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Hospitality Administratio

by: Marlee Lehner

Hospitality Administratio RLS 184

Marlee Lehner

GPA 3.68


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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marlee Lehner on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RLS 184 at California State University - Sacramento taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/218846/rls-184-california-state-university-sacramento in Recreation and Leisure Studies at California State University - Sacramento.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
Modified from httpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 Lecture 2 Gene Transcription transcription translation 1 gt gt RNA polypeptide protein The Central Paradigm of Molecular Genetics Genes are transcribed into messenger RNA molecules which are then translated into polypeptides The polypeptides then fold and may combine with other polypeptides to from a function protein This diagram is simplistic however because genes can also be transcribed into small RNAs tRNAs rRNAs etc that are never translated and serve important functions in the cell g RNAs I Overview of Transcription Transcripton literally means the act or process of making a copy of something Legal secretaries for example transcribe the taped 1 r conversations between lawyers and clients by typing them into a wordprocessing program l Note however that transcription always maintains the original language of the copied material If the client and lawyer talk in Japanese the transcrpi will also be written in Japanese In genetics quottranscripton refers to the copying of a DNA sequence into an RNA sequence 0 The structure of DNA is not altered as a result of this process and it continues to store information Page 1 Modified from hTTpwwwmhhecombrooker BIO 184 Fall 2006 LECTURE 2 AT The molecular level a gene is a franscrda ana um39f Genes are defined as DNA sequences ThaT are Transcribed inTo RNA The figure below shows a common organizaTion of sequences wiThin a bacTerial polypepTide coding gene and iTs mRNA Each gene has a promoTer and one or more regulaTory sequences 0 The promoTer promoTes TranscripTion o The regulaTory sequences conTrol when and where in whaT cell Type The gene will be expresssed o The promoTer and The regulaTory sequences are DNA sequences ThaT are noT parT of The TranscripT They are recognized and bound by DNA binding proTeins Promoter Regulatory sequence Terminator Transcription mRNA 5 T l 339 Many codons start stop Codon codon Ribosome binding site DNA Promoter site for RNA polymerase binding signals the beginning of transcription Terminaton signals the end pltranscnption Regulajory sequences site forihe binding at regulatory proteins the role of regulatory proteins is to in uence gene expression in eukaryotes regu aiory sequences can be lound in a variety ot locations mHNA Ribosomai binding site site for ribosome binding translation begins nearihis Site in the mRNA ln eukaryotes the ribosome scans the mRNA for a starl Codon 39 rt cod specifies the first amino acid in a protein sequence usually a formylm ethionine in bacteria or a methionine in eukaryotes Codons a 3 nucleotide sequence w hin the mRNAtnal speci es a panlcular amino acid The sequence at codons wnhin mRNA determines the sequence of amino acids within a polypeptide The mRNA conTains sequences ThaT are recognized by The fransa arl machinery The ribosome The sTarT and sTop codons are E imporTanT during TranscripTion buT are crucial signals during TranslaTion Page 2 Modified from hTTpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 II The TemplaTe and Coding STrands RNA is fundamenTally singlesTranded and Therefore only one sTrand of The DNA is acTually copied inTo RNA during TranscripTion The sTrand ThaT is acTually being coped is Termed The fempafe sfr39and o The RNA TranscripT will have The opposiTe polariTy and The complemenTary sequence To This sTrand The opposiTe sTrand is called The coding sfr39ana39 o The base sequence of This sTrand is idenTical in polariTy and sequence To The RNA TranscripT o ExcepT for The subsTiTuTion of uracil in RNA for Thymine in DNA Because The coding sTrand has The same sequence and polariTy as The RNA iT is said To carry The genequot The gene is locafed on The coding strand RNA 539 ACCCGAAAAUUUGCU GTAGAGAACCAGCT GGC DNA 5 ACCCGAAAATTTGCT transcription CTTCCTGTTGCTGCT 3 3 TGGGCTTTTAAACGA GUAGAGAACCA 3 GAAGGACAACGACGA 5 lt CATCTCTTGGTCGATCCG TEMPLATE CODING III The STages of TranscripTion See Figure 1212 Brooker IV The Many Roles of RNA Transcrist Once They are made RNA Transcrist play many differenT funcTional roles in The cell Page 3 Modified from hHpwwwmhliecombroollter Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTUkE 2 TA B L E l 2 1 Functions of RNA Molecules Type of RNA Description inRNA Messenger RNA mRNA encodes the sequence or amino acids witiiin a polypeptide tRNA iransier RNA itRNA is necessary for the translation at mRNA rRNA Ribosemai RNA rRNA is necessary terttie transiation pi i are components o ri osomes al are and uncripri pr ribpsonies are Examined in chapter Other Small RNAS quotIRMA R AS ompused oi botri rRNAs and prulein subunits irie slmctuie f 13 75 RNA 75 RNA wnicii is tonne in eukaryptes is Retessary in tire targeting of proteins to tire endopiasni ic reticulum 75 RNA is a component oi a corn iex known as srgriai recognition pamcie 15w wnidi is cpnippsee or 73 RNA and SIX differem protein subunns scRNA sinau cytopiasrnic RNA mm in bacteria its sequence is Simliar m 75 RNA mind In eukaryote SKRNA is needed for protein satiation RNA of RNaseP RNaseP is an enz me that is necessary in the processing iali bacteriai tRNA moieuiesThe RNA is the cataiytic n to Aiosnucieotide RNA and one protein subunit snRNA sinaii nuciear RNA isnRNA is necessary in tire spiking oi eukalymic preinRNA SnRNAs are components at a spilceusume wincii is umpused or botn snRNAs and protein subunits iiie structure and iunrnon of spiiceosonies are examined later in chapter 12 snow Smail nucieoiai RNA sneRNA is necessary in the processing at eukarybric rRNA transcripts SnoRNAs are aisn associated wi protein subuniLs in en ates srioRNAs are und in t e nucieoius wiiere rRNA processing and ribosome assembiy occur 239 mi RNAs SDmE types at viruses use RNA as meirgenenie wnicii is packaged witiiiii tire viral rapsiti o Abouf 90 of The genes in mosi organisms code for mRNAs That are ulfimai39ely Translafed info polypepfides 0 However TRNAs rRNAs and ofher RNAs Thai do no code for polypepfides have very imporfanf roles in cellular processes Page 4 Modified from hTTpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 V Gene Transcription in BacTeria Our molecular undersTanding of gene TranscripTion came from sTudies involving bacTeria mosle E co and The viruses ThaT infecT Them bacTeriophages A PromoTers Are DNA sequences ThaT promoTe gene expression 0 More precisely They direcT The exacT locaTion for The iniTiaTion of TranscripTion PromoTers are Typically locaTed JusT upsTream 539 of The siTe where TranscripTion of a gene acTually begins 0 The bases in a promoTer sequence are numbered in relaTion To The TranscripTion sTarT siTe which is labeled quot1quot The promoTer aTTracTs RNA polymerase The enzyme responsible for Transcribing RNA To The gene WiThouT a promoTer a gene sequence would noT be Transcribed PromoTers ofTen consisT of conserved DNA sequences separaTed by a cerTain disTance ThaT is conserved from one gene in The organism To The nexT o This is usually because The RNA polymerase enzyme binds To The DNA in one spoT and Then arches over The DNA To bind To The nexT spoT o If The disTance beTween The recogniTion siTes for The enzyme are shorTened or lengThened TranscripTion will noT occur 0 The RNA polymerase cannoT fiT onTo The DNA anymore in iTs lock and keyquot posiTion See Figures 123 124 Brooker B IniTiaTion o In E coI39 The RNA polymerase holoenzyme is composed of 0 Core enzyme 39 Four subuniTs abe39 0 Sigma facTor I One subuniT s 0 These subuniTs play disTincT funcTional roles Page 5 Modified from hTTpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 AT The sTarT of iniTiaTion The RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds loosely To The DNA IT Then scans along The DNA LInTil iT encoLInTers a promoTer When iT does The sigma facTor recognizes boTh The 35 and 10 regions A region wiThin The sigma facTor ThaT conTains a helixTurnhelix sTrLIcTLIre Then inTeracTs sTrongly wiTh The promoTer causing RNA polymerase To TighTen iTs gripquot on The DNA a helices binding in the major groove o The TighT binding of The RNA polymerase To The promoTer forms whaT is called The closed complex 0 Then The open complex is formed when RNA polymerase denaTLIres The doublesTranded DNA in The ATrich Pribnow Box 0 NexT The RNA polymerase makes a shorT RNA sTrand copy of The TemplaTe sTrand wiThin The denaTLIred region The sigma facTor is released aT This poinT This marks The end of iniTiaTion NoTe ThaT RNA polymerase unlike DNA polymerase is a smarT enzymequot IT can sTarT an RNA sTrand all on iTs own 0 o o Page 6 Muamea frum mlpwamhhecumbruuker FallZOOD 510184 LECTURE 2 The core enzyme now sltaes down the DNA to synthestze the tmnscnpt 35 140 V w Binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme l 0 arm a closed complex 39ll39 l 4 ll factor Closed complex Formation of an open complex F 39quot 390 RNA polymerase core enzyme o In In a Sigma 1 r l W Open complex lRelease of sigma factor 35 RNA polymerase core enzyme 39 Sigma fac39to RNA transcript c Elongation The RNA tronscrtpt IS synthestzed durtng the elongation step The open complex formed by the actton of RNA polymerase IS about 17 bases long and remains that stze as the polymerth moves along the DNA a Bzhlnd the open complex the DNA r ewlnds back mto the double helix an average the rate of RNA synthests IS about 43 nucleonaes per second Page 7 Modified from hTTpwMMImhhecombrooker Fall 2006 IO 184 LECTURE 2 Rewinding oi DNA RNA polymerase Open complex Unwinding oi DNA Direciion oi iranscnpiioh a Nucleoiide being added to Ihs 339 and ol the RNA Fiibonucleoside iriphosphaies FlNA polymerase slides along The DNA ereaiing an open complex as ii moves Key poinls The DNA strand known as the template strand is used to make a complemenlary copy oi RNA as an HNA DNA hybrid The RNA is synthesized in a 539 to 3 direeu39on using ribonucleosids Uiphosphales as precursor Pyrophosphale is released not shown o ame asthe NT 4 ThaT U is substiiuted ior T in the RNA D Termina on TerminaTion is The end of RNA synThesis 0 IT occurs when The shorT RNADNA hybrid of The open complex is forced To separaTe o This releases The newly made RNA as well as The RNA polymerase 0 E coihas Two differenT mechanisms for TerminaTion o 1 rhodependenT TerminaTion I Requires a proTein known as r rho Page 8 Modified from hTTpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 o 2 rhoindependenT TerminaTion 39 Does noT require r See Figures 128 129 Brooker VI Gene Transcription in EukaryoTes Many of The basic feaTures of gene TranscripTion are very similar in bacTeria and eukaryoTes However gene TranscripTion in eukaryoTes is more complex 0 Larger organisms 0 Cellular complexiTy o MulTicellulariTy A EukaryoTic RNA Polymerases In eukaryoTes DNA is Transcribed by fhree differem RNA polymerases 0 RNA pol I o Transcribes all rRNA genes excepT for The 55 rRNA 0 RNA pol II o Transcribes all sTrucTural genes I Thus synThesizes all mRNAs I Transcribes some snRNA genes 0 RNA pol III 0 Transcribes all TRNA genes 0 And The 55 rRNA gene All Three are very similar sTrucTurally and are composed of many subuniTs There is also a remarkable similariTy beTween The bacTeriaRNA pol and iTs eukaryo c counTerparTs B EukaryoTic PolypepTideCoding Genes EukaryoTic promoTer sequences are more variable and ofTen more complex Than Those of bacTeria Page 9 Modified from httpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 n For genes coding for mRNAs at least three features are found in most promoters o Transcriptional start site 0 TATA box 0 Regulatory elements Transcriptional TATA box start s39ne r Coding strand sequences m l l 1 400 GC CAAT boxes so 45 1 I i i DNA Transcription The core promoter is relatively short 0 It consists of the TATA box Important in determining the precise start point for transcription The core promoter by itself produces a low level of transcription 0 This is termed basal transcription Regulatory elements affect the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter 0 They are of two types Enhancers Stimulate transcription Silencers Inhibit transcription 0 They vary in their locations but are often found in the 50 to 100 region 6 CIS and TRANS Factors cs acting elements 0 DNA sequences that exert their effect only on nearby genes 0 Example TATA box enhancers and silencers mans acting elements 0 Regulatory proteins that bind to such DNA sequences Page 10 Modified from hTTpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 D Trans FacTors Involved in EukaryoTic Transcription Three caTegories of proTeins are required for basal TranscripTion To occur aT The promoTer 0 RNA polymerase II 0 Five differenT proTeins called general TranscripTion facTors GTFs o A proTein complex called mediaTor The figure below shows The assembly of TranscripTion facTors and RNA polymerase II aT The TATA box TFIID binds to the TATA box TFIID is a complex of proteins that includes the TATA binding protein FBP and several TBPassociated factors TAFS TATA bCix TFIIB binds to TFlID TFIIB acts as a bridge to bind RNA polymerase llTFllF RNA polymerase TFIlE and TFIIH bind to RNA polymerase II See Figure 1212 Brooker Page 11 Modified from h pwwwmhhecombraoker BIO 184 Fall 2006 LEC TURE 2 o Basal Transcrip iion appara ius 0 RNA pol II The five GTFs o The Third component for Transcrip iion is a large proTein complex Termed mediator IT media ies interactions between RNA pol II and Various regula iory Transcrip iion fac iors I is sleLlni i composition is complex and variable Media ior appears To regula ie The abili iy of TFIIH To phosphoryla ie CTD o o 0 Therefore if plays a pitoral role in re swiftI befween franscrrp 39ana irri a an and eanga an TABLE 1 22 Proteins Needed for Transcription via the Core Promoter of Eukaryotic Structural Genes RNA polymerase II The enzyme that catalyzes the linkage oi ribonucieotides in the 539 to 339 direcliun using DNA as a template Essentially all eukaryalic er proteins are rompasep at 11 subunits me Iwo largest subunits are smitturally simriartp the a and 339 subunits round in 5 tori RNA polymerase General transcription tattors min Composed oi TAMbinding protein ram and other TBPassntiated tact tArs nerogmzes the TATHundan sequente oi eukaryotrc slruaural gene promoters IFIIB Binds to IFIID and then enables RNA polymerase II In bind to the tore promoter IFIIF Binds to RNA polymerase II and plays a role in its ability to bind to Will anrl promoter Also plays a role in the ability ofTFIIE and TFllH to bind to RNA polymerase II IFIIE Plays a role in the lorrriat itrn andEll the maintenance ol the open tompler it ma exert its eilecrs by facilllailng the binding pirriiii to RNA polymerase ll and regu ating the aaiyrty 0 min trim Ampitistrimmt protein that has multiple roles rirst enain subunits have helitase activity and promote the formation of the u en complex other subunits phosph the cm nl RNA polymerase llWl1lll releases its interattiari with TFIIE and thereby allows RNA polymerase Il to proceed to the elullgallnl l phase ediates the efletts ol regulatory merase ll though mediator 3 i e 5 a z gt 395 a polymerase II rom polymerase II to switth lrurri the i transcription a ey role int eatrility oi RNA iation to the elongation stage oi Page 12 Modified from httpwwwmhhe cumbreaker Fall 2006 O 134 LECTURE 2 VII RNA Processing in Eukclryotes A Splicing Analysis of bacoenial genes in the 19605 and 1970 revealed the following T sequence of DNA in the coding strand corresponds to the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA This in turn corresponds to the sequence of amino acid in the polypeptide This is termed the colineanity of gene expression lnlmns in nuclear pie m RNA very common in eukaryotes Analysis of eukanyotic genes in the late 9705 revealed that they are not always colinear with their functional mRNAs Instead coding sequences called Spiiceosome Transcription produces the entire gene product 0 Introns are later removed or excised o Exons are later spliced together This phenomenon is termed RNA splicing It is mon genetic phenomenon in eukaryotes Occurs occasionally in bacteria as well The initial transcription produces along transcript known as a pneinlzNA Splicing requires the aid of a multi component structure known as the spliceosome mFt NA Page 13 Modified from hTTpwwwrnhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 Why splice One benefiT of genes wiTh inTrons is a phenomenon called alfernafive splicing o A pre mRNA wiTh mulTiple inTrons can be spliced in differenT ways 0 This will generaTe maTure mRNAs wiTh differenT combinations of exons 0 This variaTion in splicing can occur in differenT cell Types or during differenT sTages of developmenT B 539 Capping MosT maTure mRNAs have a 7 meThyl guanosine covalenle aTTached aT Their 539 end o This evenT is known as capping Capping occurs as The pre mRNi is 72779 synfheszed by RNA pol II o Usually when The TranscripT is only 20 To 25 bases long The cap consisTs of a backwards meThylaTed guanine wiTh a TriphosphaTe link To The 539 nucleoTide in The mRNA IT is added on and is noT parT of The original TranscripT IT is bound by cap binding profeins which in Turn are recognized and bound by The ribosome during TranslaTion iniTiaTion Thus The cap marks The RNA as an mRNA and aids in iTs recogniTion by The ribosome for TranslaTion H3 v 7 Methyl CH3 group H2C7P P P CH2 239Metl1y group 77Methyguanine OCH3 P 7CH2 OCH3 Page 14 Modified from hTTpwwwmhhecombrooker Fall 2006 BIO 184 LECTURE 2 C 339 PolyadenylaTion MosT maTure mRNAs have a sTring of adenine nucleoTides aT Their 339 ends 0 This is Termed The polyA Tail The polyA Tail like The 539 cap is nafencoded in The gene sequence 0 IT is added enzymaTically afTer The gene is compleTely Transcribed See Figure 1220 Brooker D Example of premRNA Processing The beTa globin gene has 3 exons and 2 inTrons o The premRNA also called hnRNA conTains The enTire gene sequence sTarTing aT The 1 siTe and ending pasT The polyadenylaTion signal 0 During processing The inTrons are spliced ouT The 539 end of The mRNA is capped and The polyadenylaTion signal is cuT and Tailed e Gene Gene segment segment segment A B C Amino acids cAp 1 30 31 104 105 Ter pA DNA DUI r Ell Nucleotides 79 l 1457 1567 lntervening 1 lntervening sequence 1 sequence 11 Transcription hnHNA Modification 1 3031 104105 Ter mRNA C 39 5 cap 3 tail From Principles of Genetics 7quotI ed R H Tamarin McGraw Hill 2002 Page 15


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