Etruscans and Roman Republic, March 15 and 17 week
Etruscans and Roman Republic, March 15 and 17 week ARTH 1305
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
March 15, 2017 ETRUSCANS CIVILIZATION Conveys the territory of Italy on the center and north (Greeks were at the south) They are the civilization prior to Roman Republic Language is not still decoded Great miners (this was their primary industry) Focus of their statues is the gestures of hands (primary communication between Italian people) Women with a high status, just like man (could keep their last names once married, could go to public events with husband, they were educated, after marriage they could own property, they got their names scripted on tombs just like man) In paintings, only slaves would be depicted nude ETRUSCAN TEMPLE (MODEL) It is a model because temples were constructed out of perishable materials (wood) and none survived Tuscan capitals order of this civilization; unfluted columns, they have bases and wide intercolumniations Temple has three cellas (instead on one), each one is dedicated to a different god. Deities are Tinia (Zeus), Uni (Hera) and Menrva (Athena) Statues are on top of temple (special feature of Etruscans), they are made of terracotta (cooked earth, durable material) APULLU (APOLLO) It is believed it is one of the statues on top It is slightly larger than a life size statue Focus not on a naturalistic understanding of the human body, but on the gestures of the hand We note the man is speaking, he has a normal smile (in comparison to the exaggerated archaic smile) SARCOPHAGUS In Etruscan culture, dead are always cremated, the ashes are put on this sarcophagus, sarcophagus is placed on a tomb and this tomb is buried underground Any person could enter to the tombs Etruscans had the tradition of a special dinner in celebration of the deceased on the anniversary of their death We see a husband and wife, the wife has gestures with hands so we assume she is talking and husband is proud of her (silent, he is letting the woman talk); we don’t know who is in the sarcophagus cremated We see an obsession with the gestures of hands, not naturalism of human body TUMULI Etruscans were required by law to bury the tombs outside of the fortifications of the city Tumuli at the time was the largest city with the largest tombs Tufa was the name of the stone o which tombs were built. It is a volcanic soft stone found everywhere in central Italy, it is of colors brown and orange These are cylindrical structures with just one entrance with a ladder on the inside These tombs were for the highest class only (ruling and military) Interior is much like today, rectangular with rooms connecting to one another TOMB OF RELIEFS Tomb which belonged to a family of militars (you can see that because of the objects placed for the deceased which are helmets, swords, etc.) The tomb has three levels; first one has the three cellas for the main relatives of the family (the ones that have highest status), the second are for the ones who have least status and the lowest level is where the people held ceremonies at anniversary of the death of this family Cerberus dog with three heads characteristic of the Greek myth, it welcomes you to the underworld (guardian of this world) TOMB OF LEOPARDO Tombs more important are the ones painted (not carved) with fresco technique Men are depicted dark, women are depicted light Painting in which all the members are having dinner Main focus is again the hands At the right corner there is one man holding an egg (symbolizing rebirth) CAPITOLINE WOLF One of the famous statues, executed in honor of the Roman Republican Although the statue is Roman, the artist was an Etruscan Shewolf the wolf which feed twins Romulus and Romus, legend says Romulus killed his brother and founded Rome in April 12, 753 BC Babies on the statue were added later in the Renaissance The statue is depicting the moment in which we see the animal feeding her puppies, as all instinctive and aggressive mothers, she stares at us with all her muscles tensed and all the nervousness expecting us to leave or she will attack us It is naturalistic (body and almost all features of face) and stylistic (pattern of curls on her neck) CHIMERA OF AREZZO Beast of the Greek Myth in which Belerofonte kills it Body is from lion, tail from serpent and a side of the body has a goat Most statues in Etruscan culture are bronze (dark) We see again, tension of the muscles It is believed Belerofonte used to be in front of this statue creating the effect of tension in the beast SARCOPHAGUS OF LARS By this time, Roman had developed military force and was starting its conquest Veii was the first city to fall Sarcophagus is made of stone, it doesn’t represent the quality of Etruscan art as before (because the civilization is declining) We see an old age men reading a script of his achievements; imperfections on his face are emphasized He was a respected man, he is representing wisdom, long and distinguished career, intelligence, human quality, etc. At the front side of the sarcophagus there are 6 death demons, the old man is in the strict middle; this continuous frieze is depicting the moment in which the time for the old man has arrived (death demons come to take his life away) AULE MATELE Year 89 BC is the end of Etruscan civilization, their language is replaced with Latin, This statue is life size This is the moment is which an ethnic Etruscan becomes a proud Roman (men is dressed as a Roman but has Etruscan ethnicity, interesting because at the time, only Roman citizens could dress like that) Adlocutio process of speaking to people, addressing the people ROMAN REPUBLICAN They were known for their empire War like people Manly culture Population of Rome was 12 million people They had a Roman Forum where government, commerce and religion activities were held Coliseum was a place to see death Circus Maximus: greatest building at the time, quarter million could fit, where the persecutions of the army were executed CHRONOLOGY Before any periods listed on the chronology, people were simply living in villages Monarchy 753509 BC Period of seven kings, starting with Romulus (the founder) Republic 50927 BC Romans looked at Greeks and learned; their government was a republic (ruled by law, not majority of opinions); this ends with the civil war which started with the murder of Julius Caesar on March 15 44 BC Roman Empire 27 BC476 AD which subdivides in a) Pax Romana 27180 AD pax meaning peace of Rome, relative time where Rome was at peace; time in which Christ was born and died b) Crisis and Decline 180284 AD c) Late Antiquity 284476 AD time where Christianity is born MONARCHY Humble side of the Romans Started as farmers and warriors with strong work ethic Archaeology has discovered ancient ruins where platforms with holes are found (these holes where the place in which the vertical posts were placed for the entire structure to have a stable architecture) ROMAN REPUBLIC Begins in 509 BC Senate is the most powerful form of law Elders with strong talkative skills and high status are within the Senate Latin is spoken in the senate Classes are: Patricians (senators, man who possessed land), plebeians (common people, the majority of Rome), and slaves (about one fourth of the society, there are no discrimination of color, even a white could be slave) Patricians and Plebeians were balanced with the powers of law (Senate for the first and Popular assembles for the second) Dictator was another important character within this period; it is a temporary authority for a temporary period of time (dictator was the person in charge of a crisis, the person who would rule the army and make a difference between a life and death of any citizen for a period of 6 months) Cincinnati was the famous dictator who quit his job This period ends with the murder of Julius Caesar (dictator who stood more than 6 months) March 17 2016 ROMAN EMPIRE By this time, Rome is the largest city of the world (in fact, it is the largest city in human history) The first emperor was Augustus, he found a palace near the forum of Rome (the equivalent of the agora of the Greeks, marketplace, most important place of the entire city) There are seven important hills (buildings) in Rome but we only have to learn 2: Capitoline hill and Forum Every major town in Rome had its amphitheater Rome had the three branches of the government (Executive, Legislative and Judicial) Although they had their own language (Latin), Rome culture is a mix of Etruscans and Greeks cultures (hybrid culture), its culture is influenced by both civilizations Temples are going to be defined by cheap materials, only bases are from expensive material; this allowed the Romans to build their temples in a faster way Masters of vault and arch engineering Portraits for Romans are composed of the head or bust (nipples to head) and they are never idealized, they are verist TEMPLE OF PORTUNUS It is a building of the last Republic Made of stone Portunus is the god associated with river (Tiber river) and hard work Temple’s purpose was sacrifices to this god Greek influence on this temple: columns in ionic order (volutes and bases), ionic entablature (because it has continuous frieze), and pediment (both orders have this) Etruscan influence on this temple: base of the temple is podium (rather than stylobate in Greek culture), it has one frontal entrance and it has a large porch (more porch than cella at the temple) Roman influence: materials used for the temple (economy) Tufa, cheap stone found at local buildings, and concrete (mix of cement, lime and sand) are the materials used for this temple. Columns in this temple are made of tufa, and also engaged columns Rebet means to clothe or to bet something Travertine is a local stone, clistaline limestone found at the city walls of Rome, it is soft when you extract it but becomes solid with time, and it is of a crème color. This is the type of stone which is rebeted at the podium of this temple (it is not seen at the picture of the power point slide because it has disappear) Roman influence on this temple: materials and construction, cella is next to peristyle Pseudoperipteral occurs when the peristyle of a temple is not open SANCTUARY OF FORTUNA Fortuna is the goddess of the luck (fortune) It is dedicated to a goddess, so it is a religious complex Located at south of Rome Made of concrete Originally painted Tradition at Rome demanded families to travel outside of Rome to this temple and make their prayers, they could also use this time as to spend quality time with your family (have a picnic or something) The big square is the terrace The semicircle at the top of the terrace is the place for the prayers (theater for workship) It has Egyptian influence because of the trade practiced between Romans and Egyptians; look a lot like Temple of Hatshepsut Influence from Greeks is shown in the columns Roman influence in its construction There is a palace built at the top of the theater of workship, this was built in the 16 century Vault is the term for stone ceiling (or concrete ceiling) There is a vault shown at the powerpoint of the class right next to the picture of the palace built later, its columns are made of stone, the walls are from concrete ALL VAULTS ARE FIREPROOF Barrel vault is a half cylinder of vault Groin vault: it is an efficient, more stable type of vault in which each vault is rotated 90 degrees Fenestrated sequence: allowed light to come in Hemispherical dome: hemispherical means half sphere, it has a oculus which makes the complex enter light BARREL GROIN FENESTRATED SEQUENCE HEMISPHERICAL DOME Arch: Romans though post and lintel architecture of Greeks would not last (because lintel could easily be broken or it could crack), so they mastered arch since this architecture is more resistant than post and lintel The upper squares of the arch are called voussoirs HEAD OF MAN FROM SCOPPITO Portraits from a man of the elite class (wealthy man) We do not know his name nor who he is Since Romans had great respect for elders, portraits were kept at home (giving meaning of importance to the person) Materials for common portraits were wax, stone, among others. These kind of portraits were put outside at funerals or ceremonies to the death to bring prestige to the family (portrait was your evidence you were the descendant of a great man, this gave prestige to you and your family) Defects on the face of the man are emphasized Verism: the exaggeration of naturalism in portraits, most portraits from Rome were verist, rathen than idealized PORTRAIT BUST OF A MAN We don’t know who he is Elder man Signs experience, intelligence, quality, determination, authority and status We know he must had been a respected man (since portrait is put on display) Pupils and special features of the face are painted SECOND PORTRAIT OF BUST OF A MAN Carved in terracotta Carved pupils Neck is skillful made Signs proud and smart man We can see absolute determination in his face PORTRAIT OF ROMAN GENERAL At Rome, men enter the army at 12 years old, you serve approx. 25 years and then, you retire as a most respected man in society at your 30 years He has a verist head with an idealized body with the torso uncovered because his body arm is on his side Cuirass is the body arm His head is a portrait, it represents quality, intelligence, character; meanwhile the body represents the strength and power of Hercules FUNERARY RELIEF…GESII Portrait of three people A slave woman (Gessia fausta), the soldier (Gesii) and a slave man (Publius Gessius), respectively The soldier is wearing his cuirass meanwhile slaves are wearing togas (togas were only worn by citizens, this feature means the slaves are free) Traditions dictated you as a slave to own your owner’s name once you are free (this could only happen when the owner is death or to attend to a wedding or some event alike) It was illegal to depict slaves at Roman Empire Once a slave is free, he obtains its right to wear toga, to be depicted at portraits, and to join the army; s/he is a person now, not a property Story of this portrait is soldier died and he freed his slaves, woman paid for this portrait with her own money in thanking his deceased owner We don’t know if slaves knew each other DENARIUS It depicts face of Julius Caesar, the dictator, in a verist way The currency has the phrase “Perpetuo dictator”, which means permanent dictator He was assassinated because of these; people didn’t like the phrase at all Julius Caesar was a strong ambitions man, he was a populist These coins could be used as propaganda for him; you could send a message through them, in here: message was the Perpetuo Dictator With this coin, Julius Caesar maximizes himself at breaking the tradition of only depicting gods or respected dead men; he was the first in depicting himself while alive HEAD OF JULUS CAESAR He was a brilliant general, incredible communicator (speaker), you get a sense of this by just looking at the head MOUNT VESUVIUS This was the volcano which destroyed Pompeii (population of 20,000) in August 24, 79 AD Pompeii had two main avenues: Decumanus (the horizontal line at the map of Pompeii) and Cardo (the vertical line) The intersection at the map is at the Southwest, this is, because original it would be at the center of the city, but it expanded in repective north and east Decumanus material was basalt, it is a volcanic stone used for the construction of this street The little stones forming aa path at the street was for people to cross to the other side of the street without getting dirty (people used to defecate and urinate at streets) Forum shown next at the power point, was almost a sacred place, people could not defecate in there and not even pets were allowed (only pedestrians). It is surrounded by religious buildings TEMPLE OF JUPITER Jupiter for the Romans is going to be the most powerful god for them CAPITOLINE It was constructed in 509 BC If Romans conquered any new towns, they would build a Capitoline for that town; this shows the importance of this building BASILICA Main government building of Rome Law courts and legal system were placed here The little part at the rectangle shows the place for judges, the larger part is for the attorneys at the time they would make their arguments; the second floor for this was the place for the audience Lawyers were seen as the most important people during Rome, the most prestigious; people all over Rome would be seeing them from the second floor at the time of their arguments AMPHITHEATER It was always built at the edge of town by civic man (not by government) Composed of two parts: arena (sand in Latin, the place were gladiators used to fight) and cavea (place were the audience sits) This theater could accommodate all people at Rome Places at cavea were by rank; lower area was reserved for elite men (attorneys and men of Senate) and the upper area was for people not so important such as plebeians