Biogeography BIO 283
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hermiston DVM on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 283 at California State University - Sacramento taught by Shannon Datwyler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/218815/bio-283-california-state-university-sacramento in Biological Sciences at California State University - Sacramento.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Species distributions and environment Terrestrial species Climate temperature and precipitation Soil type Aquatic species Water temperature Salinity Light Pressure Geographic Template Nonrandom patterns of spatial variation Forms foundation for all biogeographic patterns 0 Biogeographic patterns derive from regular spatial variation in environment Spatial variation highly predictable In uences biological communities directly or indirectly Species diversity Species composition Vital processes productivity Factors in uencing biogeographic patterns Geographic template Responses of biotas 7 Adaptation dispersal evolution extinction Interactions among species 7 Competition predation mutualism In uence of ecosystem engineers 7 Fundamental manipulation of geographic template Temporal dynamics of geographic template 7 Plate tectonics eustatic changes in sea level climate change orogeny Sources of Energy Earth s core 7 Some lost as heat 7 Shifting of crustal plates 7 Earthquakes 7 Orogeny 7 Volcanic events Sun 7 Warms atmosphere of earth and surface 7 Wind and ocean currents 7 Evaporation and rain snowfall Sunlight and heat transfer 0 Warms earth s surface 0 Captured by plants and converted to chemical energy Mechanisms of heat transfer Conduction direct molecular transfer through solid matter Convection mass movement of liquid or gaseous matter Radiation passage of waves through space or matter Solar Radiation and latitude 0 Radiation results in convective heating on earth lt Sunlight g lt Sunlight gnaw make A m u aw sx 1 gt7 WWWfasorg docs rstSect 14Sect 1471 ahtml Seasonal variation and earth s tilt 235 tilt of earth Tropic of cancer 235 N amp tropic of capricom 235 S are extents of globe that receive direct solar radiation once per year I gt 7 September 23 Autumnal Equmax December zz June 22 Winter smsucs gt Vz Summer Solshce March 21 Vernal Equmo x httpwwwsrhnoaagovjetstreamglobalglobaliintrohtm Elevation and cooling 0 Temperature decreases as elevation increases 0 Density and air pressure lower at higher elevations Adiabatic cooling gases lose heat energy as molecules move farther apart 7 Higher rate of heat loss by radiation back to atmosphere 0 Greenhouse effect heat energy trapped by C02 and H20 molecules in air 7 Pronounced in lowlands where water vapor retards cooling at night Winds Caused by differential heating of earth s surface 7 Circulate heat and meisture Heating results in changes in atmospheric pressure mp www gm nuaa guvJetstrmmglubalcirc mm Convective Cells 1 Hadley Cells 2 Ferrel Cells 3 Polar Cells mp www gm nuaa guVj etstreamglubalnrchtm Jet Streams and Air Circulation Cells Polar Jet Jet streams always move west to Subtropical Jet Can shift position around globe Drive winds in large part 30 N Equator httpWwwsrhnoaagovjetstreamglobal ethtm Wind circulation patterns 0 Subject to coriolis force at earth surface 7 De ection of winds to east and west 7 Tradewinds de ected toward west and equator from horse latitudes 30 North and South latitudes 7 Westerlies de ected toward ea and poles from horse latitudes Winds at earth s surface responsible for initiating ocean currents httpwww srh noaa govjetstxeamglobalcirc htrn Precipitation patterns 0 Warm air can absorb more water vapor than cold air Dew Point point at which air is saturated with water vapor Further cooling cloud formation Precipitation when particles of moisture become too heavy to remain airborne Tropics and deserts Tropical areas characterized by high rainfall 7 Wet season results from tropical Cerwvgenu mm m w mag IX m Whamw H wng mman m nusl m W i m mum am New convergence zone M m M m being directly overhead ME m 7 Variation between wet and dry regions mun y me Aw moman waumum m e um m Aw a mopm moment may wEr wsmm m httpwwwhonpurdue edunewcropLropicalle cture703lec703 html Other climates Deserts around 30 N amp S Latitude Mediterranean climates in adjacent zones on western sides of continent Wet winterdry summer Land cool during winter resulting in fog http wwwhortpurdue edunewcropLropicallectur6703lec703htrnl Rain Shadow Effects Rising air cools resulting in precipitation Marked drying on leeward slopes rainshadow Clear differences in vegetation z S vr39 7 WBQ 0m Frevalllng clrculalign f 1v l l I Leeward Slopes Dl Ralnshadow l l l 39 Drler l l X Wlndward slopes rainfall heavier http wwwhortpurdue edunewcropLropicallectur6703lec703htrnl Temporal variation in climate El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO Changes pattern of tropical ocean circulation Equatorial countercurrent becomes stronger pushes warm water along coast of N amp S America Results in more moisture being picked up by westerliesmore rainfall Elevation in uences climate Temperature Site Elev Mean Mean Low High Precip m Jan July cm TusconAZ 745 108 307 94 461 273 Mt Lemmon 2791 23 178 217 328 700 AZ Salem OR 60 32 192 244 400 1043 Soil formation Biological and chemical processes at work 7 Weathering of rock 7 Accumulation of organic material Soil formation rates vary based on parent material and past climate 7 Eastern Canada few centimeters deep after last glaciation 7 Krakatau 35 cm in 50 years Pedogenic regimes processes resulting in soil formation
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