or similar issues While there are many pages in the textbook that may be useful in this regard the following pages de nitely discuss political party differences 128129 162166 196198 200202 232 300301 and 376377 A citation to the textbook should be contained within the sentence it appears and be in the following form Patterson The American Democracy 9th alternate edition pp 200202 See howl cited CQ Weekly Report in the quotFindingsquot section You do not need a bibliography In addition to substance grammar and neatnessI points will be subtracted from your score for each of the following 1 Not calculating the p g of lquot quot 39 g39 39 and the percentage of Republican legislators who voted quotyesquot on the proposal 5 points 2 Not citing specific pages from the textbook in the quotImplicationsquot section of the paper 5 points 3 Not stapling a copy of your vote ie printout a copy of the vote handout to your paper 5 points 4 Untyped papers will not be accepted 5 Late papers lose 10 points per day Essays turned in after the final exam period are counted as one day late The next two pages explain how to obtain the congressional vote you need for the nal exam essay 32 The commands below will allow you to access CQ Weekly online As you may either not have a valid id or pin number make sure you begin early Excuses such as the server was down you could not access the material from home and the consultant at the library that you needed to talk to was ill that day will not be accepted This is the risk you take if begin the proiect iust before it is due 10 points per day late Begin several days early so that last minute problems will not harm you If you cannot successfully access CQ Weekly turn to the last page of the coursepack for an alternative procedure To access CQ Weekly online use the following commands 1 wwwcsulbedulibram 2 under Research Support click on Locate Specific Journals by title 3 in the blank to the right of Title begins with type CQ Weekly 4 click on Search immediately to the right of CQ Weekly 5 Enter your campus ID number and CSULB Library PasswordPin 6 click on GO Press 7 click on Floor Vote Search 8 use Words or Phrases eg type in taxation abortion or some other type of issue that you are interested in Note you can access earlier years by using the date range in the middle of the screen 9 after entering a Word or Phrase click on Search I tried taxation and received the following SENATE ROLL CALL VOTE 174 May 15 2003 840 pm S 1054 Tax Reductions Elimination of Tax Cuts Dodd DConn amendment that would eliminate from the bill provisions excluding 10 percent of dividend income above 500 from taxation and provisions decreasing the top income tax rate Rejected by a vote of 4950 Republicans 149 thus 50 Republican senators voted with 1 voting yes and 49 voting no Democrats 471 Northern Democrats 390 Southern Democrats 81 Independents 10 Here s how to use the previous information First I know I can use the vote because 49 voted on the losing side ie the yes side lost and 49 out of 99 senators voted yes and 494950 4999 49 you need to work out the mathematics as ljust did you will lose points if you do not compute the percentages Second I know that only 2 of Republican senators voted yes ie 1149 150 2 Third I know that 98 of Democratic senators votes yes ie 33 47l471 4748 98 Do not be concerned with the difference between Northern and Southern Democrats Make sure you have the computer printout a copy of the above material and attach it to the paper you submit Now let us examine the substance of the vote Like the Gore Amendment that used previously the Dodd Amendment would shift the tax burden more toward the wealthy than would be the case if the amendment did not pass The Bush Tax Cut which the Dodd Amendment was trying to change would exclude federal income taxes on dividend income over 500 Since dividends come from stock and approximately 75 of the privately owned stock is owned by the wealthiest 5 of households quot 39 39 39 flow 12 quot 39 to the very wealthy Therefore by eliminating the tax on dividends the Bush Tax Cut would be a huge windfall for the wealthy Alternatively preserving the tax on dividends which the Dodd Amendment was attempting to do would hurt higher income households and help lower income households because the tax burden would fall more on those with higher incomes and hence less so on those with lower incomes Additionally the Dodd Amendment would reduce the reduction in federal income tax rates for the wealthy that President Bush proposed ie under the Dodd Amendment the income tax rate for the wealthiest households would be higher than under the Bush proposal Since liberals are more egalitarian than conservatives the Dodd Amendment would be best classi ed as a liberal proposal Review the first page of the discussion of the final exam essay for words you are likely to see such as strike recommit etc Additionally remember that a yes vote does not necessary mean you favor more of something just keep reading For example suppose a vote on an amendment to a bill increasing the minimum wage allows employers not to pay the minimum wage to teenage workers Voting yes on such an amendment would notshow support for the minimum wage If the amendment were to pass the minimum wage would be weakened since teenagers would not be covered Remember you need to think through what a yes or no vote actually means Please note that the in class portion of the final exam will consist of multiple choice and short answer questions The final exam essay I have been discussing only replaces the essay portion of the nal exam 34 Alternative Source for Congressional Vote If you cannot operate CQ Weekly you can still complete the final exam essay by using the Congressional Record The following information will allow you to access the Congressional Record 1 Go to wwwthomasgov 2 Look at the bottom middle of the page and click on Roll Call Votes 3 Look under Senate which is lower on the page than House since you will need to count the number of senators for each party who voted yes and no it is easier to use the Senate which has 100 members than the House of Representatives which has 435 members 4 Pick any year from 1989 to the present 5 Look under Description on the right side of the page and see what interests you Amendments are usually more interesting and con ictual than votes for final passage 6 Click on the appropriate red numbered item in the Vote column and look for either Statement of Purpose or Measure Title in the middle of the page this will explain what the vote was on and show the voting split ie how many senators voted yes and how many voted no you can also learn more about your vote by clicking on the red items immediately above the Statement of Purpose or Measure Title eg Amendment Number or Measure Number and following the ensuing links Remember that at least 20 of those voting must have voted on the losing side It does not matter whether the legislation passed or was defeated Now scroll down to Grouped By Vote Position this will list which senators voted yes and which voted no you should print this material because to do the term paper you will need to calculate the percentage of Democratic senators who voted ves the percentage of Democratic senators who voted no the percentage of Republican senators who voted yes and the percentage of Republican senators who voted no 7 If at least 20 of those who voting voted on the losing side you can use the vote if not go back and choose a different vote 8 If the vote you have chosen does meet the 20 requirement then copy and paste what appears to the right of Measure Title in the middle of the screen you can also learn more about your vote by clicking on the red underlined section to the right of Measure Number 9 scroll down the page until it mentions Grouped By Vote Position this will separate the yes and no voters since this source does not tell the vote by party you will need to count the number of Democrats who voted yes the number of Democrats who voted no the number of Republicans who voted yes and the number of Republicans who voted no omit any independent senators ie those who do not have either a D in the parenthesis to the right of their name for Democrats or an R in the parenthesis to the right of their name for Republicans The information on this page only replaces the top portion of page 32 of the coursepack ie how you obtain your vote Thus use pages 2931 as well as the lower portion of page 32 and all of page 33 in preparing your essay The source you will be referencing in your paper will be The Congressional Record instead of Weekly