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Biology 102, Week 9

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102, Week 9 BIOL102

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Biology > BIOL102 > Biology 102 Week 9
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About this Document

These are the notes from the week of 3/15-3/17, chapters 27 and 26.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 03/20/16
Biology 102, Week 9 Chapter 27 – plant hormones - 5 types o Ethylene § Only type in the gaseous state § Functions in • Fruit ripening • Leaf drop o Abscisic acid § Functions • Water stress response • Causes seed dormancy o Gibberellins § Functions • Break seed dormancy • Stem elongation • Stimulate growth of seedless fruits o Cytokinins § Functions • Promotes cell division o Used in test tube plant babies • Prevents cell aging o Flower shops o Auxins § Produced at shoot tip § Function • Responds to light o Phototropic response • Apical dominance o Prevents growth of branches o Pruning § Agent orange • Dioxin o Pesticide o Synth auxin o Kills broad leaf plants (eudicot) - Secondary metabolic defenses o Some recruit predators o Early warning system for nearby plants - Gravitropism o Response to gravity - Thigmotropism o Response to touch - Day length and cycle regulation o Light receptors § Blue light receptors • Phototropism, stomata, stem growth/germination § Phytochromes • Responds to red and far red light • Long days and short days: photoperiodism Chapter 25 – The Plant Body - The basic body plan o The shoot system (stems and leaves) § Need to absorb sunlight and CO2 o The root system § Need to absorb H2O § Plants are highly adaptable (they can’t run) • They maximize success where they are rooted • Variations in body plans - Stems are used for support o Modified stems § Runners (roots run across the ground) § Rhizomes § Tubers (potatoes) § Storage (cacti, spines are modified leaves) § Shortened - Leaves are used for photosynthesis and gas exchange o Modified leaves § Storage (for water, like succulents) § Spines § Insect catching § Tendrils - Roots are used for anchorage and absorption o Modified roots § Storage o Adventitious roots § Prop roots of a red mangrove tree § Aerial roots of a curtain fig tree § Pneumatophores (cypress tree knees) - The body plan originates from two types of growth o Primary growth § Within the first year § New growth in length each year o Secondary growth § Growth in width during the second year § A woody growth o Both are indeterminate (the genes have no limit to growth) § They continue to grow based on their life span - Plant life span o Annual § One year life cycle § Within that year, they go from seed to seed ‘ o Biennials § Two year life cycle § Goes from seed to seed in two years o Perennials § The life cycle is more than two years - Plant growth occurs by meristems o Areas of continuous cell division § Caused by indeterminate growth o Apical meristems § Shoot and root apex (the tips of each) § Primary growth o Lateral meristems § Run parallel to the surface § Secondary growth is encouraged through this o Meristems give rise to three tissue systems § Causes primary growth § Has a dermal tissue system • A kind of “skin” • Has clear epidermal cells § Vascular tissue system • Used for food and water transport § Ground tissue system • A filler system, helps support the plant body • Photosythesis, storage, structure - Simple tissues o Parenchyma § Alive at maturity (a defining aspect to plant cells, alive or dead, still has a function) § Filler, dinner § Repairs plant wounds • Dedifferentiate – they can become a different cell type to repair the wound o Collenchyma § Flexible, elongates support, still alive at maturity § More rigid than parenchyma o Sclerenchyma § Rigid, dead at maturity § Supports non growing sections § Used to make clothes, part of dietary fiber - Complex tissues o Multiple simple tissues involved o Xylem § Main role is water transport § Two new cells • Vessel elements • Tracheids § They’re dead and impregnated with lignin (wood) o Phloem § Used for sugar transport § Two new cells • Sieve tube cells • Companion cells § They are alive - Plant body o 3 tissue systems to focus on in each plant system § Simple and complex tissues o 3 organs § Roots, leaves, stems - Plant organ and tissue arrangement o Root tissue § Monocot vs eudicot • Eudicot has a main tap root • Monocot has a fibrous root system o Epidermis § Root hairs o Leaf tissue § Vascular tissue in veins § o Epidermal hairs § Leaves and stems • Have a protective function • This is where THC is found o Stem tissues § Vascular tissues found in bundles • In monocots they’re scattered • In eudicots, they have a ring arrangement o • Secondary growth o Occurs by lateral meristems o Vascular cambium produces secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem § Temperate areas form growth rings like in trees • Early wood and late wood based on rainfall o Growth rings § Only about 10-20% of the tree is actially alive • Sapwood (light in color, active water and sugar transport) • Heartwood (dark in color due to absorption of toxins) § Hardwoods • Resistant to indentation • Have vessel elements § Softwoods • Tracheids only o Cork cambium produces the periderm which replaces the epidermis § Known as cork and bark § When harvesting cork, they have to be sure they don’t tap into the phloem or they will kill the tree § When the cork is harvested (girdling) it makes the tree more susceptible to infection Chapter 26 – plant nutrition and transport - Plants require nutrients o On average, 16 chemical elements § Necessary for growth (flowering and fruiting) § Life cycle completion o Basic needs § 96% is carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • CO2 from air to assimilate sugars • H2O from the soil o Makes up 80-90% of the plant § 4% is nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous o Hydroponic growth § One of the ways to maintain complete nutrition o Nitrogen § An essential mineral with the greatest effect on plant growth § Required for • Proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, and other important organic molecules § Plant adaptation • Carnivorous (Venus fly traps) • Mutualistic relationships - Soil quality determines plant nutrition and growth o Texture and composition determine water and mineral availability § Soil particles size § Sand, silt, clay, and humus (organic material) o Loam is the best soil quality § Water doesn’t move easily through this, allowing plants to access it - Agriculture o Changes the health of soils o Poor techniques (conventional) § 30% of farmland is unusable because the nutrients in the soil have been so depleted § In contrast to natural ecosystems, agriculture • Taxes water reserves by irrigation • Trigger leeching (a depletion of mineral content due to poor agricultural practices) • Encourages erosion (loss of the topsoil, where you find loam, humus, and most plants require 10 inches of this) § No farms, no food! o Sustainable agriculture movement


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