HUMAN DEVELOPMENT+LEARN EDS 248
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elenora Haley MD on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDS 248 at California State University - Sacramento taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/218836/eds-248-california-state-university-sacramento in Sp Ed, Rhb, Sch Psy & Deaf Std at California State University - Sacramento.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
EDS 248 Human Development and Learning g 09erant Conditioning EDS 248 Stephen E Brock PhDNCSP Classical vs Operant Condi ioning Operantconditioning R r SRF p ioiioweu uya A5 a result the response is rnore likelylo be displayed A reinforcer is ANY Stimulus that increases the frequency of a benav or To be a reinforcer Stimuli must immediately follow the response and must be perceived as contingent upon the response Classical conditioning S r R An involuntary response UCRis preceded by a stirnuii ucsi or A Stimulus UCS automatically triggers an involuntary response UCR A neutral Stimulus NS associated With UCS automatically triggers a conditioned response 8 becomes a conditioned Stimulus CS Classical vs Operant Condi ioning Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 1 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning 9 t Study Activity A teacher reported that she had been giving her students points on the chalkboard whenever their group was the most quiet and attentive Eventually her students learned to become quiet and attentive whenever the teacher approached the chalkboard What type of conditioning is at work here What is the role of the teacher by the chalkboard Independent Study Activity Even though there is a S r R connection between the teacher standing by the chalkboard and students becoming quiet and attentive this stimulus is an antece ent or discriminative stimulus not a CS This S r R connection is an example ofstimulus control in operant conditioning in opeiant conditioning tne antecedent stimulus does not directly elicit the response as it does in casstca CO dttolilig iiilteiinood tnat a iesponse W occui We ca tnat Slimuus a discriminative stimulus and Say tnat tne iesponse l5 undei stimulus controIOrrnrod 1999 pp 5657 emphasis added Independent Study Activity The teacher by the chalkboard does not directly elicit an involuntary response Rather a voluntary response being quite and attentive is strengthened by a reinforcing stimulus The teacher by the chalkboard 8 is a cue a signal or a signpost telling students that ifthey behave R in a certain ay a speci c consequence is likely to follow SRF S R gt Set 39 39 Responsem 39 39 m Antecedent Behavxai Cameuence Teachab Lhechalkbuard Pmmsmchalkbaard Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 2 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Independent Study Activity Teacher by the chalkboard is an antecedent telling students ifthey are quiet and attentive there is a probability that they will earn points on board This type of stimulus is a cue or a reminder not an or involuntary automatic trigger Also note that similar stimuli eg teacher standing anywhere in the classroom may also cue 8 behavior R This is knovm as stimulus generalizati n Th e similar the stimulus is eg teacher standing close to the chalkboard vs standiniaway from the chalkboard or sitting at her desk the more Ii ely it is to generalize generalization gradien Independent Study Activity Conversely students can learn that a certain response may be reinforced in one situation 8 but not in another 8 For example students may learn that they only are reinforced R when the teacher is out of her seat 8 and not when she is sitting at her desk 8 In other words in the presence of certain stimuli 8 teacher at desk the behavior is not reinforced This is known as stimulus discrimination S R tnothing Independent Study Activity However classical conditioning may be playing a role here The teacher by the chalkboard because of its association with a reward may begin to elicit a conditioned response a happy fee ing This quotfeelingquot may help to remind children to behave in a certain way It may help to make the antecedent a more powerful or automatic behavroral cue Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 3 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning 1 Independent Study Activity 39 ulus mugmm Re ans Amsz Teachzrby Being qmcl mm Pleasme the Chalkbnard and mum 5 39 39 UCR 05 y r CR Behavioral Explanations for PTSD Behavioral Explanations for PTSD Reexpen39encing e g a Selling acute dislreSs Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 4 EDS 248 Behavioral Explanations for PTSD Avoidance EscapeAvoidance Negative Reinforcement Arousal fight or flight acute distress e g a Setting Basic Concepts in Operant Condi ioning ofbehaviorquot are very different rmine because a de nes need for intervention and b can be used Human Development and Learning Basic Concepts in Operant Condi ioning Concept De nition Extinction Reinforcing stimulus no longer follows a response RSRF not CS CR Superstitious People try to gure out what they can to Behavior obtain desirable outcomes and may become superstitious ifcontingencies are not clearly spec39fed Shaping Procedure used when the free operant level of a behavior is very low or absent Involves reinforcing successive approximations ofthe desired behavior requires ta k analv 39 Stephen E Brock PhD NC SP EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Types of Punishers amp Reinforcers Reinforcers Increase the frequency of behavior Primary Primary satisfy basic physical needs Secondary Secondary become reinforcing via learned associations classical conditioning with primary reinforcers Punishers Decrease the frequency of behavior Punishment PI or positive punishment presentation of an aversive Punishment ll PM or negative punishment removal ofa pleasant stimulus i Types of Punishers amp Reinforcers Positive RSinforcemem Obtaining desirable stimuli Negative t 39 t39 g an aversive stimuli Avoidance learning to stay away from an aversive stimuli Types of Punishers amp Reinforcers Stephen E Brock PhD NC SP 6 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Factors Affecting Reinforcement Effectiveness Timing of reinforcement Magnitude and appeal Consistency Types of Reinforcement Schedules ontinuous reinforcement is clearly the most effective way of teaching a new response Once the terminal behavior has been reached however intermittent reinforcement schedules ratio interval and differential can bene cial both in preventing extinction and in controlling the 39equency and pattern ofthat responsequot Ormrod 1999 p56 Types of Reinforcement Schedules Fixed Rana Spe es a cmslstentnumber Efrewunses befnre mnfanEmEnlls u aed Desenpaen Variable Rana Spe es a elianging numba39 ufrespunsesbef re ranfumEmmt is erraed has elapsed I elapsed Stephen E Brock PhD NC SP EDS 248 Types of Reinforcement Schedules Human Development and Learning Schedule Descnpnun m Frequent rewunses withm a ma a ume pmud required fur mnrumemem DRL Waning berm swundmg fur a Spe c ume pmm required fur ranfurcemmt I DRO Fafumnganm gig but the gen edregunse rum wen c ume pmud I Eliminating Undesired Behaviors Behaviors When these prove ineffective a form of punishment will need to be considered Explaining the Failure of a g Reinforcement System 1 The reinforcer is not reinforcing 2 Reinforcement is inconsistent 3 The response new behavior or behavioral change is not worthwhile 4 Shaping takes place too rapidly Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP EDS 248 Human Development and Learning l Contingency Contracts An agreement between a student and a teacher that speci es certain expectations forthe student the terminal behavior and the consequences ofthe student s meeting those expectations the reinforcerquot The contact should specify the desired behavior of the student and the consequence reinforcer that will be contingent on that behaviorquot Early contracts should require small tasks that a student can accomplish within a short period oft39mequot A criterion forjudging the quality ofthe desired behavior should be speci edquot Ormrod 1999 pp 8081 Punishment Options 1Time out 2 Response cost 3Verba Reprimand 4 Restitution and 5 Overcorrection Next Week 10perant Conditioning 2 Functional Behavioral Assessment 3 Reread chapter 5 4Writing Prompt When it is and is not appropriate to use reinforcers in the classroom Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP EDS 248 Human Development and Learning 5 Motivation and Affect EDS 248 Stephen E Brock PhDNCSP Motivation Once we have learned to do something the extent to which we continue to do it is a function of motivation p 407 Motivation is an internal state that results in and directs action General Effects of Motivation Motivation increases an individual s energy and activity levels directs an individual toward a certain goal promotes initiation of certain activities and persistence in those activities affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes an individual employs can g Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 1 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Types of Motivation 1 Extrinsic Motivation lies outside the individual and the task It is helpful when a task lacks readily apparent value 2 Intrinsic Motivation lies within the individual The activity orthe taskin and of its self is viewed as valuable g The Role of Affect 1 How we feel about something affects our motivation toward it Positive feelings increase motivation and negative feelings decrease motivation Anxiety a feeling of uneasiness and apprehension affects motivation Includes both worry and emotionality Includes both state and trait anxiety N g The Role of Affect 1 Effect of anxiety on learning and cognition not a linear relationship 2 Task difficult x level of arousal performance YerkesDodson Law a Facilitating anxiety a challenge b Debilitating anxiety a threat 3 Anxiety affects working memory Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 2 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Promoting Student Motivation 1 Facilitate intrinsic motivation 2 Ensure that non academic needs are met 3 Capitalize on the role that affect plays avoid negative affect Cognitive Factors in Motivation Activity I will be describing cognitive factors in motivation As I do so Iwant you to think about what recommendations my discussions suggest for a 9th grade boy Jimmy who has a severe learning disability With this child we are nding that his primary problem an SLD is no longer the primary concern Because of repeated learning failures he is no longer interested in schooling He has come to expect failure not success Simply put Jimmy believes the work is too hard Jimmy is instead focuse on avoiding situations where he might look bad How are we going to help him Provide a justi cation for each ofyour recommendations Cognitive Factors in Motivation Achievement motivation Goals Learning Goals Performance Goals Expectancies Believe they can succeed In terms of Jimmy his achievement motivation is focused on external performance He avoids academic uccee What recommendations do you have for Jimmy s teacher Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 3 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Cognitive Factors in Motivation Value involves the belief that performance has reward Interest may result in learning ratherthan performance goals being set Personal lrlterestr lrlterrlal r staole overtlrne 7 personal preferences 7 based on experlerlces good and bad Sltuatlonal lnterest 7 external 7 new unusual surpnslng In terms of Jimmy s interests what recommendations do you have for Jimmy s teacher Cognitive Factors in Motivation Attributions or explanations for successfailure i b StabilityAlterability Factors influencing the Development of Attributions motional reactions Expectations for the future Effort and persistence Learning strategies Future choices Responses to failure 333853 What mlght he Some of Jlmmy S attllhutOhs for Success7 What mlght he Some of Jlmmys attllhutOhs for faltIe7 What do you thlhk IS the most Cognitive Factors in Motivation Explanatory Style Learn ed Helplessn ess Mastery Orientation What type of explanatory style does Jimmy have What type of explanatory style do we want to promote Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 4 EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Cognitive Factors in Motivation Challenge Heightens interest and minimizes boredom Makes it dif cult to attribute success to external factors ease luck Competition Promotes performance goals and ability rather than effort attributions From this information what recommendations do you recommend THANK YOU It has been fun Learning Theory Reflection Papers are due next Tuesday by 400pm Submission options Brighton Hall Room 225 brockcsusedu Retrieval of questionnaires and papers Course Evaluations Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP EDS 248 Human Development and Learning 5 Social Cognitive Learning Theory EDS 248 Stephen E Brock PhDNCSP The Essence of Social Learning Theory Learning by observation or vicarious acquisition and modeling Observation of behaviors and their outcomes is a mode of learning vs simply being shaped by the environment Learning does not require behavior change or erformance learned tasks may be displayed now later or never Reinforcement has an indirect effect on learning Cognitive processes in uence learning Bandura s Social Learning Theory ucialLear he Nature gtlt ernal internal Environmental factorS 39 Person factors havior Reciprocal Causation Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 1 EDS 248 Behavioral Factors and Social Learning Theory People reinforce others who copy their behavior 8 ts are reinforced byteachers when they reproduce benaviors being taugnt lmitated behavior leads to other people reinforcing copied be avior cniidren are reinforced by parents when they reproduce What tne teacner nas taugnt Behavior is imitated subsequent to observations of its effect on others students Wlll engage in benaviors tnat are observed to acnieve desired outcomes students Wlll not engage in benaviors tnat observed to acnieve undesired outcomes How the environment reinforces and punishes models Model as a discriminative stimulus 8 or antecedent 8 model R gt SRF Modeled behavior R is reproducedllearnedconditioned because of reinforcement Observer student is reinforced by the model teacher lmitated behavior style of dress leads to reinforcer peer praise People often reinforce others who copywhattheythemselves 0 Human Development and Learning Problems with a strictly behavioral analysis of social learning theory i Behaviors emerge complete whole without any shaping operant conditioning requires R gt SRF 2 Behaviors emerge without ever having been directly reinforced Simply watching others is enough 3 Behaviors displayed long after discriminative stimulus 8 has been displayed The S may not even be present when the R is displayed Stephen E Brock PhD NC SP EDS 248 Behaviorism and Social Theory Vicarious Reinforcement Human Development and Learning Reinforcement and Contemporary Social Learning Theory Reinforcement not viewed as essential to learning Reinforcement offers a reason to display behaviors People learn via direct experience andor observation of otnerstnat certain situations are more lilltelyto lead to relrlforcernerlt and benave accordingly eople pay attention to benaviore a skill being taugnt tnattney believe nas relrlforclrlg value a skill tnat tneyWill be required to perform to obtain a desired outcome ln otherwords you pay attention to benaviortnat you believe may be relrlforclrlg Cognitive Factors and Social Learning Theory Consequences affect performance but not necessarily learning students may learn benaviors but not displaytnern until tne consequences areludged desirable Cognitive processes affect learning Attention is a critical factorlrl learning Expectations affect learning Prior experiences i e being rewarded or punisned inrluences benaviorcnoices Awareness of reinforcement contingencies affect learning Knowledge of exactly wnat benavior leads to exactly wnat conseouence Stephen E Brock PhD NC SP EDS 248 Human Development and Learning I General Principals Observation of behaviors of othersmodels and their outcomes is an important mode of learning Learning doesn t require behavior change or performance Reinforcement has an indirect effect on learning Cognitive processes influence learning l Reciprocal Causation he integration ofbehavioral and cognitive psychology is illustrated by this theo PPerson factors internal EZEl lvll39Ol lm ent factors external BBehavlor5responsescholce de Internal person External environment and choices made behavior in uence each other in a reciprocal fashion Reciprocal Causation he integration ofbehavioral and cognitive psychology is illustrated by this theo PPerson factors interna EEl lvll ol lmel l actor5exterrlal BBehavlors responsescnoicei Ide St R gt SRF Erlvlrorlfnerlt lrlfluerlces behavlor e g the posltlve reinforcement a cnild obtains Wnen sne reads Wlll lead to increased reading behavlor Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP EDS 248 Human Development and Learning I ReCIprocal Causation e integration ofbehavioral and cognitive psychology is illustrated by this theory PPerson factors internal vll ol lm ent factors external 2 Be ehavlors responsescnoice lnternal person factors influence behavlore g awareness oftne i ii aging behavlor 4 being more llkely to engage in sucn penawors l Reciprocal Causation gte integration ofbehavioral and cognitive psychology is illustrated by this theory PPerson factors intern l Behavlur influences envlrunment BgtP cnoosing to read frequently affects wews ofself as a reader BgtE cnoosing to read frequently affects envlronfnental supports for reading Reciprocal Causation e integration ofbehavioral and cognitive psychology is illustrated by this theory Person factors internal nvlronrn ent factors external BBehavlors responsescnoic The el lvll ol lmel lt ll lfluel lces ll ltel l lal expectatlol ls forfutul e behavlol t e g ne envlronrnent tnat reinforces reading penaworwill result in an expectatlon of reward for future reading behavl Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP EDS 248 is illustrated by this the PPerson ractors internal EEnvirorirn ent ractors external BBenaviors responsescnoice results in small failures being ignored I Reciprocal Causation Human Development and Learning e integration ofbehavioral and cognitive psychology Tne internal expectations oftne person influences how environmeri ced e g expectations of success in reading Types of Models In person demonstration Symbolic Portrayal via media Verbal Instruction on how to behave Modeling Prerequisites Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP EDS 248 Modeling Requirements Competence Model is viewed as being a competent and capable person PrestigePower Model has high status and respect Stereotypical Model displays gender appropriatequot behavior Relevance Models situation is similar to the observer s Human Development and Learning 1 SelfEfficacy The beliefthat one is capable of executing behaviors successfully Similar to selfesteem but is more situationally speci c Has dramatic effects on behavior ie choice of activities effort and persistence learning and achievement ls in uenced by several factors ie previous successes and failures persuasion or being told that success is possible successes and failures of others lets them know their chances Concluding Comments Observation alone is suf cient for learning Modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviors Teachers and parents should model appropriate behaviors Teachers should expose students to a variety of exemplary dels Vicarious reinforcement and punishment may in uence student e avior Describing the consequences of behaviors can affect their occurrence Students must believe they are capable of accomplishing school tasks Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP EDS 248 Human Development and Learning Next Week Read Ormrod Chapters 7 amp 8 From readings write amp turnin 4 discussion questions two for each chapter Bring art supplies eg colored pens pencils drawing paper for an activity Stephen E Brock PhD NCSP 8
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