8th The Environment Weekly Notes
8th The Environment Weekly Notes ENVT 0845-005
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVT 0845-005 at Temple University taught by Dr. Udoeyo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see The Environment in Professional Education Services at Temple University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
March 14, 2016 Chapter 19 WHO definition of Environmental Health: “Comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, biological social and psychosocial factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling, and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations.” DDT vs. Malaria o Malaria is very common in Africa o In Zambia, people were affected with the deadliest form (falciparum malaria), where it is thought to have evolved o 20% of children under 5 died from malaria o DDT was used to kill mosquitos and therefore eradicate malaria, however it has huge environmental impacts and was banned in some regions as a result Vector: a transmitter of a disease that doesn’t suffer from the disease itself o Female mosquitos pass on malaria by transmitting blood into people Public Health: “all organized measures (public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole” (WHO). CDC (Center for Disease and Control, headquarters in Atlanta): “science of protecting and improving the health of families and communities through promotion of healthy lifestyles, research for disease and injury prevention and detection and control of infectious diseases” Public Health Measured o Most common STD’s among teenagers: Chlamydia make people aware of the risk factors of contracting it, etc. o Identify threats to people and try to combat them o Use statistics o Life expectancy has risen significantly since 1950 because of medical advancements A major difference between Developed and Developing Regions is that in Developed, 77% of death is caused by noncommunicable conditions while in Developing Regions, 55% is communicable diseases (lack of sanitation, medication, etc.) Hazards and Risks o Categories: Physical: earthquake, weather events, effects of radiation Chemical: air pollution, pollutants in water and food Biological: infectious disease Cultural: lifestyle choice, living conditions, occupations Latent: delayed affects, like exposure to radiation Risk perception and reality o Human perception differs from reality, key factors include risk perception Myth of zero risk: cancer causing chemical in drinking water should be 0 Public awareness: alar a threat to public health Riskrisk tradeoffs: use of DDT despite the related risks Control: driving vs. air travel Risk and time: ignoring risk of cancer through smoking because it is likely to be realized later in life March 16, 2016 Geological Hazards o Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, etc. o Richter magnitude scale expresses the energy released during an earthquake. Anything above 7 is severe. o Fire, other disasters Tsunami (tidal waves—although unrelated to tides) Earthquakes or movement of sediment on the ocean floor trigger tsunamis Random events whose consequences influenced by human modification by human involvement on coasts Weather Hazards o Tropical storms, floods, blizzards, droughts, and heat waves, etc. o Storm Surges: heavy rains and high water levels from tropical storms or hurricanes o Heat waves o Etc. o In Louisiana postKatrina, the houses of the poor fell into the flood while the richer people’s houses were able to withstand better. The poor people’s buildings were unable to follow building codes Chemical Hazards in the Environment Toxicology o Scientific discipline that studies chemical poisons, or toxins, and its effects on human health o Doseresponse curves: relationship between increasing dosages of a chemical and some measure of health o Toxicology Threshold: dose above which there is a decline in the health measure o Median Lethal Dose (LD50): 50% of an exposed population is killed o Acute Exposure is short duration; Chronic Exposure is long (weeks, months or years) exposure Human vulnerability to toxins o Toxins effects depend on genetics, environmental cause, age, health, socioeconomic status, etc. Toxin: toxicants produced by a living organism Impact of certain toxins depends on movement through environment o Persistence: residence time and a half life o Volatility: tendency to evaporate in to the atmosphere o Solubility in water: tendency to dissolve in water o Uptake and fate in other organisms Bioaccumulation: chemicals stored in the tissues of organisms Body burden: total amount of chemical in the tissues of an organism Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (dirty dozen) Kinds of Toxins o Corrosive toxins react with and directly destroy tissue o Asphyxiates are chemicals that deprive tissues of oxygen and cause suffocation (carbon monoxide and cyanide) o Carcinogens chemicals that cause or promote cancer o Teratogens produce mutations and birth defects. They often cause changes in cellular DNA o Allergens stimulate a range of responses from the body’s immune system o Neurotoxins affect the development or functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins include heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and manganese, and pesticides such as DDT and various organophosphates. Toxin testing and regulation o Ethical and practical challenges o EPA monitors more than 75,000 industrial chemicals o Chemicals are assumed nontoxic until proven otherwise (innocent until proven guilty) Model organisms used to test effects of chemicals for humans Infectious disease cause more than 26% of human deaths o Effected by populations size, movement, climate, water quality, etc. o Can be managed by improving sanitation, water quality, controlling organisms that cause and transmit disease, and taking action to diminish transmission o Direct transition: human to human o Indirect transition: human vector human March 18, 2016 Biological Hazards in the Environment o Respiratory disease o Cholera o Etc. o Can be spread from just basic interaction o Cholera incidents are always tied to warmer climates BloodBorne Diseases o HIV: transmitted by sexual contact or sharing of needles o Malaria: transmitted by mosquitoes, caused by parasite Plasmodium o Evolutionary change: coevolution between pathogen and hosts, which diminishes disease severity o Sickle cell disease: (she says its most common among black people or people of African decent—she’s never seen a white person with it) completely prevents the contraction of malaria, or diminishes its severity Landscape change o Disease agents find habitats in landscapes and waterways that have changed Climate change o One of the factors that leads to this change is global warming Case studies of Will Perez Chapter 15: Energy Nonrenewable Energy Resources: comes from within the earth, is finite, and takes millions of years to be formed, i.e. fossil fuels The history of an oil field o Case study in the textbook about Kern River Oil Field Consumption of energy and production of energy o Classification: Primary Energy, which is contained in natural resources like coal, oil, sunlight, wind, etc., and Secondary Energy, which is created when primary energy is converted into another form, like electricity. End Use: what we are using the energy for, why? Car? Electronics? Appliances? Second law of thermodynamics: energy lost in conversion Energy conversion efficiency: percentage of primary source energy that is captured in secondary form. i.e. When coal is burned, 70% of the primary energy in it may be transformed into heat (lost). Energy enduse efficiency: product of all the energy conversions and end use. i.e. 100 units of coal powers a light bulb that produces 1.2 units of light energy, 1.3% efficiency. Classification of forms of primary energy o Nonrenewable: sources are finite, which make up 80% of primary energy resources. Like fossil fuels or nuclear energy o Renewable: sources that are not finite, like solar, wind, “wood” (to me this is questionable to say this is a totally renewable resource because we can run out of it) Consumption of energy differs from country to country, broken into four sectors Richest countries have only 20% of the global population but account for more than 70% of all primary energy consumption Four enduse sectors o
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