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Themes In World Geography

by: Brett Bauch

Themes In World Geography GEOG 100

Brett Bauch

GPA 3.77


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Class Notes
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This 88 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brett Bauch on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 100 at California State University - Sacramento taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/218810/geog-100-california-state-university-sacramento in Geography at California State University - Sacramento.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Class 14b Global climate change Basics of global warming Potential effects Politics of global warming Greenhouse effect Natural warming effect Keeps Earth habitable Greenhouse gases GHGs Let in short wavelengths Trap long wavelengths What is global warming Global worldwide not universal Global climate change more accurate Increase in average world temperature Many varied regional effects Climate research How do we know about past Climates Temperature records Observations of seasons orops Pollen in lake sediments Tree rings Ice cores trapped air Is global warming happening 1990s warmest decade of millenium 7 warmest years on record Increase of 14 F in 20th century Temperate latitudes 5 increase in 35 years ls global warming unusual Fastest rate of warming in 1000 years 1 C away from warmest in 125000 years Highest CO2 in 420000 years Yes it s been this warm before But that doesn t mean it s not serious What s causing global warming Sunspct cycles Not since 1980s Earth s changing orbit Recent changes don t t End of an Ice Age Maybe a little What s causing global warming Carbon dioxide water vapor methane Naturally occurring but increase with human activity Rising CO2 since Industrial Revolution Product of fossil fuels 9099 con dence IPCC How much more warming 25O IOOF by 2100 54 F at current emission rates A 5 F drop led to the last ice age Climate systems are nonlinear Earth with a fever So what for the weather More climatic variability More and stronger storms Increase in extreme weather since 1970s 90 positive from global warming More rain in some places less in others So what for ecosystems Northward Climate shift of 90350 miles Fastest species migrate at 12 milesyear Need 0934 milesyear Penguins and polar bears More dead plants 9 more CO2 emissions Good for mosquitoes And diseases So what for the oceans Thermal expansion of warmer water Melting ice sheets glaciers Rise of 153 feet by 2100 Every foot up is 100 feet inland Increased salinity in groundwater So what for the oceans Arctic Ocean ice sheet down 40 in 30 years Could stop the Gulf Stream Coral reefs very sensitive to temperature Mass dieoffs worldwide since 1979 So what for cities More air pollution More deadly heat waves Mountain glaciers disappearing too Water supplies for millions in danger Sea level rise New York London Bangkok Rio etc So what for countries Some positive effects in North Greatest threats to poorest countries Most emissions from wealthy countries 40 countries in danger of annihilation Solutions to global warming Mitigation reduce effects Carbon taxes Emissions trading Energy efficiency alternative fuels Adaptation adapt to effects Seawalls irrigation etc No matter the cause but who pays Politics of global warming Fossilfuel producers little to nothing US Australia Saudi Arabia etc US has 4 of population 36 of CO2 emissions Europe has set binding targets Developing countries want to develop Small island states want to eXist Politics of global warming Kyoto Protocol 1997 Rati ed by Europe Russia not US Cuts of 7 from 1990 levels Est 5070 cuts needed to stabilize CO2 Est cost 270450 billion for US About the same as mitigation llPET C Prnjertinns lPCTC Third Assessment EGG ll 6 Average glehal temperamres will increase between 14 tn 58 3C 1 5 tn 104 31F Mere El Ninelilce warming in the eastern trnpieal Paci c and greater extremes cnf drying and he any rainfall Increased precipitation ester northern mid ta high latitudes and in mltarctica with larger year tnyear yariatiens werldwide lWealcening nf ncean circulatinn patterns which bring warm trepical waters tn high latitudes in the limthern Hemisphere Northern Hemisphere snow cnyer glaciers ice caps and sea ice are prnjecterl ta decrease Hrn weyer Antarctica is likely tn gain mass Global mean sea level is prej ected tn rise by 009 to 083 meters 315 tn 35 inches primarily tine tn thermal expansinn and glacial and ice sheet melting This gure is actually slightly lesser than the 1992 sc enaries predicted clue primarily to mare precise mncleling Class 2b Natural Resources and Energy Today s class What is a resource Ecological footprints Natural resources and resourcebased economies Example Gabon Energy and oil What is a resource Naturally occurring material Useful to society Able to be exploited used Availability depends on Physical characteristics of the resource Economic and technological condition of society Renewable resources Regenerated as fast as they re used Energy sources Potentially renewable must be carefully managed Water Forests Soils Nonrenewable resources Finite on a human time scale All minerals Fossil fuels Generated like sedimentary rocks Coal oil natural gas Tragedy of the commons Resources held in common free access Wealth measured by resource use No incentive to conserve Tragedy is inevitable an individual will overuse public resources when it is in his or her best interests Solutions Example Atlantic cod Grand Banks off Canadian East Coast For 500 years rich commercial shery 1950s technology led to 4X catch rate Population crashed in 1980s 70 decrease in catch Now moratorium on Northern Cod Resource consumption Ecological footprint Average productive land per person 45 acres Average land used by US residents 24 acres What s your footprint Mineral resources Mineral inorganic speci c chemistry hardness density crystal Location depends on geology large size or luck No one country has everything Mineral resources Six stages in mineral exploration Exploration Extraction Concentration Re ning Transporting Manufacturing Each stage has its own geography Mineral exploration Where does exploration take place Geology Politics Econornics Technology The less risk and cost the better Exploration determines Where reserves are Resource reserves Estimated vs proven Remember economies and technology Mineral extraction Where does extraction take place See Step 1 Mineral concentration and refining Two similar stages EX Copper uses 05 ore Where Mineral processingmanufacturing Depends on the mineral small or large quantities EX Copper in small pieces Where Example Gold Long history as a valuable metal Conducts electricity ductile Used as currency Aesthetic value Occurs everywhere even in seawater Placer vs lode gold Weathered gold washed downstream Veins under the surface Example California Gold Rush Geologically right former seabed Politically right just transferred from Mexico Technology evolved to extract more gold Initially placer mining Then hydraulic mining Then cyanide heap leaching Example California Gold Rush Gold helped Union win Civil War Population boom made CA a state in 2 years Agriculture began to boom San Francisco as gateway Massive amounts of erosion and deposition More ooding in Sacramento Processing involved mercury and arsenic Don t eat American River sh Example Coltan Mineral that includes tantalum Used in cell phones laptops etc Found in Australia Central Africa Example Coltan Mineral that includes tantalum Used in cell phones laptops etc Found in Australia Central Africa Good source of income for Congolese But militias overrun protected areas and smuggle out coltan So Nokia et al go to Australia instead Energy The capacity to do work or transfer heat Nearly All energy comes from the sun Primary energy sources heat or do work directly Secondary sources turn turbines to generate electricity Energy 90 of US energy from fossil fuels Remainder nuclear hydro Different geography for each source Coal natural gas Hydro Nuclear Solar Wind Oil Worldwide and in US 40 of energy 23 of US use is transportation Cheaper to import oil than extract it here 60 imported Depends on relationships with exporters 2002 Canada Saudi Arabia Mexico Venezuela Nigeria Iraq OPEC 0 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Cartel that sets oil prices and supply Formed to resist European companies Holds 70 of reserves Iran Iraq Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE Algeria Libya Nigeria Venezuela Indonesia 1970 oil crises 1973 Israel ghts off Egypt and Syria OPEC wanted to punish Israel s allies Plus frustration with 6 of population using 33 of energy Quadrupled oil prices Led to gas shortages ef ciency improvements Today conservation no longer a concern Oil reserves When will we run out No when will production decline 10 rule production is about 10 of reserves New discoveries needed to keep production high In 2003 25 billion barrels were used but only 8 billion were discovered And consumption is only increasing Oil reserves Resource use follows Hubberts curve I I l I v r f a I 3 N ff j I 81 v A l l 885 Hr I L I x l l l I When is the peak of production Between 1999 and 2010 What happens economically Class 7a Language 0 Origin and diffusion of English Language families Politics of language What is a language Organized system of speech Mutual comprehension of sounds Allows transmission of culture Cause and symbol of cultural differentiation Vocabulary pronunciation syntax word meaning World languages Estimated 60007000 languages But only 20003000 written Half the world speaks only 8 Only 300 are safe from extinction Geography of language Language depends on migration Diffusion of language Spread by speakers Picked up by others Language splitting Pidgins and creoles Geography of English History of invasions Original inhabitants Celts 450 AD Angles Jutes Saxons 1066 AD Normans Germanic French and Latinate bases Geography of English Diffused Via colonization Now official language of 60 countries 15 billion speakers Lin gua franca Several distinct dialects Dialects Variation of a language Different vocabulary spelling and pronunciation Vary by place ethnicity class Usually still understandable American vs British Dialects New words new inventions Moose raooon canoe Elevatorlift ashlighttorch Deliberate new spellings Colorcolour defensedefence Changes in pronunciation a r American Dialects Based on who migrated where and contact with England New England MidAtlantic South Midwestern English standard dialect Language classification Language families Languages with a common prehistoric origin 20 major families IndoEuropean SinoTibetan Afro Asiatic IndoEuropean languages cover half the world Language classification Branches or subfamilies Common ancestor within thousands of years Germanic Armenian Celtic 0 Not mutually intelligible But similar sounds grammar words Language classification Groups Within branches West Germanic Indic East Slavic and Baltic More recent common origin Few grammar vocab differences Politics of language Language as key to culture Of cial languages Bilingualism or multilingualism Belgium vs Switzerland Belgium Walloons French 45 Historically upperruling class Flemish Dutch 55 Two regions governed separately Brussels capital bilingual Switzerland Four of cial languages German 65 French 18 Italian 12 Romansh 1 Strong local government cantons Class 4b Population basics Food production and hunger Population pressure Egypt Population basics Gender issues Food resources Where Sunshine water soil Population doubled since 1950 So has food production But in a different set of places And with expensive inputs Food resources 30000 edible species 90 of food comes from 15 plants and 8 animals Four crops total over 50 of calories 90 of caloric energy is lost by going up a step in the food Chain Hunger malnutrition and famine Hunger insuf cient food Malnutrition wrong kind of food Insuf cient protein Vitamin A etc Too much or not enough Longterm problem Hunger malnutrition and famine Famine inability to get food More localized temporary Poverty gt food shortage Drought or natural disaster Political con ict or displacement Disease not starvation kills World population 64 billion 24 per second Basic demographics Crude birth rate live births per 1000 people Crude death rate deaths per 1000 people Infant mortality rate deaths under 1 year old per 1000 people Rate of natural increase births deaths Fertility rate average Children born per woman Measuring prosperity GDP gross domestic product Measures all goods and services produced within a country Economic growth means GDP growth What s wrong with GDP Only measures money changing hands No quality of life measures No subtraction for resource use Measuring prosperity HDI human development index Life expectancy at birth Education literacy and years of school Standard of living GDP per capita Gender and population Social not biological difference Gender roles tied to economic activity Preagriculture even responsibilities Plow agriculture gave men land rights Industrialization kept women at home Gender and population Fertility rate from 45 in 1970 to 27 But 840 million to 15 billion women 80 in developing countries Low fertility rate correlates with high GDP And high female literacy correlates with low fertility Gender and health Maternal mortality ratio as health disparity From 1 in 16 pregnancies Africa to l in 2000 Europe 60 iron de ciency 100 million missing females Cultural preference not poverty Gender and Subsistence Farming Men own land and plow Women do everything else Planting weeding harvesting Kitchen gardens Water and fuelwood Environmental degradation affects women rst Gender and Commercial Farming Wage labor is more highly valued Men migrate to cities women head the household But men still own the land and credit Paid crops discourage subsistence crops And men contribute 75 of wages Class 3a The Round Earth or Map Projections and Climate Basics How hot is it What determines temperature lnsolation incoming solar radiation Cloud cover Altitude Water vapor in the air Land or water Air movement Wind Insolation Only at one latitude at a time are the sun s rays overhead Between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn Everywhere else rays are diffused What causes the seasons Volunteers The tilt of the earth The angle of sunlight The Change in heat received from the sun Latitude and longitude Latitude how far north or south From 00 at equator to 900 at poles Each parallel of latitude is a different size Key latitudes Equator 235 ON and S Latitude and longitude Longitude how far east or west East or west of what 1884 agreement on prime meridian at Greenwich Each meridian of longitude is the same distance around Not parallel lines Key longitudes Prime Meridian International Date Line 100th meridian Map projections Proj eot a round globe onto a at surface Copyright o In a Options Stretch out some areas Cut out some areas Shrink some areas fl l I l VIIJII Map projections Three properties to consider Area equalarea or equivalent Shape conformal Distance equidistant Choose two out of three How large an area Purpose of the map Ulterior motives Cylindrical projections Shapes are preserved But not area Mercator projection Deliberate distortion Cold War Colonialism Cylindrical projections Gall Peters Adjusting Mercator for a more just rnap Also preserves area Distorts shape differently Conic projections Best for hemispheres or small regions Area and shape only slightly distorted Planar projections Equidistant good for navigation Only good for one hemisphere Distorts area not shape Other projections Based on more complicated math Interrupted oval combination Robinson Goode


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