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Introductory Psychology

by: Elva Kunze

Introductory Psychology PSYC 2

Elva Kunze

GPA 3.72


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Class Notes
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elva Kunze on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2 at California State University - Sacramento taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/218855/psyc-2-california-state-university-sacramento in Psychlogy at California State University - Sacramento.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior knowledge capability or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness injury or maturation Learning Ivan Pavlov gt Pavlov39s Classical Conditioning summonmu Classical Conditioning Neutrul stimulus No response Unconditional stimulus gt Unoonditloned response Conditioned stimulus gt Conditioned response Pavlov s Experiment Classical Conditioning J Conditioned stimulus CS bell light J Unconditioned stimulus UCS food l Conditioned response CR salivation J Unconditioned response UCR salivation John Watson Emotional Conditioning The case of Little Albert Conditioned Unconditioned Uncunditioned Stimulus Stimulus Response Whiterai gt Loud noise gt Fear reaction Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus Response White rat gt Fear reaction Generalization Little Albert became frightened of all kinds of white furry things a white rabbit a white coat etc I Discrimination Little Albert was afraid only of the white rat and not other white furry things Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Amount of saliva in cubic centimeters 08 06 04 02 00 Spontaneous recovery of the CR Extinction of the CR I no saliva l 2 3 4 5 6 Successive trials 3 minutes apart Trial after 2 hours Operan r Condi rioning if B F Skinner 1904 1990 Operont Conditioning Thorndike and the Law of Effect Edward Thorndike believed trialanderror learning was the basis of most behavioral changes a Trialanalerror learning learning that occurs when a response is associated with a successful solution to a problem after a number of unsuccessful responses Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning learning in which behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences Consequences whatever follows behavior can be pleasant or unpleasant Operont Conditioning Two types of consequences Reinforcement anything that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again Punishment anything that weakens or decreases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Add something pleasant to strengthen behavior Negative reinforcement Which of these best represents negative reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Avoid or escape something unpleasant to strengthen 5 Do you wear your seatbelt to avoid getting a ticket for not doing so negative reinforcement Punishment Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement it weakens behavior It is common to confuse punishment and negative reinforcement Posi rive Punishmen r Negative Punishment W L W Eggs m Changing Conditioned Responses Extinction Elimination of the conditioned response Spontaneous recovery Sudden reappearance of the CR after ex nc on Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement reinforcement given every time the behavior occurs if I I Partial reinforcement occurrence of reinforcement varies 39 Social Cogni rive Learning Observa rional Learning Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Learning Observational Learning sometimes called modeling learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior learning by imitation


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