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by: Mr. Bradley Walker


Mr. Bradley Walker

GPA 3.77

David Zeanah

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David Zeanah
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Bradley Walker on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 115 at California State University - Sacramento taught by David Zeanah in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/218822/anth-115-california-state-university-sacramento in anthropology, evolution, sphr at California State University - Sacramento.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
1 Lecture 1 Introduction to Anth 115 Origins of Agriculture So what is the Big Deal About the Last 10000 Years more or less Two dramatic developments occurred in the ways that humans subsist and organize their societies Agriculture Complex Societies Places where agriculture independently developed over the last 15 ky What caused humans to abandon hunting and gathering and become farmers in many parts of the world relatively recently invention overpopulation environmental or social change What were the consequences for society health behavior culture Places where cities and civilizations independently developed over the last 5 ky What caused humans to live in cities and develop complex societies in many parts of the world relatively recently invention overpopulation environmental or social change What were the consequences for society health behavior culture Dates for Earliest Evidence of Agriculture by Region Prehistory Refers to the period of human history extending back before the time of written records and encompasses the bulk of human cultural evolution over the last 25 my Prehistoric Time Scale 1 mile 100 ky irst Hominids 5 mya 50 miles irst Stone Tools 25 mya 25 miles irst Anatomically Modern Human l mya 1 mile irst Art 004 mya 04 miles irst Farming 001 mya lt 200 yards irst Cities 0005 mya lt 100 yards olumbus Voyage 00005 mya lt 10 yards In 1519 Cortez in the Aztec Capital of Tenochtitlan passed through cities towns villages markets and irrigated fields he saw slavery poverty potentates farmers judges churches massive pyramids roads boats pottery and textiles in short he encountered a world whose almost every aspect he could understand in terms of his own experience as an urban Spaniard of the 16th century Wenke 1980 You need to understand these two developments in prehistory if you want to understand the following current issues Climatic Change Global Warming Deforestation Pollution Overpopulation Economic Downturns and Collapses Warfare Economic Downturns and Collapses Warfare Three Misconceptions to Get Out of the Way Civilization What do we mean by this term ProgressInvention Isn t it Obvious Ethnographic Analogy Is the Present the Key to the Past Morgan s Evolutionary Sequence divides into three ethnical periods Lower Savagery Earliest stage Middle Savagery Fish subsistence to fire Upper Savagery Bow and Arrow Lower Barbarism Pottery Middle Barbarism Agriculture Masonry Upper Barbarism Iron Metallurgy Civilization Phonetic Alphabet Who s Calling Whom Civilized We will use the terms Complex Society Chiefdom CityUrban Center State Archaic State Isn t it Obviously Human Progress and What about Great Ideas and Human Invention Ethnographic Analogy using information about ethnographic peoples to understand human prehistory Ethnographic Analogy Is the present the key to the past Lecture 2 Basic Concepts About the Consequences ongriculture for Humans Central Points of J Diamonds Guns Germs and Steel The ultimate causes for the domination ofthe world by Western civilization can be traced back to geographic in uences on the origins of farming that favored the Fertile Crescent over other regions Domesticabe Plants and Animals Food Surpluses allowed larger populations Formed Basis of large complex civilizations Aso caused epidemic diseases Created technological and military advantages A couple of misconceptions Many traditional societies do not envy the materialism ofwestern civilization Many ofthe events leading to the development of western civilization were not advantageous or progressive Instead they were responses to stresses caused by overpopulation climatic change and environmental degradation Definition Agriculture An economic system based on the cultivation or husbandry of domesticated plants and animals ls agriculture more economical or productive than hunting and gathering Are the lives of huntergatherers nasty brutish and short sensu Thomas Hobbes Original Affluent Society Notes on the Original Affluent Society by Marshall Sahlins Ethnographic work Among the lKung Bushmen had shown that huntergatherers Lived long lives Ate well Had Plenty of Spare time Did not work as hard as farmers or urban dwellers Proposed that hunting and gathering societies bands had economies characterized by limited needs and wants How can we reconcile this with Diamond s argument that farming allows greater population sizes and promotes the development of more complex societies Ester Boserup Definition Agricultural Intensification The process ofraising the productivity of agriculture PER UNIT OF LAND at the cost of more work at lower ef ciency PER UNIT OF TIME Intensi cation occurs when plots are cultivated more frequently and with higher labor and technological investments Low Yield but Energetically Efficient forms of Agriculture Horticulture Cultivation using hand tools only Usually limited to fertile easily tilled soils or to soils which are allowed to lie fallow for a few years to regain fertility Pastoralism Mode of subsistence based primarily on herd animals Swidden slashandburn agriculture A horticultural system in which plots of land are cleared and burned of natural vegetation thus returning nutrients to the soil This allows the plot to be cultivated for several year but then abandoned and allowed to fallow Swidden systems are relatively labor ef cient but can only support a limited population size Intensive Agriculture cultivation using draft animals machinery irrigation terracing raised elds fertilizers andor other techniques that allow annual sustained use of plots Forms of Intensive Agriculture Irrigation Terracing Plow Raised Field Chinampa Chinampa An agricultural eld created by drainage or land ll along the margins of lakes and swamps Especially common in prehistoric Mesoamerica A central point of Boserups Intensification Hypothesis Improvements in the energetic ef ciency and productivity of agriculture come from the developments of new and technologies These advances often occur when growing populations have reached a point of diminishing returns when they can no longer increase the yield of farming per unit of land by working harder Necessity is truly the mother of invention A Fundamental Point of the Entire Course Agriculture can support more people and spur technological change but only at the cost of making most people work harder Adverse Consequences of Agriculture Environmental Degradation Disease Population Growth The Demographic Consequences of Agriculture 1 The adoption and intensi cation of agriculture is usually accompanied by population growth Rate of Growth of the Human Population Carrying Capacity The number of individuals a habitat can support with a speci ed subsistence technology without deleterious effects to the environment Population Pressure the effects ofa population reaching carrying capacity Possible Causes of Population Growth Among Early Farmers Greater value of children in agricultural labor Lower interbirth intervals time between successful births among women Less mobility and greater sedentism Reduced period of breastfeeding Availability of substitute baby foods cereals dairy milk Lactational amenorrhea the suppression of lactation and menstruation during breast feeding Adverse Consequences of Agriculture Environmental Degradation Erosion Deforestation Salinization Disease Population Growth The Demographic Consequences of Agriculture 2 The migration and spread of agricultural populations archaeologists and linguists often link to language spreads IndoEuropean Austronesian Bantu UtoAztecan The gradual disappearance of hunters and gatherers Huntergatherers competing with growing and expanding populations of farmers may Adopt agriculture themselves Be absorbed into a population of farmers Persist in environments too marginal for agriculture to succeed Develop symbiotic relationships with neighboring groups of farmers 1 Lecture 3 Basic Concepts About the Consequences ongriculture for Plants and Animals Two Critical Concepts Cultigen a plant wild or domesticated that is being intentionally cultivated by humans huntergatherers or farmers Domesticate a plant or animal whose behavior morphology andor genetics have been modified to make them more bene cial to humans However those modifications may be intentional or an inadvertent consequence of human behavior Domestication of Plants Literally thousands of species have been domesticated over the last 10000 years Some of the earliest may have been utilized as containers or medicinedrugs Gourds Tobacco Domestication of Plants ll However six genera ofgrains and tubers were domesticated very early and are now most important for feeding the world 1 Wheat Fertile Crescent 10 kya 2 Barley Fertile Crescent 10 kya 3 Rice Southern China 8 kya 4 Millet Northern China 8 kya 5 Maize Highland Mexico 97 kya 6 Potatoes Andean South American 75 kya Plant Where Domesticated Date Fig trees Near East 9000 BC Rice East Asia 9000 BC Barley Near East 8500 BC Einkorn wheat Near East 8500 BC Emmer wheat Near East 8500 BC Chickpea Anatolia 8500 BC Bottle gourd Central America 8000 BC Broomcorn millet East Asia 6500 BC Maize Central America 6000 BC Bread wheat Near East 6000 BC Manioc South America 5500 BC Potato South America 5000 BC Avocado Central America 5000 BC Chili peppers Central America 4000 BC Watermelon Near East 4000 BC Pomegranate Iran 3500 BC Hemp East Asia 3500 BC Sunflower Central America 2600 BC Sweet Potato Peru 2500 BC Sorghum Africa 2000 BC Sunflower North America 2000 BC Pearl millet Africa 1800 BC Chocolate Mexico 1600 BC Chenopodium North America 750 BC Vanilla cultivar Central America 14th centurv AD Domestication of Plants Hi What makes a good candidate for a domesticable plant 1 Annual not perennial 2 Large seed or fruit size 3 Easily stored seed 4 No major competitors with human predation 5 No toxins or toxins easily bred out Domestication of Plants IV How can archaeologists tell if a plant remain is domesticated or wild 1 Larger seed or fruit size or density 2 More sturdy attachments of seeds to plants 3 Thinner seed coats 4 Recovered from sites outside the natural distribution ofwild varieties Domestication of Animals I Many fewer species have been domesticated over the last 10000 years Dogs appear to be a special case and were probably the earliest domesticate Domestication of Animals ll However most of the earliest domesticates were large terrestrial herbivores Of 148 large herbivores worldwide only 14 have been successfully domesticated 13 from the Old World Animal Where Domesticated Date Dog East Asia 13 000 BC Sheep Western Asia 8500 BC Cat Fertile Crescent 8500 BC Goats Western Asia 8000 BC Pigs Western Asia 7000 BC Cattle Eastern Sahara7000 BC Guinea pig Peru 6000 BC Chicken Thailand 6000 BC Donkev Northeast Africa 4000 BC Horse Kazakhstan 3600 BC Silkworm China 3500 BC Llama Peru 3500 BC Bactrian camel Southern Russia 3000 BC Dromedarv camel Saudi Arabia 3000 BC Honey Bee Egypt 3000 BC Banteng Thailand 3000 BC Water buffalo Pakistan 2500 BC DuckWestern Asia 2500 BC Yak Tibet2500 BC Goose Germany 1500 BC Alpaca Peru 1500 BC Reindeer Siberia 1000 BC Turkey Mexico 100 BCAD 100 Domestication ofAnimals Ill What makes a good candidate for a domesticable animal 1 Short lifespan 2 Quick maturation period 3 Large number of offspring 2 Meat 3 Secondary Products Milk eggs leather bones hair 4 Amenable Social Structure and Behavior to Humans Domestication of Animals IV How can archaeologists tell if an animal remain is domesticated or wild 1 Body Morphology often smaller 2 Population Demography 3 Site Assemblages 4 Animal Burials 5 Diets 6 Distribution Cultigen a plant wild or domesticated that is being intentionally cultivated by humans huntergatherers or farmers Domesticate a plant or animal whose behavior morphology andor genetics have been modified to make them more bene cial to humans However those modifications may be intentional or an inadvertent consequence of human behavior Important Point Domestication is NOT Unique to Humans It is a form of Mutualistic CoSelection often found in Nature Coevolution The mutual evolutionary influence between two species Each party in a coevolutionary relationship exerts selective pressures on the other thereby affecting each others39 evolution Mutualism The a coevolutionary relationship between two species in which the reproductive success of both bene t from the predation ofone by the other Therefore traits encouraging the relationship are selected for in both species Leafcutter ants and gonglidia fungus Acacia Trees and Ants Were Humans Genetically Selected by the Plants and Animals they Domesticated Early Neolithic Agriculture in Europe Lactose intolerance is an inability to digest and absorb lactose the sugar in milk that results in gastrointestinal symptoms when milk or products containing milk are drunk or eaten HunterGatherer behaviors that could have inadvertently started a mutualistic relationship with plants and animals Animals Pets oGame Management Plants oBurning oGround Disturbance Trash rrigation Sowing Storage Most of the changes in humans caused by domestication are behavioral social and cultural not genetic Lecture 4 Archaeological Investigations and Theories for the Causes of Agriculture Archaeological Investigations of the Origins of Agriculture Interdisciplinary Approaches began in 1950s Large regional scale archaeological approaches involving teams of specialists botanists zoologists palynologists etc Robert Braidwood Jarmo Iraq Scotty MacNeish Tehuacan Valley Kent Flannery Oaxaca Archaeological Advances in Investigating the Origins of Agriculture Pollen Sequences Flotation Direct Radiocarbon Dating Scanning Electron Microscopy DNA Extraction Bioarchaeology Palynology Most plants produce large quantities of pollen which Can be identified to family genus or species Is readily transported through the air pollen rain Is preserved in waterlogged sediments bogs springs lake sediments PALYNOLOGY is used to identify vegetation changes associated with the beginning of agriculture Appearance of domesticated plants Forest clearance Anthropogenic burning Plant Macrofossils Remains that can be observed with the naked eye Seeds nuts and other plant remains Recovered by flotation technique Can also be recovered from human coprolites and as residues on ceramics Flotation A method used to recover plant macrofossils by sieveing soil from an archaeological feature manually in a water bath in order to allow organic material such as charred seeds wood and bone to float to the surface and be gathered with a sieve Scanning Electron Microscopy The scanning electron microscope SEM is a type of electron microscope that images the sample surface by scanning it with a highenergy beam of electrons Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS A method of radiocarbon dating using an accelerator to directly count the individual isotopes of the carbon sample Can be used to accurately and directly date very small samples of carbon plant macrofossils Recommended Sample Sizes for Radiocarbon and AMS Dating Grams Ams Milligrams Charcoal 10 30 20 50 Wood 15 100 20 100 Boneantler 200 2 10 grams Shell 20 100 50 100 Seeds na 20 50 Using Bioarchaeology to study the origins of agriculture The transition from foraging to agriculture can be detected biarchaeologically four ways 7 8The recovery of food remains in coprolites preserved feces and stomachintestinal contents oChanges in Dentition Cavities indicate a starchy diet heavy dental wear a foraged diet oChanges in nutrition health work effort can be detected in human bone oChanges in the isotopic composition of human bone Ancient diets can also be reconstructed by analyzing the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes preserved in human bone Bone and Stable Isotopes You Are What You Eat Human bones reflect the isotopic ratios of plants ingested during life We reconstruct the dietary importance of plants by measuring the ratio of carbon isotopes in bone collagen A diet rich in C4 plants maize can produce bones with a higher ratio of 13C to 12C Humans who consume large amounts of meat or marine food have a higher ratio of 15N to 14N DNA Extraction Detecting the evolution of a domesticated plant or animal by comparing its genetic makeup with that of other wild and domesticated varieties Theories to Explain the Origins of Agriculture Old Approaches Oasis Hypothesis Hiy Flanks Theory New Approaches Population Pressure Theory Coselection Hypothesis deoogical Theories Multicausal Theories Oasis Theory Proposed by VG Childe It argues that domestication arose as people plants animals were forced to congregate around water sources during the arid years following the Pleistocene In this scenario agriculture developed because people learneddiscovered how to cultivate plants and herd animals Oasis Theory Climates dry at the end of the Ice Age Force people plants and animals in close proximity near water sources People have a chance to observe and manipulate plantanimal interactions planting irrigation herding Agriculture inevitable result Oasis Theory Problems Climate important factor but not directly correlated HunterGatherers have expert knowledge of plants and animals Earliest evidence of agriculture is not along Nile as predicted or similar oasis spots However Climatic Change may be associated the earliest case of agriculture Vere Gordon Childe 18921957 Neolithic Revolution Term coined by V Gordon Childe to describe the origin and consequences of farming stock raising and agriculture allowing the widespread development of settled village life Hilly Flanks Theory Proposed by Robert Braidwood based on excavations in Iraq Jarmo Claims that agriculture arose in areas where the wild ancestors of domesticated plants and animals naturally occurred attributing the appearance of agriculture to human efforts to increase the productivity and reliability of their food base coupled with culture being ready to accept and agricultural lifeway Jarmo An archeological site located in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Northern Iraq It is one of the oldest known agricultural communities in the world dating back to 7000 BC Jarmo lies at an altitude of 800 meters above sea level in a belt of oak and pistachio woodlands Hilly Flanks Theory Implications Earliest agriculture should be found in the areas where the wild ancestors of domesticates occur naturally Should be preceded accompanied by technological and social changes such as development of grinding stones sedentism storage etc Agriculture occurred because people were culturally and socially ready to accept Hilly Flanks Theory Successes Seemed to explain earliest agriculture in areas such as Fertile Crescenthighland Mexico preceded accompanied by technological and social changes such as development of grinding stones sedentism storage etc Problems Why do agriculture where plants and animals naturally occur Why are people were ready to accept agriculture at that time Jack Harlan s experimental wild wheat harvest Theories to Explain the Origins of Agriculture Could gather 1 kg of seed per hour enough seed in 3 weekds to feed a family for a year 55 Food Crisis Theory Proposed by Mark Cohen attributes the origins of agriculture to pressure on food resources caused by population growth worldwide Predictions Agriculture should only develop after evidence of population growth and sedentism evidence of use of a broader array of resources by huntergatherers Problem Why does population reach critical point in different locations only in the last 10000 years What came rst agriculture or population growth DensityEquilibrium Theory mixture of oasis and food crisis theories Proposed by Binford attributes the origins of agriculture to population pressure in favorable environments that resulted in emigration to marginal lands where agriculture was needed to sustain productivity Problem many of the favorable environments of the Ice Age are now unavailable for archaeological investigation Coevolutionary Theory Advocated by David Rindos The origins of agriculture are a natural result of natural evolutionary processes between humans and domesticated plants and animals leading to the development of mutualism Prediction Coevoultonary relationships should be the ealiest Prediction Coevoultonary relationships should be the ealiest signs of agriculture Problem Why did mutualistic relationships evolve only after the Plesitocene Social Competition Theories Proposed by Barbara Bender and Brian Hayden The theory that agriculture developed as a means to allow status seeking individuals to accumulate food surpluses as a means of acquiring prestige building social alliance competitive feasting and extortion Social Competition Theories Predictions Agriculture should develop in environmentally rich not poor areas Earliest domesticates may be cultivated because of nonfood values ie alcohol narcotic Signs of Social Complexity Wealth trade and statusprestige seeking should precede agriculture Problem Why did social change occur in multiple cultures only in the last 10000 years Ideological Theories Proposed by Jacque Cauvin and Ian Hodder The theory that agriculture developed as a consequence of changing perceptions of humans as a part of nature to dominating nature Reflected in religious ideology Prediction Changes in ideology as evidenced in religious symbols and agriculture should precede agriculture Problem Why did ideological change occur in multiple societies only in the last 10000 years Multicausal Theories Proposed by Flannery The theory that agriculture developed as a consequence of multiple interrelated factors including population growth climate change coselection social and ideological change Problem Does this really explain anything Critical Prime Mover Forces Suggested to have Caused the Development of Ag ricultu re ProgressInvention Climatic Change Population Pressure Broad Spectrum Resource Use Coselection Social Prestige Religious ldeology Test Implications Which comes rst Coselection Theories Domestication Culture Change Theories hilly flanks ideological social change New inventions Culture complexity ranking prestige New Religious Beliefs Stress Theories oasis food crisis and density equilibrium Climatic Stress Popuation Pressure sedentism Broad Spectrum Resource Use 1 Lecture 5 Paleoenvironmental Context De nitions The Pleistocene is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years Orbital Variable Procession of BP covering the world39s recent period of repeated glaciations ice ages The Holocene is a geological epoch which began approximately 10000 years ago about 8000 BC and continues to the present Milankovich Theory Sawtooth pattern predicted by Serbian mathematician Description Cycle How closely equinoxes and soltices correspond w 19 and 23 k Equinoxes earth s perihelion and apehelion Orbital The departure of earth s orbit from a perfect 100 ky Eccentricity circle Tilt Angle The angle between the earth rotation axis and 40 ky plane of orbit Calculated variations in the amount of solar radiation received by earth over the last million years Variation attributable to three fluctuations in earth orbital geometry Marine Biostratigraphy Ocean floors contain unbroken stratigraphic sequence of the last several my Sediments can be cored from research vessels Cores can be dated by paleomagnetic dating Oceans sediments preserve the fossils shells of microscopic organisms foraminifera The ratio of 016 to 018 in these shells reflect ocean temperature at the time that organisms lived O16 is lighter and more readily evaporated tends to concentrate in glaciers and lakes O18 is heavier oceans become richer in 018 during glacials Reveal characteristic sawtooth pattern of about 100 ky patterns of gradual cooling marked by rapid warming Important Note Milankovich Theory proves that the Holocene Epoch is only the last interglacial cycle We still live in the Ice Age Unpredictability of the Ice Ages Intensity and duration of climatic events is influenced by unique events ie volcanic eruptions land mass at high latitudes comet dust Also influences by the degree to which Milankovich cycles coincide or resonate Short term cycles not explained by orbital geometry also occur in ice cores Ice Cores Polar lce Sheets in Greenland and Antarctica form annual deposits of winter and summer ice Can be read back to 40 kya like treerings Air bubbles trapped in ice can be analyzed for indicators of climatic change carbon dioxide oxygen isotopes methane Reveals shortterm millennial 115 ky cycles not predicted by orbital geometry DansgaardOescheger cycles Cycle can be marked by rapid rises and drops of temperature 58 C within a few decades Example of the Younger Dryas At the end of the last glacial cycles 1613 kya temperatures warmed and glaciers retreated almost to modern standards Between 1311 kya climate shifted back to full glacial circumstances Younger Dryas During event temperatures in temperate regions may have dropped as much as 15 C 27 F within a single decade Between 11 and 8 kya climate gradually returned to regular interglacial conditions Environmental Characteristics of the Pleistocene 1 Temperature long periods 100 ky of temperatures colder than today 10 C separated by short bouts 10 ky of warm temperature Climate generally climate much more variable from year to year volatility but relatively less variable season to season equability Environmental Characteristics of the Pleistocene 1 Glaciers long periods of glacial advance glacials separated by periods of glacial retreat interglacials Alpine mountain glaciers Sierra Nevada Rocky Mountains Continental like present day Antarctica and Greenland much of earth surface covered with ice sheets up to 1 mile thick Environmental Characteristics of the Pleistocene 3 Water Level Lower ocean levels correspond with glaciers Sea levels as much as 120m lower than today Higher lake levels and more numerous lakes generally correspond with glacials Pluvials periods of high lake levels Interpluvials periods of low lake levels Environmental Characteristics of the Pleistocene 4 Land Exposure Lower sea levels expose large areas of continent currently under water examples Berengia English Channel Sahul Lakes cover many areas of continent now exposed examples Lakes Bonneville and Lahontan Environmental Characteristics of the Pleistocene 5 Vegetation during glacials and pluvials Pants found in communities that no longer exist Generally most species found at lower elevations and lower latitudes Note Pleistocene Relict Communities Environmental Characteristics of the Pleistocene 6 Fauna Small animals like plants found in communities that no longer exist but generally found at lower elevations and lower latitudes during glacialpluvials Large Mammals Whole suite of nowextinct fauna many much larger than closest living relatives mammoths saber tooths Many found in environments and communities where they do not occur today Pleistocene Overkill Did the extinction of megafauna cause agriculture Was Agriculture Even Possible in the Pleistocene Ice Age Environments were too Deprived in 002 to encourage the growth of annual plants Radically unstable to allow humans to stay in one place to farm Did Climatic Change Cause the Origins of Agriculture Episode of Younger Dryas Younger Dryas a brief approximately 1300 i 70 years cold climate period at the end of the Pleistocene between approximately 12800 to 11500 years The period saw a rapid return to glacial conditions in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere Altithermal an extremely warm period during roughly the interval 9000 to 5000 years BP The period witnessed extremely arid conditions in much of western North America but wet conditions elsewhere 31209 1 Lecture 6 Broad Spectrum Foragers Broad Spectrum Revolution proposed by Kent Flannery suggested that that the emergence Agriculture was prefaced by increases in dietary breadth among foraging societies The subsistence base broadened to include more fish small game water fowl invertebrates likes snails and shellfish as well as previously ignored or marginal plant sources Mesolithic The period of time of broad spectrum hunter gatherers in Europe North Africa and parts of Asia between the end of the Pleistocene and the introduction of farming Archaic The term used for broad spectrum huntergatherers in the Holocene of the New World before the introduction of farming Possible Explanations lncreased Availability Greater Familiarity InventionDiffusion Resource Depression Environmental Decline Population Growth Food Storage Security Social lntensification Private Property PrestigeSocial Relations BEERll Changes associated with Broad Spectrum Economies 1 Evidence of reduced mobility and greater sedentism Middens Burials cemeteries Food storage houses Changes associated with Broad Spectrum Economies 2 Transhumance a strategy of regular seasonal mobility practiced by huntergatherers and pastoralists wherein groups seasonally move between different environments Sedentism Living in permanently yearround in villages or settlements Midden An accumulation of waste and trash near a dwelling on an archaeological site Usually a marker of prolonged habitations Tell A very large midden occupied over a long period of time Shell Midden A mound of shells accumulated from human collection processing consumption and disposal of shellfish found along rivers and coasts Usually dates to the Holocene and associated with broad spectrum foraging Emmeryville Shellmound Changes associated with Broad Spectrum Economies 2 Technological Appearance of new technologies intended to facilitate the use of new resources Microliths Pottery Ground Stone Tools Microliths Microliths were produced from the end of the Ice Age until the introduction of agriculture and are found throughout Europe and Asia A microlith is a very small stone tool snapped from small blades and were used as composite tools such as Sickle a tool for cutting the stalks of cereals especially wheat and emmer In the prehistoric Fertile Crescent sickles were usually stone blades set in a wood or antler handle Pottery Jomon Mesolithic Culture Of Japan dating between 14 8 kya Associated with some of the earliest known pottery in the world Ground Stone Tools Stone Tools produced by pecking grinding rather than chipping hard stones coarsegrained tool stone such as basalt rhyolite granite or sandstone Handstone Milling Stone aka manometate quern a ground stone tool usually used for processing grain tubers nuts and seeds The milling stone is the larger slablike stationary surface against which the handstone is used Diet Breadth Model aka Prey Choice Model Ranks resources by ratio of calories to handling time Adds Search time abundance as the variable Predicts whether a forager will take or ignore and encountered resource Predictions of the Diet Breadth Model High ranked foods should always be taken Whether lower ranked food taken depends on the abundance of higher ranked item not its own abundance A decline in the abundance of high ranked foods can cause the diet breadth to expand to include lower ranked foods Intensi cation Population growth can cause further diet broadening and technological change This in turn can cause further population growth Cycle is called intensification Can lead to Agriculture Lecture 7 The Origins of Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent Fertile Crescent An upland zone in southwest Asia running from the Levant to the Zagros Mountains including portions of modern Israel Lebanon Syria Turkey Iraq and Iran Jack Harlan s experimental wild wheat harvest rachis the stem that holds the seed to the stalk in wheat and other plants Glume the tough seed cover of many cereal kernels Shattering a seed dispersal mechanism of many grasses 15 kya Climate and Vegetation very similar to California Early Epipaleolithic 20 14 kya Culture Kebaran Technology microliths occasional ground stone Most sites small open faunal remains common plant remains rare Exception Ohalo ll Desert Kites Large rock features used for driving gazelle Ohalo Dates 20 kya Located on Pleistocene lake margin Cluster of six ephemeral huts hearths and human grave Wide range of plant and animal remains present Ohalo Broad Spectrum Foragers already established 20kya Using a wide variety of food resources INCLUDING wild ancestors of domesticates Pattern appear stable for 7000 years 13kya Younger Dryas 128116 kya Natu an Archaeological culture of the western Fertile Crescent da ng from 145 to 116 kya and consisting of the rst settled villages trade goods and intensive use of wild wheat and barley Late Epipaleolithic 14 116 kya Culture Natufian Technology microliths sickles abundant ground stone milling stones and mortars Most sites sedentarysemisedentary occupation sites with rocklined pithouse Typical Site Ain Mallaha Eynan Ain Mallaha Eynan Dates 1210 kya Located in Fertile Crescent Three different stratigraphic occupations Sedentary village 200300 people Broad spectrum of resources but intensive use of wild cereals Large Public Structure Ain Mallaha Broad Spectrum Foraging economy continues But increased specialization on harvest of wild cereals Development of sedentary villages long distance trade Few signs of domestication yet Early Holocene 95 kya Early Aceramic Neolithic 116 108 kya Culture Prepottery Neolithic A PPNA First definite evidence of farming Technology new lithics one piece arrowheads Most sites sedentarysemisedentary occupation sites with substantial structure Typical Sites Jericho Abu Hureya Je cho Longest known occupation in the world Contains 25 ha PPNAB settlement Catalhoyiik Test lmplications Which comes rst Coselection Theories Domestication Culture Change Theories hilly flanks ideological social change New inventions Cuture complexity ranking prestige New Religious Beliefs Stress Theories oasis food crisis and density equilibrium Cimatic Stress Popuation Pressure sedentism Broad Spectrum Resource Use Implications of the Development of Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent Sedentism population growth and social change 2 precede domestication Domestication occurs after major climatic stress Younger Dryas although YD may have prompted Evidence of domestication becomes common AFTER cultigens appear outside of their area of natural occurrence Lecture 8 Origins of Agriculture in Highland Mesoamerica 8828 kya Mesoamerica term applied to geographic region of central and southern Mexico and Northern Central America Guatemala Belize Honduras Mesoamerica Agriculture Domesticated more than 100 species of plants maize beans squash chile peppers avocados tomato among many others Few domesticated animals chihuahuas and turkeys Most suitable ungulate species went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene Most important domesticated crop was maize Theories for the Evolution of Maize Two Possibilities for Evolution of Maize Evolved directly from extinct ancestor Diverged from close grass relative teosinte Molecular evidence shows that maize developed from a wild annual teosinte Teosinte a tall annual grass native to Mexico and Central America that is ancestral and the closest living relative of maize Theories for the Evolution of Maize Maize is a thoroughly domesticated plant Tight seed mass on cob is unable to disperse without intervention of humans Maize pollen from cultivated fields wipes out any nearby wild relatives Therefore there are no examples of wild maize 1 The origins of Agriculture have been studied intensively in two highland valleys of Mesoamerica Tehuacan Valley survey and excavations by Richard Macneish Coxcatlan Cave stratified cave showing evolutionary development of maize Oaxaca Valley survey and excavations by Kent Flannery Guia Naquitz stratified cave showing evolutionary development of maize Guila Naquitz and Coxcatlan Earliest domesticated squash and bottle gourd 108 kya GN 8 7 C Maize does not appear until 63 kya 55 kya at Tehucan Cave Beans do not appear until 3 kya HunterGatherer Ecology of Tehuacan and Oaxaca Valleys 0 Wet Season May to September abundant plant food plenty of water Important foods Mesquite Pods lowland arroyos and stream Cactus Fruit dry alluvial fans and slopes Agave Root dry foothills Smal game rabbits rodents turkeys widespread Large game deer peccary widespread but dispersed and hard to find Because of richness and dispersion of food hunter gatherers were highly mobile However Mesquite Pods most important plant food HunterGatherer Ecology of Tehuacan and Oaxaca Valleys ll Dry Season October to March limited water and food resources Food storage may be critical Important Foods Small Game widespread Large Game Concentrated around upland springs and waterholes may be best time to hunt Pinyon Nuts Oak acorns highland slopes Annua seeds Cornteosinte amaranth Best in floodplains mesquite forests Natural stands on upland slopes Because of scarcity of food and water and availability of storable plants and game huntergatherers tended to camp in uplands HunterGatherer Ecology of Tehuacan and Oaxaca Valleys Ill Seasonal concentrations of resources kept huntergatherer groups small mobile and dispersed without exerting pressure on resources Seasonality the changing availability of resources according to different seasons of the year Scheduling the process of arranging the extraction of resources according to their seasonal availability and reconciling conflicts Microband a small family group of hunter gatherers Macroband a seasonal gathering of multiple family bands Archaeological Sequence I Ajureado Phase lt12 9 kya Few sites mostly in uplands Evidence of hunting horse deer antelope jackrabbits cottontail small mammals birds turtles No evidence of Plant Foods Archaeological Sequence I El Riego Phase 9 7 kya Widespread sites in all environmental zones First groundstone tools and basketry Some cultivated plant use in uplands near wet season camps Dietary remains 55 game 42 wild plants lt3 cultivated Squash and bottle gourds domesticated GheoShih Large open site interpreted as a seasonal camp Archaeological Sequence ll Coxcatlan Phase lt7 54 kya More groundstone tools and widespread sites First evidence of food storage in winter camps First evidence of maize Most cultivated plant use in uplands near wet season camps some evidence of cultivation in lowlands Dietary remains 35 game 55 wild plants 10 cultivated plants squash peppers avocados amaranth maize Archaeological Sequence Ill El Riego Phase 54 43 kya 35 Significant Change in Settlement Pattern Pithouse Villages wet season camps in lowlands Maize cultivated in floodplains mesquite forests begin to be cleared Dietary remains 25 game 50 wild plants 25 cultivated plants corn beans squash peppers avocados amaranth bottle gourd dog Archaeological Sequence IV Purron Phase 4328 kya Permanent Villages rectangular above ground structures First evidence of irrigation pottery Multipe Varieties of Maize cultivated in floodplains mesquite forests begin to be cleared Dietary remains 25 game 35 wild plants 40 cultivated plants corn beans squash peppers avocados amaranth bottle gourd dog San Jos Mogote Located on flat bottom of the Valley of Oaxaca First Occupied 3532 kya Largest village in area Irrigation Defensive Palisades and Ceremonial Buildings Long Distance Trade Implications Gradual Increase in Use of Cultivated Plants over time accompanied by broadening diet and technological change Intensification Domestication coselection precedes sedentism and population growth Domestication may have begun as a way to alleviate seasonal scheduling conflicts Process of maize domestication increasing seed and cob size means increasing yields Critical shift comes in El Riego Phase foragerfarmers clear mesquite forests to grow corn most effectively 44 In terms of diet breadth model maize had become more highly ranked than mesquite Evidence of domestication becomes common AFTER cultigens appear outside of their area of natural occurrence


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