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by: Mr. Bradley Walker

Magic,Witchcraft+Religion ANTH 013

Mr. Bradley Walker

GPA 3.77

Tamara Cheshire

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Tamara Cheshire
Class Notes
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Bradley Walker on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 013 at California State University - Sacramento taught by Tamara Cheshire in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/218821/anth-013-california-state-university-sacramento in anthropology, evolution, sphr at California State University - Sacramento.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
7202010 121300 AM Magic Witchcraft and Religion Anthropology The study of human beings Holistic and covers every aspect of the human experience Everything is pretty much covered by anthropology 0 Why are there other disciplines Because our societies are becoming more complex With complex societies comes diverse specialties Scientific study of humans 0 Biological o Culturally o In what ever form time period and region of the world that they are found 0 Study origins differences similarities and development through time Strive for an understanding of the biological and cultural origins and evolutionary development of the species Behavior patterns thought systems and material materials Aim is to describe what it means to be human 4 sub categories of Anthropology 0 Physical o Biologically studies humans How they have changed through time Adaptations to the environment Physical changes and variation of humans through time o Archeology o Reconstruct cultures of the past 0 Most have no written records 0 Find remains of people and their dwellings and tools 0 Cultural 0 Study living cultures of the world 0 Have to study them within their native environment 0 Findings between contemporary cultures of the world o Linguistics 0 Study of language 0 Historic o Structurally 0 Social contexts Terms Emic vs Etic 0 Cultural Relativism o The idea that cultural traits are best understood when studied in their native environment 0 Emic insiders view 0 Ethnocentrism o The practice of viewing the customs of other societies in terms of one s own 0 Etic Outsiders view 0 Culture 0 Is everything we have think and do What is religion 0 What is religious and what isn t is in the eye of the beholder 0 To some it is o Spirituality 0 Nature 0 Doctrine o It is social and psychological o Societies have differing criteria as to what is natural and supernatural and what is religion and what is not Archeologists believe that religion or an afterlife exists since 300000 years ago 0 Neanderthals buried their dead with their tool and clothing and other funerary objects 0 Led scientists to believe that they were preparing their dead for the afterlife 3 Ways to look at religion 0 Analytic O O Analytic definitions focus on the way religion manifests itself or is expressed in a culture IE Religious practices usually include rituals How often is it practiced How many people attend Smart s 6 Dimensions Institutional organization and leadership Narrative myth creation stories Ritual Rites of passage Social group activity binds people Ethics customs morals Experiential Sacred experiences Tyler and Spiro Tyler D Animism spirit in all things D Belief in spirits demons gods ghosts souls Spiro D Institution D Consisting of culturally patterned interactions with culturally postulated superhumans Functional O O O 0 Functional definition are concerned with the role of religion plays in society and on the individual Ex some religions serve as a control tool to regulate people s actions Include emotional and social needs that religion is thought to fulfill Religion provides explanations comfort meaning and hope It brings people together Provides moral codes Essential 1252010 65700 PM Ways to Look at Religion continued 0 Look at what religion does for the individual and for the society as a whole 0 Individual 0 Explains things that we can t know 0 Ex what happens after you die Functional 0 Includes cognitive emotional and social needs that religion is thought to fulfill 0 Religion provides explanations and comfort meanings and hope 0 Religion brings people together 0 Provides moral codes including supernatural consequences Essentialist 0 Definition looks at what is the essential nature of religion 0 Emphasizes the fact that religion is the domain of the extraordinary beyond the natural 0 Is sacred and supernatural 0 Religion is a system of beliefs and behaviors that deals with the relationship between humans and the sacred supernatural 0 Supernatural o Refers to things above the natural order of things 0 Supernatural beings transcend the normal world 0 Defying the basic laws of nature 0 Sacred must be used with supernatural o Stein and Stein 0 Combine essentialist definition with other approaches such as the functionalist 0 Consider religion to be the domain of human interaction with the supernatural Theories o The reasons for the existence of religious behavior 0 Evolutionary Focuses on how religion began Developed in the late 1800 s Concepts of science logic and monotheism pinnacles of human achievement It was thought that religion evolved from simple to complex B Natural consequence of human nature 0 Functional Edward Tylor D Concluded all religions have belief in spiritual beings D Religions of civilized people included beliefs in gods and souls D Primitive peoples beliefs focus on the belief in ghosts and spirits o ancestor ghosts and animism D Tylor was an arm chair person 0 Was limited in what he found because he was using biased data 0 From missionaries and other observers who described other cultures in biased ways Robert Marett D Developed the concept of a more basic ancient supernatural force that he labeled animatism D Marett thought animatism grew out of human emotional reaction to the power of nature D This belief in an impersonal supernatural power is well articulated in Polynesia and Melanesia D Referred to as mana o Evolutionary Theory Frazer saw a natural progression from magic to religion to science Problem with evolutionary theory is that it may be ethnocentric 0 Functional Theory What does religion do Durkheim believed in a collective consciousness a system of beliefs that act to contain natural selfishness of individuals and promote social cooperation Collective representations or symbols area reflection of the collective consciousness Durkheim and RadcliffBrown saw society as an organism All parts of it act in order to maintain the whole RadclifeBrown D for society to survive certain feelings need to be encouraged in the minds of individuals D Rituals function to express the basic sentiments of society and pass these ideas down from generation to generation D Religion is and integrative force in society Malinowski D Individual focus D How does religion meet the basic human needs D Magic is a logical system people turn to in times of uncertainty or emotional stress D Magic functions to provide control and certainty in an uncertain world Limitations to functional theory D Problem analyzing religion in terms of functionality implies that religion is purely illusory existing only to fulfill social or individual needs D Some functionalists se religion as a crutch for the masses or a power play by the ruling class D Spiro 0 States that when arguing that a certain function is the cause of a religious behavior it is necessary for individuals to both recognize and seek to satisfy that functional requirement 0 Unintended functional consequences seen by outsiders could not possibly be its cause 0 Psychosocial Theory This approach is concerned with the relationship between culture and personality and the connection of the society and the individual Freud D Religion and ritual function to reduce anxiety D Religion is a neurotic need that humans will outgrow Spiro D Religion satisfies both psychological and sociological functions D Religion satisfies 0 Cognitive needs 0 Substantive needs 0 Expressive needs 1252010 65700 PM Combining Psychosocial and Functional Theory 0 Spiro 0 Religion satisfies both psychological and sociological functions 0 Psychological 3 desires D Cognitive D Substantive D Expressive 0 Natural tendency of people to see their own religion system as the best 0 It39s the one and only correct set of beliefs 0 Others are sometimes view as inferior o Ideology is usually incorporated within religious doctrine to promote unity and solidarity within the religion 0 Unfortunately this may also lead to religious intolerance and ignorance 0 Religion is learned behavior 0 Beliefs practices and attitudes are a part of religions 0 Myths symbols taboos and rituals maintain religion and provide us with the meaning of existence Myth 1252010 65700 PM A sacred narrative believed to be true by the people who tell it Once told myth establishes an absolute truth Persons of myth generally include god spirits and other supernatural beings Myth functions as a charter a model for behavior that explains the origins of the world life on earth death and all the experiences of human existence Malinowski Myth explains how things came into existence and answers another question why did they come into existence Why am I here Myth provides a retrospective pattern of moral values sociological discriminations and burdens of magical belief The function of myth is to strengthen tradition and to endow it with greater value and prestige by tracing it back to a higher better more supernatural and more effective reality Rooting it into reality makes it more and more powerful Myths have been transcribed to form the Torah Bible and Koran Myths in traditional societies are considered to be truthful accounts of the past Symbols Taboo Ritual 1252010 65700 PM Everything is symbolic An object gesture word or other representation to which an arbitrary shared meaning A religious system may be viewed as a cluster of sacred symbols Geertz Generally a symbol is something that represents something else Symbols provide people with an emotional and intellectual commitment to their belief system Religious symbols are often considered to posses a power or force mana A society keeps its value system through the use of symbols Symbols stand for a revered value Without symbols values and by extension society s existence is threatened Durkheim A sacred prohibition put upon certain people things or acts that make them untouchable unmentionable and so on Taboos restrict actions Every society has restrictions that limit behavior usually in association with sex Food rites of passage sacred objects and sacred people Most taboos are reinforced by the threat of punishments meted out by supernatural forces Incest taboos are found in almost all societies Al societies will continue to establish new taboos as new threats to existence or social stability arise A secular or sacred formal solemn act observance or procedure in accordance with prescribed rules or customs Ritual is religion in action Wallace The ritual in its own right serves to explain rationalize interpret and direct energy of the ritual performance Ritual accomplishes what religion sets out to do 0 Bring people together 0 Alleviate people s anxiety It is through ritual that religion is able to impress upon people a commitment to their system of religious beliefs 0 Participants in a religious ritual are able to express group solidarity and loyalty 1252010 65700 PM Quiz Question One s essence lives on in your children Ritual Continued 0 Ritual and Ceremony are crucial to all human societies and are important to understanding religion and culture 0 Rites of Passage o Mark transition points in the lives of individuals birth puberty marriage and death 0 Rites of lntensification o Occur during crisis and are more important in maintaining group equilibrium and solidarity o Seasonal change no rain warfare etc Specialists 1252010 65700 PM 0 Shamans O O O O O O 0 Can be men or women Ritual practitioner whose status is acquired through a personal communication from a supernatural being Perform curing rites for the benefit of one or more patients and with in a context of an extended family group Rites are contingent upon occasions of mishap and illness Can be mediums deemed to exercise developed techniques of control over spirits sometimes including mastery of spirits believed to be possessing another medium Have the ability to communicate with the dead or with demons and nature spirits without becoming their instrument Purposes are generally good Can move in the plane of the supernatural See themselves as warriors in a struggle against the shadows of the human heart 39 Lust hate fear etc Shamanism affirms life but also spawns violence and death 39 Shamans may end up killing someone in the community in order to keep the balance and safety of the community Are found in societies all over the world Shamanism is a calling for a particular psychosocial type 39 Those who are less stable and more excitable than average but who have intelligence ability and drive 0 Priests 0 Can be men of women O O O O I Can be in some cultures only for men or vice versa Claim to religious authority derives from service in a sacred tradition Power is inherited from the body of codified ritual knowledge learned from older priests later transmitted to successors Have prestige and authority but their position is so precarious and easily damaged that it is surrounded with taboos to protect against harmful contacts with forces that might render himher ineffective Difference between a priest and shaman 39 The shaman has control of the supernatural but the priest is still subject to the supernatural 39 Communicate with trans human entities through ritual that involves cultural objects and activities I Act as the socially recognized mediators between men and supernatural beings although they do not necessarily have a face to face relationship with the spirit world but must have competence in conducting ritual Between the priests and deity intervenes the institution Presides over rites Symbols of a rite are largely perceptible to a congregation and have permanence in that they are culturally transmissible There may have some restrictions on sexual life In some societies priests are expected to have families Abstention from sexual activity is sometimes required for ritual Shaman Priests and Prophets 1252010 65700 PM Continued 0 Priests 0 Sometimes priests don t preach to a following but address themselves solely to the deities they seek to influence Priests maintain the status guo 39 Keep things going in the same manner that they were 0 Prophets O O O O O O 0 Get a personal call Authority is founded on revelation and personal charisma Purely the individual bearer of charisma Prophets can be male of female Gary Ferraro 39 Prophets are usually killed by the people they are challenging 39 Because men tend to be more expendable 39 Women are required to continue the human race Generally speaking the revelation is not given by choice When the revelation is given the bearer has no real choice Charisma contains a systematic and distinctively religious ethic based upon a consistent and stable doctrine which purports to be revelation Has a mission by virtue of which he proclaims religious doctrine or divine commandment Consider the relationship between religion as a force for dynamic social change and as a reinforcement of the stability of societies Prophets are the bearer of change But paradoxically they help maintain the solidarity of society 0 All three specialists are necessary for societies Shaman priests and prophets are philosophers of religion theologians of beliefs and are recognized as the masters of worship Act as part or full time specialists intervene on behalf of an individual or the community as a Whole Data has shown the importance of these religious leaders to the maintenance of economic political social and educational institutions of their societies Anthropologists have found it necessary to consider all religious specialists because they fall in the realm of religion and the supernatural 1252010 65700 PM Illusions 1252010 65700 PM Altered States of Consciousness 0 The Religious Use of Drugs 0 Why do we use drugs 39 Entertainmentkicks 39 Divination 39 Healing medicine 0 Drugs For Kicks 39 Categories of Drugs D Euphoria 0 Sedatives reduce mental activity and induce mental and physical comfort Morphine cocaine opium inhalants etc Cause Euphoric feeling in the user 0 Large chance of addiction to the drugs D Phantastica 0 Hallucinogens bring on visions and illusions which vary greatly in chemical composition 0 May be followed by unconsciousness or altered brain states Mescal buttons hash marijuana peyote 0 Also used for divination D lnebrianta 0 Drugs which produce an initial phase of cerebral excitation followed by a state of depression which sometimes leads to unconsciousness 0 Chloroform Alcohol ether etc D Hypnotica 0 Sedatives or sleep products which depress the central nervous system resulting in calmness relaxation reduction of anxiety sleepiness slowed breathing 0 Chloral and Sulphonol Xanax D Excitania 0 Mental stimulants referred to as analeptics 0 Coffee tea betel and tobacco cocaine D Tranquilizers 0 A group of drugs that are used to treat medical conditions such as severe anxiety stress disorders and muscle tension 0 Valium Librium Ativan and Serax 0 Do not alleviate pain Cross cultural comparisons demonstrate that drugs are perceived differently and they may have different effects on users from one society to the next 1252010 65700 PM Drugs Continued 0 Physiological and psychological reactions to drugs vary among individuals 0 When using drugs for entertainment purposes users may not know or understand the full effects of the drugs or how addictive it may be Taking drugs Without ritual or regulation to limit use can lead to addiction and death 0 Drugs for divination The explanation of the different effects of drugs on individuals Within the same culture and society is often explained as supernatural intervention Shamans use hallucinogenic drugs for divination purposes Taking drugs for a specified purpose fie divination or with healing in mind Within a ritualistic context can prevent addiction Shamans are less likely to become addicted to drugs because the ritual involved prevents them from using the drug for recreational purposes 39 Ritual regulates the use of drugs 0 Illness and healing O 0 Five supernatural reasons for illness include 39 Sorcery 39 Breach of Taboo 39 lntrusion of a diseased object 39 lntrusion of a disease causing spirit possession 39 Loss of soul All human societies have belief systems and practices that people that people turn to in order to identify disease and effect a cure Diagnosis is made at the empirical psychological and o The focus of drug use in non western cultures is on the shaman whose duty is to control the spirit world for the benefit of the members of his or her society 0 Who controls the spirit world and therefore drug use in western culture 0 DO shamans heal people with their supernatural powers 1252010 65700 PM Divination Way to figure out things that are unknown past present and future The word divination comes from the same root word as divinity Divination has to do with the supernatural Magic rituals are used to manipulate the supernatural to obtain further information Supernatural beings including ancestors spirits and gods may have access to unknown information Many divination technigues involve contacts with such supernatural beings Examples medium contacting spirit of a deceased individual or when a shaman falls into trance Other forms of divination are based on the idea that the world consists of things and events that are interconnected with one another Magic is the perceived connections between things Divination is based on observing these connections Stine and Stine divided divination into a variety of categories 0 Necromancy 0 Possession o Presentments 39 Feeling like something bad will happen 39 Premonitions Prophecy Omens Medium Astrology Dowsing O O O O O O Flipping a coin 0 Magic 8 Ball Ordeals O Ouija Board Palmistry Phrenology Scapulamancy Tarot Cards Tasseography O O O O O O 0 Dreams Dreams are a common form of divination Dreams are thought of as visits from spirits or visions of journeys taken by the soul during sleep Dream interpretation is key to understanding the symbols within the dream The interpretation of dreams is called oneiromancy Presentitments are feelings that a person experiences that suggest that something is about to happen such as a feeling of dread or impending disaster Example 0 Nose burning you will be kissed o Sneezing 6 times you will go on a journey Necromancy refers to divination through contact with the dead or ancestors It was believed that the body would show signs of how a person died which was a way the spirit could communicate with the living Omens fortuitous happenings or conditions that provide information o lncluded 39 Ornithomancy study of birds flight patterns 39 Apantotmancy chance encounter with animals Scapulamancy use of the scapula or dried shoulder blade of an animal or human Astrology is based on the belief that all of the stars and planets the sun and moon influence the destiny of people Graphology studying the handwriting Palmistry reading of the palms Phrenology study of the shape and structure of the head Tasseography study of tea leaves Tarot cards mechanical divination device l Ching The book of changes 0 Chinese divination text thousands of years old 0 Proide more than yes or no answer Numerology 0 Based on Pythagoras and how numbers can be divine Angels and Demons 1252010 65700 PM Possession and Exorcism 0 Demons Possession and Exorcism o Demons 39 Whatwho are demons n n The term demon has ancient origins Greek 7 Daimon 7 meaning to divide or distribute Proto lndo European 7 deiwos 7 meaning god or celestial or bright and shining 39 In order to understand what or who are demons we must look at diverse religious belief system 39 Judiasm 7 n 2 Classes Se irim hairy satyr like creatures dancing in the wilderness identical with jinn Shedim from the word masikin meaning to wound responsible for possession Hell has a hierarchy 7 King or Chief of Hell 7 Asmodia or Samuel the angel of death who kills by deadly poison Occasionally a demon called Satan is mentioned 39 Zoroastrianism a Queen of demons is Lilith seen with wings and long flowing hair also called mother of Ahriman When Adam separated from Eve for l30 years doing penance for his sin he caused the earth to be by impure desire filled with demons or shedim lilin and evil spirits general The belief in demons was encouraged in Babylonia under the influence of Zoroastrianism 39 Christianity Demon gas a number of different meanings all related to the idea of a spirit that inhabits a place or that accompanies a person Note that some Christian denominations assert that fallen angels are demons this also covers the sons of God described in Genesis who abandoned their posts in heaven to mate with human women on Earth before the deluge Genesis 62 4 39 Psychological Origins n n Freud stated the fact that demons are always regarded as the spirits of those who have died recently shows better than anything the influence of mourning on the origins of the belief in demons Where do demons come from 0 Beings that God created jinn shedim se irim fallen angels offspring of angels and women 0 Malevolent supernatural beings that cme from the underworld 0 Human transgression EX Adam s wanderings Lilith offspring of Adam and 0 Human spirit or life energy What do demons do 0 Demons are responsible for disease injuries and major and minor personal and group disaster 0 Hebrew demons were workers of harm To them were ascribed the various diseases particularly such as affect the brain and the inner parts n n n 0 Demons were supposed to enter the body and cause the disease while overwhelming or seizing the victim How do demons cause harm to others 0 Possession is a broad term referring to an integration of spirit and matter force or power and corporeal reality in a cosmos where the boundaries between an individual and her environment are acknowledged to be permeable flexible or negotiable 0 Demons can cause harm inflict pain and suffering to the individual through possession 0 Demons can convince people to choose to do harm to themselves or to others 0 Demons can control the actions of people causing them to do things they would not otherwise do Central Possession Cults 0 Ancestor spirits commonly posses men and sustain moral order of society Peripheral Possession Cults lllness 0 Women and those who have lesser status are possessed by evil beings that attempt to damage the social fabric of society 39 Exorcism n I To cure diseases it was necessary to draw out the evil demons by certain incantations and talismanic performances Demons are referred to as spirits of the wicked which enter into men that are alive and kill them but which can be driven out by a certain root Christianity 0 Jesus casts out demons or evil spirits from those who are afflicted with ailments such as epileptic seizures Mark 0 Jesus is superior to the power of demons over the being they inhabit he is able to free these victims by commanding and casting out the demons by binding them forbidding them to return 0 Jesus lends his powers to some of his disciples who rejoice at their new found ability to cast out most but not all demons Various religions believe in and practice exorcism including Hinduism Russian Orthodox and many others This assumes a related belief in the power of ritual to move an evil spirit from one place to another 1252010 65700 PM Ancestors Ghosts 0 Generally ghosts or spirits manifest themselves as orbs or flashes of light or loss of light 0 Ghosts in western culture 0 O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Images of disembodied spirits of dead people swooping through dark halls Transparent lifelike apparitions of former selves Not all ghosts take human shapeform Some appear as trains dogs large birds stagecoaches phantom ships ie Flying Dutchman Perhaps humans have some basic heed that causes us to believe in ghosts and to worship ancestors Perhaps we heed to seek verification that although the mortal body may die the soul survives after death Herbert Spencer speculated that the beginnings of ancestor worship stemmed from the need for the living to continue an emotional relationship with their dead relatives Many cultures support the notion of a separate spirit world or land of the dead In this other world souls can rest in eternal peace At some point the notion arose that not all souls deserved an easy trip to a blissful spiritual world Murder victims miscreants evil people might become ghosts to wander the earth Rituals carried out at funerals insure that loved ones arrive safely at the proper abode of the dead Care taken in preparing the deceased for the afterlife is an important reinforcement of the society s customs and in expression of unity among members Participation in funerary rights helps to ensure that the same care can be expected to be given at the time of one s death No one wants angry ghosts to bring about misfortune O O O O O O O Inadequate funerals may make spirits restless Can you think of other things that may make spirits restless Accidentsunfinished business Wrongful death GuiltangerVengeance Protection The veneration of ancestors and the fear of their power functions importantly to help control may societies China Japan Haiti Poland lreland lndia America Mexico etc Not all societies assign power to ancestors In many cultures a high God or Gods exert authority over the living punishing those who Violate religious tenets rules of appropriate social behavior Yet the spiritual nature of ancestors and belief in the afterlife are still held to this day 1252010 65700 PM Death Rituals Death rituals or funerals can be thought of as rites of passage whereby an individual moves from the living to the dead or another state of being Death can be very traumatic and have significant impact on a family and community Death rituals what can be a provide a way of channeling behavior in highly emotional state Funeral rites provide explanations for death and for what happens after death Funerals act like social rites of intensification Funerals permit and channel expressions of grief Al people feel grief but it can manifest itself in many ways Some societies have specific times when it is appropriate to express grief British and USgt Societies emphasize control over emotions Other societies are expected to grieve boisterously and publicly but even this is limited Length of time that is set aside for grieving is limited and close relative are expected to take up their lives Funerals are for the living and the dead The fate of the soul depends on the proper funerary rituals being performed correctly Rituals may function to move the soul to the land of the dead Most importantly funerals help to protect the living by separating them from the dead and moving the souls away from the community so they cannot cause them harm When the body it releases toxins and disease Biologically this is a good idea as well begins to decompose Focal point of funeral rituals is to process the decomposing corpse Some societies actually completely dispose of the body Berawan of Borneo United States while others preserve it Most common method 7 burial Variables include 0 Where the body is buried o How the body is prepared 0 How the body is buried 7 position direction etc Secondary Burials 0 Second phase often makes end of mourning period 0 Involves digging up processing and reburial of corpse Cremation 0 Not as common as burials 0 May be used as a way to cut off the soul s access to the body 0 Destroy the body to release the soul 0 Available land for burials is becoming limited 0 Yanamamo 7 Endocannabalistic Anthropophagers Mummification 0 Stress is on maintaining the integrity of the body after death or prevent decay of flesh for all time o US practice of embalming was to prevent decay for a short period of time during the funeral period to permit the display of a life like body 0 Smoke salt oil heat cold 0 Ancient Egyptians believed death was the next step in life 0 The body had to be preserved in order to take part in the new life 0 Linen resin and casts were used to preserve the body Exposure o Is allowing the body to lie in the open and be consumed by animals 0 Very effective and reduces the body to just bones In some cases the bones would be collected for 0 further processing or burial O US O O O O O O O O O O 0 May reflect soul beliefs in that physical body is unimportant once the soul has left Death Rituals in l9m Century The body was ritually washed and groomed and wrapped in a shroud and placed in a coffin which was most likely made after the person s death to fit their measurements The body stayed at home in a parlor for l 3 days Furniture was removed mirrors were covered and black crepe was hung If the weather was warm ice was placed about the body to slow decay Family would keep vigil recite biblical People would visit view the body stories socialize and eat After a brief service family and friends would form a procession and the coffin was carried to the gravesite In rural areas land the body would be buried on family Burial took place or placement in an aboveground tomb Change happened during the Civil War when more than 600000 men died Embalming fluid was utilized in order to ship the bodies home 1862 military cemeteries Congress authorized the establishment of l2 were established Arlington Cemetery was land that belonged to Confederate General Robert E Lee Today most people die in hospital or nursing homes When the person dies the ritual specialists the body passes from the medical to clergy and funeral director Death is announced in the obituary of a newspaper The body is removed for embalming but not all bodies are embalmed Judaism prohibits embalming the bodies are refrigerated and burial takes place feel a need to demonstrate that the individual is dead People indeed will go to great lengths to recover bodies which the focal point of the death rites People become Viewing is one practice that is done but there are also objects that are expected including flowers and photos people dressing in somber colors and words that are said to survivors People sit or stand around telling stories Cremation is becoming more popular Website and roadside memorials are springing up to honor the deceased Zombies 1252010 65700 PM An animated corpse that feeds on living human flesh ln Voodoo a social control mechanism Solanum 7 the virus 0 Fact or fantasy 0 Brooks implies that this virus is real and can travel through the bloodstream to affect the brain causing death at hour 20 and reanimation at hour 23 0 Found in the plant kingdom 7 Night shade potatoes eggplant If it is a disease it is lOO communicable and lOO fatal 0 Not a bacteria no antibiotics o No vaccine Night shade is a deadly poison and fatal if not flushed from the system immediately Not superhuman Sight 7 normal no night vision Hearing 7 excellent Smell 7 acute o Able to smell prey from l mile away Taste 7 prefer human flesh Touch 7 no physical sensations o Nerve receptors are dead 7 no pain Decomposition 7 3 5 years 0 Depends on the environment Digestion 7 dormant o Craving human flesh vs fuel Respiration 7 not needed 0 Brain is independent of oxygen Circulation 7 not necessary 0 Blood is congealed Reproduction 7 not possible Strength 7 same as living but continuous Speed 7 move at a slouch or limp tirelessness o Unsteady stride lack of coordination Agility 0 little hand to eye coordination Intelligence 7 no ability to reason or employ logic Emotions 7 nonexistent Memories 7 nonexistent Communications 7 nonexistent 0 Deep throated moan call to other zombies Non intentional instinct Social Organization 7 nonexistent 0 Gather to the same sounds Hunting 7 individual migratory act Motivation 7 the virus spawns the hunger for living flesh Brain is the primary organ that reanimates the body the brain muct be the target Disposal 7 the virus can be active in the body of a terminated zombie for up to 48 hours 0 Brooks Recommends cremation after decapitation Domestication 7 not possible Variety of weapons can be used 0 Primary concern is not to come in contact with diseasedvirus


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