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by: Mr. Nelle Greenholt


Mr. Nelle Greenholt

GPA 3.7

Frank Lilly

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About this Document

Frank Lilly
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Nelle Greenholt on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDTE 116 at California State University - Sacramento taught by Frank Lilly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/218838/edte-116-california-state-university-sacramento in Education and Teacher Studies at California State University - Sacramento.




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Date Created: 10/05/15
Assessment And Standardized Tests Practice Exam Assessment I What behaviors can teachers observe to determine informally whether their students are learning effectively and achieving classroom objectives Should teachers allow students to choose the test questions they answer from among several possibilities WhyWhy not What are the advantages and disadvantages of giving pop quizzes I A student answers an essay question correctly and then adds additional irrelevant information that is incorrect How would you score such a response Practice Exam Assessment I Many teachers give zeros when students fail to turn in assigned work Is this a good idea or not I What are the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional grading system ABCDF Do you think this system continues to predominate despite its drawbacks I What are the advantages of assigning grades on the basis of students improvement rather than on the basis of an absolute level of performance I Is it appropriate to use low grades to punish students for classroom misbehavior WhyWhy not Assessing Student Learning I Instructional objectives statement of skills and concepts that students are expected to know at the end of some period of instruction I Planning lesson objectives Condition performance criterion I Conditions dscribe the task essay multiplechoice journal entris I Performance describs action such as write distinguish tw n identify synthsize I Criterion for success can be measured by correct clarity depth breadth profssionalism Writing Specific Objectives I When students are to learn well defined skills or information with a single right answer Given 10 problems involving quadratic equations students will solve 9 correctly I Other material doesn t lend itself to such specificity The student will list at least ve similarities and ve differences between the situation of immigrants to the US in the early 19005 and that of immigrants today Writing Clear Objectives I Objectives should be clear enough to be meaningfu I Words open to many interpretations To know to understand to appreciate to fully appreciate to grasp the significance to enjoy I Words open to fewer interpretations To write to recite to identify to sort to solve to construct Clarity and Task Analysis 0 Clear wording allows for fewer interpretations and fewer deviations Depending on the task you can vary the extent of creative exprssion Acu39on verbs clearly dscribe what needs to be accomplished write recite compare and contrast 0 Task analysis breaking tasks down inn fundamental sub skills This helps teachers and studenls dirough H1eidenu39 cau39on of an ow will be assembled into the nal skill Backward planning allows a tacher to set long term goals and then plan for speci c goals to be accomplished along the way Linking Objectives and Assessment 0 Bloom39s Taxonomy Knowledge recalling information Comprehension translating interpreting extrapolau39ng Application using principles or abstractions to problemsolve Analysis breaking down complex information into componenls Synthesis creation of something novel Evaluation judging something against a given standard Three component arms Cognitive smdent knowledge and thinking Affective smdentaltimds and valus Physical use ofspace balance movement Using a Behavior Content Matrix 0 This is a chart that shows how a articular concept of skill will be taught an assessed at different cognitive levels 0 This allows for diffentiated assessment 0 Consider the content The area of a circle Knowledge Give the formula for area of a circle Application Apply the formula for area of a circle to reallife problems Synthesis Use knowledge about the areas of circles and volumes of cubes to derive a formula for the volume of a cylinder Student Evaluation 0 Serve the following Feedback to students Feedback to teachers Information to parents Information for selection and certification Information for accountability Incentives to increase student effort Evaluations to Increase Student Effort Need to be important evaluations to students Must be closely related to a student s actual performance Evaluations need to be fair and equal for all students Must have clear criteria for success Appropriate interpretations must be made clear what s a grade mean Frequent evaluations Challenging but not impossible Formative Summative NormReferenced and CriterionReferenced Evaluations 0 Remember that formative means evaluation is ongoing and summative means concluding the material presented 0 Norm referenced evaluations compare the performance of one student to another student 0 Criterion referenced evaluations assess how thoroughly students have mastered speci c skills or areas of knowledge Matching Evaluation Strategies with Goals I Evaluation for incentive and feedback Traditional grades are often inadequate as incentives to encourage students to give their best efforts and as feedback to teachers and students Grades are given too infrequently are too far removed rom student performance and are poorly tied to speci c student behaviors I Evaluation for Comparison with others Comparative evaluations are traditionally provided by grades and by standardized tests Students should know how they fare compared to their peers CE should assess what students can do and nothing else Grades should be based on content and not politeness timeliness class discussion CE should be given infrequently Standardized Tests I Commercially prepared for nationwide use and designed provide accurate an meaningful information on students performance relative to that of others at their age or grade level This develops norms or standards to use to compare to other samples I Pu rposes Select stJJdens for entw or placement Diagnosis individual studens39 learning problems and Evaluate studens39 progress and tachers39and school effectiveness Contribute to improving a schools39 process Hold tachers schools and districts accountable for what students learn strengths 5 Types of Standardized Tests Aptitude tst designed to measure general ability and predict future performance Intelligence tss mmsure a general aptitude for larning ling with abstractions and problem solving I MACAX 100 Multifactor aptitude battery target speci c skills and types of wledge Achievement test mmsure how much a student has learned in a given context 1 J J J m J particular subject Diagnostic tss focus on a speci c content area and produce more detailed information math rmding comprehension NormReferenced vs CriterionReferenced Achievement Tests I NR Achievement tess i ement Batteries I California Achievement Test Iowa Tess of Basic Skills omprehensive Test of Basic Skills Stanford Achievement Test I Used to measure individual or group achievement in a variety of subject areas Diagnostic Tess I Focus on a speci c content area and em hasize the skills that are thought to be important for mastery of at subject matter I Content of the test should be closely examined for is match with strict curriculum CriterionReference e clearly defined learning objectives that are in harmony with instructional objectives Include a representative sample of the learn39ng tasks included it the instruc ion Include the types of test items that are most appropriate for the desired learning outcomes I m r o a 3 m m m g Issues Concerning Standardized and Classroom Testing I Test Validity does the test measure what it s supposed to measure Content evidence a measure of the match between the content of a test and the content oft e instruction that preceded it I Test Reliability measure of the consistency of test scores obtained from the same students at different times I Test Bias content discriminates against low income and multicultural students Helping Students Prepare For Standardized Tests I Give students practice with similar item formats MC verbal analogies I Suggest students skip over difficult or time consuming items an return to them later I If no penalty for guessing suggest students always fill in an answer Encourage guessing after students narrow down answer options I Have students read all options first before choosing one I Suggest students use all available time How are Standardized Tests Interpreted Students raw scores the number correct in each subtest are translated into derived scores percentiles grade equivalents or normal curve equivalents which relate the students scores to those of the group on which the test was normed Percentile scores indicate the percentage of students in the norming group who scored lower than a particular score Grade equivalent scores relate students scores to the average scores obtained by students at a particular grade level Standard Scores I A frequency plot of a normal distribution produces a bell shape curve I Standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of scores and how they differ from the mean I Stanine scores mean of five and standard deviation of 2 allows for each person to represent 05 standard deviation so a person w o earned a stanine score of 7 g 1 SD actualy fell somewhere between 75 and 125 D above the mean Normal Curve E uivalents are standard scores ran ing from 1 to 99 wit a mean of 50 and a SD of21 N E scores are similar to percentiles except that intervals ZScores sets the mean of a distribution at 0 and the SD at 1 see the comparison graph on pg 510 Slavin and appendix B Ormrod Authentic Portfolio and Performance Assessments I Authentic Assessment After much criticism over standardized testing alternative testing allows students to document their learning or demonstrate that they can actually do something real with the information and skills they have learned Portfolio Assessment the collection and evaluation of samples of student work over an extended period of time I Performance Assessments Tests that involve actual demonstrations of knowledge or skills in real life Evaluation of Authentic Assessment I Using a continua of descriptors teachers can evaluate strong performance to needs improvement Versatility Process Selfevaluations Individual pieces Problem solving Purposefulnessusefulness How are grades determined I A superior exceptional 90 to 100 I B very good but not superior above average 80 to 89 I C competent but not remarkable work or performance average 70 to 79 I D minimum passing but serious weaknesses are indicated below average 60 to 69 I F failure to pass serious weaknesses demonstrated less than 60 Alternative Grading Systems I Find out what students know and then report this performance grading I Students negotiate a certain amount or level of performance that they will achieve for a grade contract grading I Grading requiring a standard of mastery such as 80 or 90 If students do not achieve it the first time after corrective instruction they can retake the test or make changes and submit again Theories Cognitive Personal and Social Development I What are some views of human development Ed ucatlonal PSYChOIOgy Nature Nurture controversy I Heredity and experience Continuous and Discontinuous theories I Development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood Developing Learners I Development occurs through a fixed sequence of distinct predictable stages governed by inborn factors Who Are Our Students Individual Differences I Culture Eaf city I Individual I Identity Nationality Gender Self worth esteem Health and efficacy I Environment Geographic region Sexuality selfSOFIBIIZatlon Population numbers Spirituality Belonglngness Community economic resources Personality 500339 COintlon Political ideals Intelligence 5 Personal values Family beliefs and background Abilities Persona goas Social class Family Cognitive Development I Parenting Style I Siblings I Extended family I Family values Living arrangements Neighborhood Economic status Cultural status Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory 0 Stages 9 Development precedes learning 0 Schemes 9 cognitive maps 0 Adaptation 9 adjusting schemes through assimilation use existing schemes to learn about a novel object and accommodation modification of an existing scheme in light of new evidence 0 Disequilibrium and equilibration homeostasis Piaget s Stages 0 Sensorimotor 092 explore using senses behave reflexiver and learn object permanence 0 Preoperational 297 language increases and so do schemesconcepts learns conservation centrated not integrating concepts reversibility egocentric Piaget s Stages 0 Concrete Operational 7911 forms concepts sees relationships and solves problems involving familiar objects able to infer reality seriate order conceptsinitiate transivity interactions class inclusion simultaneously juxtapose a class of objects and their relationship to subordinate classes 0 Formal Operations 119adulthood think abstractly see possibilities beyond the here and now hypothesize problem find evaluate solutions Applying Piaget 0 Utilize manipulatives for exploration 0 Ask students to explain their reasoning 0 Encourage students to think from multiple perspectives 0 Relate abstract and hypothetical ideas to concrete objects and observable events Vygotsky 0 Historical and cultural contexts children experience shape intellectual development 0 Development depends on the sign systems an individual grows up with language writing counting 0 Cognitive development is strongly linked to input from others 0 Learning precedes development Vyg otsky 0 Private speech turns shared knowledge into personal knowledge 0 The zone of proximal development is a range wherein the child can not as yet do the task alone but can do the task with the assistance of a more competent peer or adult 0 Scaffolding is the assistance provided by the peer or adult Applying Vygotsky I Enckosurage students to talk themselves through difficult tas I Demonstrate and encourage adultlike ways of thinking about situations Present some tasks that students can perform e successfully only with assistanc Provide sufficient support scaffolding to enable students to perform challenging tasks successfully gradually withdraw the support as they become more proficient Have students work in small groups to accomplish complex tasks Questions I Are students who reach early milestones sooner than their peers the same ones who have higher academic ability later on I To what extent is intelligence influenced by heredity and environment To what extent are personality characteristics influenced by heredity and environment I What kinds of scaffolding do parents and teachers use to help children develop new skills Information Processing View of Cognitive Development I Children become less distractible over time How and what children learn depends increasingly on what they actually intend want to learn Rehearsal increases during the elementary years strategies for rehearsal Organization improves throughout the elementary and secondary grades Elaboration emerges around puberty and increases throughout adolescence Rehearsal strategies become increasingly ef cient and effective Information Processing Continued I The amount of knowledge children have increases over time and their knowledge base becomes increasingly integrated I Children become more adept at recognizing things they do and do not know I Children become more knowledgeable about effective learning strategies Applying Information Processing Theory I Minimize distractions I Base instruction on what students already know I Encourage learning strategies appropriate for the age group I Identify situations in which various learning strategies are likely to be useful I Give students many opportunities to assess their own leaning efforts and thereby to find out what they do and don t know Linguistic Development Age 5 5 changes occur in receptive and exprssive language From 8 to 80 thousand words in semantic vocabulary from grads 1 12 I rrors in semantics under and overgeneralization restrictedgeneral Using connectives incrass witn abstract thought yntax continues to develop throughout secondary education 9 forma language instruc ion Listening comprehension develops as children become lss dependent on can ext to un erstan what others say tn them Oral communicating skills depend on the spaker39s ability to take into account the characteristics ofthe listener and also the pragmatics governing verbal interactions list a few Metalinguistic awareness can be fostered by having students make up rhyms chants jokes puns rap Bilingualism 0 Bilingual children tend to perform better on tasks requiring complex cognitive functioning 0 Total immersion in the second language is the method of choice however 0 Bilingual education in the US where academic instruction is given in students native languages while they are simultaneously taught to speak and write in English leads to higher academic achievement greater self esteem and a better attitude toward school Diversity in Cognitive and Linguistic Development 0 The order in which children acquire specific cognitive and linguistic capabilities is often similar from one child to the next similar sequence hypothesis Zigler but the rate at which they acquire these abilities may differ considerably 0 How will you accommodate students with special needs Personal and Social Development 0 Identity What are the factors that make up one s identity Refer to the above individual slide 0 Social Cognition Theory of Mind Social Information Processing Erikson s theory of Personal and Social Development 0 Stage theory We advance until we reach a developmental milestone or Psychosocial crisis 0918mths Trust vs Mistrust maternal pt 18mths 3yrs Autonomy vs Doubt parents 396yrs Initiative vs Gu17t basic family 6912 Industry vs Inferior1y neighborhood school Erikson 12918yrs Identity vs Role Confu5bn peer groups and models of leadership Young adulthood Intimacy vs Isaation partners in friendship sex competition coopera ion Middle adulthood Generatiw39ty vs Selfabsorption divided labor and shared household Late adulthood Integrity vs Despair Mankind my kind Moral Development Moral Development 0 Piaget 9 cognitive ability determine a child s ability to reason about social situations 0 Kolberg 9 moral dilemmas Preconventional punishment and obedience instrumental relativism Conventional good boygood girl and law and order Postconventional social contract universal ethical principle orientation Moral Development 0 Gilligan 9 males become independent of adult authority and shift to abstract principles for guidance and females care less about independence and value loyalty to others through expressions of caring understanding and sharing experiences 0 Bronfenbrenner looks at development through a systems approach Self family community city country world Discussion Question 0 Following is a list of possible Holding discussion groups activitis tha a ac er may Fbwr POIitical Parties and use with children Discuss why 39dEOIOQY and at what a e and rade Introducing sex education levels these activities would be Pr 9ram5 most appropria e Discussmchalr acteristic thka Providin students with sets of Y u as a 9 5 quotBY r related acts 39orn which they 5 Emmpt39ng 3 39de39mg must develop a single defining e 39nquenCY Pmne 3 39 requot generalization Providing instructional circumstances requiring physical activity followed by a Period of quite time and eisure activity such as coloring using watercolors and the like


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