Cinema: History and Criticism, Week 9
Cinema: History and Criticism, Week 9 ENGL 212
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 212 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Colleen Glenn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Cinema: History and Criticism in Foreign Language at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Cinema: History and Criticism, Week 9 Film Editing - Editing – the process of selecting and joining film footage and shots together o Coordination of one shot with the next o One of the most important components of film - How the shots are joined together is the decision of the editor - Done as part of the post production process - Now done digitally as opposed to literally cutting strips of film - Editing defies our normal, every day experiences, allows us to manipulate space and time and move in it o But this doesn’t disorient us - Editing is done in such a way as to be invisible o Cutting can be used to create a realistic effect, despite how unrealistic it is in our every day life o It can be done to hyper dramatize events - Short history of editing o 1895-1918 Muybridge and Marey were the pioneers Stop motion photography used to create a sense of edting o 1919-1929 Soviet montage comes around in this era Deliberately political (supporting the communist revolution, used to spread their message and garner support) Propaganda films Montage is a French word for editing Its now considered a style where the cuts are exaggerated and noticeable on purpose Arises from the collision of independent shots Certain cuts would be put together to force the viewer to put the meaning of them together o 1930-1959 America is consistently conservative Editing developed greatly in the studio era, there was a consistent practice sequence of editing, sound, cinematography o 1960-1989 Once we move past the studio system, there’s a more modern theme in editing, it becomes more experimental Influenced by European filmmakers o 1990s-present The digital age of editing The average shot length has gotten much shorter Attention span Increased use of CGI Anyone can make a film (availability of film technology) - Elements of editing o The cuts – foundation of editing The join or splice between two separate shots or scenes o Transitions and how shots are joined together Fade out – image gradually darkens until black when the image disappears Fade in – image gradually lightens from black Dissolve – image partially fades and a new image takes its place (soft transition, often indicates memory) Iris in Iris out Wipe – one shot replaces another shot with a line between them that moves across the screen, literally pushing one shot out of the frame Many of these transitions indicate that time and/or space has passed o Continuity editing Tells a story efficiently with minimal effort from the viewer Immersing ourselves in the fantasy One of the basic principles is that one shot has a direct relation to the next shot Rules of continuity editing Graphic qualities are similar from shot to shot o Figures are balanced, action is central The longer the shot, the longer the shot is left onscreen, it has a rhythm An establishing shot creates a 180 degree line, establishes setting, orients viewer as to where the action is happening with the characters Approximates the experience of real time by following human action The axis of action (180 degree line) No violation of spacial principles Consistent eye lines, screen direction The Graduate (1967 – Mike Nichols) - a direct result of the turmoil of the 60’s o political and social unrest and violence (Vietnam War protests) o Kennedy’s assassination - On the verge of the 70’s, a very “me” centered generation - A universal “coming of age” story - Tight framing of Ben, emphasizing his feeling of claustrophobia - He’s constantly getting put on display, and maybe this is why he chooses to be with Mrs. Robinson because he gets to do something secret - Everything is the same for Ben o Mrs. Robinson is what changes things - He can’t live doing what he wants to do or do what his parents want him to do - Mrs. Robinson is really just very lonely, trapped in a loveless marriage, which is part of the reason she doesn’t want him going after Elaine, because she doesn’t want to be left behind. o She resents her daughter, blaming her for taking away her life and her freedom She punishes her by forcing her into a marriage she doesn’t want