Popular in Course
Mrs. Annabell Graham
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
ADMJ 0600 - 1030
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Broadcast & Cinematic Arts
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Annabell Graham on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BCA288 at Central Michigan University taught by KevinCorbett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/218882/bca288-central-michigan-university in Broadcast & Cinematic Arts at Central Michigan University.
Reviews for History&AppreciationCinema
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/05/15
August 24 2009 Mast Chapter 12 1 Three ways to look at think about movies the history of lm A Film as art as artistic technical accomplishments 1 Boggs39 sandwich theoryquot how to watch a movie 2 Active vs passive viewin B Film as business as a re ection of the lm industry A major theme ofthe class will be the struggle between lm as art and film as business C Film as culture most difficult as a re ection of symbolic value systems which change over time 1 Some films re ect the culture of the time they were made 2 Some films resist critique the culture of their time Mast Chapter 1 II IntroductoryAssumptions A Movies as a quickly born art form 1 Movies began as short scenic views in the late 18005 but within just the rst 15 years or so film developed into an art of its own B The auteur theoryquot 1 The idea that the very best lms have generally resulted from the clear vision and unifying intelligence of a single controlling mind with primary responsibility for the whole 39 quot a De nition a director who also writes and edits the film 39 Ex Alfred Hitchcock Charlie Chapman Mast Chapter 2 111 Birth A The movies resulted from a combination of Popular entertainments leisure time 2 Psychological phenomena 3 Technological developments a Magic lantern shows date back to the 16005 b Persistence of vision an image remains on the retina for a fraction of a second as a way of demonstrating the idea inventors developed a range of c Stroboscopic toys ip book d Photography appears about the same time as stroboscopic toys mid 18005 B Film as a collaborative and expensive art form indust 1 In contrast to the auteur theory lms are typically created by large crews of artisans with specialized skills the larger the scale of production the larger the crew other expenses etc and no other art form is as tied to technology C Corbett39s model to consider the 3 waysquot of looking at movies D Subtext context text 1 Text art the film itself In this model it is the smallest because while texts can certainly impact others they are always generated within a given 2 Context business the material conditions surrounding the making and dissemination of the lm a The economics the technologies the distribution conditions theaters v TVs v internet b The reception conditions demographics and geographics of the audience c Other media which have economics technologies distribution and reception conditions of their own d and all of these material conditions interact within and or re ect and or critique 3 Subtext culture the cultural conditions at people consciously or otherwise believe in what they value as true good important evil dangerous beautiful etc E The pioneers 1 Muybridge and the betquot used multiple cameras triggered by strings as the horse ran to capture multiple shots of successive images first ever 2 Marey the rst to use a single camera to shoot his camera looked like a ri e multiple pictures 3 Edison a magni cent bastard part scientist part social reformer and allaround manipulative businessman he wanted to develop motion pictures to help see his phonograph so everyone could listen to music in their homes 4 Dickson working as an Edison employee he invented a camera the Kinetograph and the viewer Kinetoscope beginning about 1890 he made 20second lms like Fred Ott39s Sneezequot and bits of dancing juggling reenacted boxing matches etc Early films did not have stories they were novelties August 3 1 2 0 09 The Graduate Mast Chapter 23 The Gra uate A Visual symbolism 1 Water detached isolated from the world 2 Ben is a passenger in his own life takes no action begins on a plane ends on abus carries through his life by circumstances out of his control 3 Plastics arti cial not valuable II Mast Chapter 2 continued A The kinetoscope and the Black Maria 1 Because the magic lantern technologies and the early lm projectors were unpredictable Edison tried to come up with a different way for lm 2 In order to stock the kinetoscope parlors that were popping up all over the country by 1893 Edison and Dicksonbuilt the rst movie studio the Black Maria a The Black Maria could rotate to follow the sun the whole building moved big building B Projection 1 Early American inventors didn39t prevail and because Edison overlooked patenting his gear in Europe the real developments took place over there 2 Leading the way in France were Lumiere brothers who in 18941895 unveiled the cinematograph a portable camera and projector and with it they shot their rst lm a They made their cameras portable unlike Edison39s b Their rst lm was Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factoryquot c Other films included a baby39s meal and a train pulling into a station which made audiences shriek and duck when they saw it projected on screen 3 In the Grand Caf in Paris on December 28 1895 the birthday of the movies paying audiences seeing projected images 4 Not to be outdone Edison brought from Armat the rights to the Vitascope which debuted in April 1896 C Early lms usually consisted of a single shot with the camera in a xed position like a objective spectator in a theature but because the Lumiere camera was portable their films tended to be shot outdoors often with movement within the frame while Edison39s Black Mariaquot lms tended to be shot indoors and seem somewhat static 1 Edison had black backgrounds or used sheets 2 Throughout the 1890s there were pretty much no narrative lms a The Sprinkler Sprinkledquot was the rst narrative D Editing 1 The earliest film to use more than one shot appeared in 1895 but editing did not become common practice until 19021903 lead to the magic of movies Mast Chapter 3 111 Film Narrative Commercial Expansion A The rise of the lmmaking and distribution as a highly competitive industry This in turn led lmmakers to experiment with narrative lm storytelling 1 Editing and camera position changes could magically move the audience around in time and space 2 Among the earliest lmmaker to take advantage of this magical ability was himself a magician a Melies the father of special effectsquot he also pioneered art direction and diffused lighting used transparent studio to diffuse sunlight b Porter a pioneer in lm continuity the illusion that actions continue from one shot to the next and that crosscutting cutting back and forth between two separate locations actions can suggest that the actions are happening at the same time i Early edited lms had shot black space shot because they believed people couldn39t go straight from one shot to the next Porter disagreed ii Porter was also an early pioneer of subjective camera creating the illusion of a 3 dimensional world within the lm story c Watch Trip to the Moonquot by Melies in 1902 vs The Great Train Robberyquot by Porter in 1903 i Objective Melies vs subjective Porter camera d Color films were hand painted slide by slide September 2 2009 From birth to maturity in 25 years 19001925 part 1 1 Early lm exhibition pre 1900 a Scienti c exhibitions state fairs etc b But by the early 1900s films were shown in Vaudeville houses 2 Vaudeville houses would continue until WWI a Included juggling skits dance variety shows b Very important form of leisure especially the lower class 3 The rst storefront theater opened in 1902 and by 1910 there were 5000 of these Nickelodeons because they cost a nickel across the country a So many theatres meant increased demand for lms as a way of maintaining control of this booming market in 1908 the major film companies led by Einstein formed the Motion Picture Patents Compan 4 The Motion Picture Patents Company aka the trustquot in 19081915 a They tried to control the industry all within the first decade b This attempt at economic industrial control occurred at the same time as attempts at cultural control 5 Cultural Controlquot a Politicians church leaders and social reformers warned of the dangers of movie going and local censorship boards 100s and 1000s arose fears about the new medium art forms C The 3 major interacting social cultural economic forces 1 Industrialization a After the Civil War the US moved from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy following jobs many people moved from rural areas to cities 2 Urbanization a Increasingly crowded cities lled with unskilled laborers working 1216 hour days mass production b They used the new Nickelodeons as a primary form of leisure which often ran lms around the clock i People came straight from a long day of work dirty smelly and sometimes drunk ii Criticism was about the physical movie theatre not what was playing on the screen 3 Immigration a Big city movie theatres were also packed with waves of immigrants b As a result of the three interacting forces the dominant upper class focused on the movie theatres as dangerous places Later this focus turned to the movies themselves to head off attacks from the reformers and others the lm industry formed the National Board of Censorship D The National Board ofCensorship 1908 1 Later renamed the National Board of Review 1912ish 2 It was the first example of industry selfregulation a practice that spans the history of lm even to this day a Remember the idea of industry selfregulation it is the only industry not controlled by the government in America the industry tries to do everything they can to keep the government away Mast Chapter 4 IV The Griffith dichotomy 2 contradictory elements A A Kentuckian in transition divided state during WWII his father was a confederate soldier B Reform from within conservative uncomfortable with changes going on C Birth of a Nationquot 1915 as Art and Cancer Most famous and controversial film in uential 1908 directed first lm total of 531 lms in 23 years the most proli c filmmakers in history 1 The Art a Content determines composition led to shot variety extreme closeup extreme longshot b The pan and the traveling shot c Grif th was not the rst but one of the earliest that understood the frame to show detail in the film how do I convey my meaning through the camera d Crosscutting Forcing perspective creates illusion of depth in a 2D frame train The iris masking shot portion of frame is darkened shot in circle to draw attention to something speci c g Visual symbolism he had less well done attempts but tried h Under acting and rehearsing no more over exaggeration rehearsed scenarios 2 The Cancer a Explicit racism implicit sexism b The goal return American society to the natural orderquot of things tried to x this through his films Because Griffith like many of the dominant class was threatened by changes brought on by Industrialization urbanization and immigration quot503 P D 3 Birth of a Nationquot was 3 hours long and had a 110000 budget Got just as much criticism as acclaim Intolerance 1916 12 million budget and failed miserably Even bigger scale and much more expensive than Birth of a Nation it was a nancial disaster but it would greatly in uence the Soviet Montage movement in the 19205 Used title cards 4 different stories bouncing back and forth Visually well done though 14399 September 9 2009 Mast Chapter 5 I Industrialization urbanization immigration I Comedy was the most popular because it was an escapism and it has universal appeal V Mack Sennett and the Chaplin Shorts A PU 5quot 5 Sennett began his career about the same time as Grif th and became known for among other comedies the Keystone Cops shorts Chaplin began his career working under Sennett but eventually went on to become one of the rst auteurs writing directing and editing his own lms in addition to starring in them as the Little Tramp Both Sennett and Chaplin relied on physical humor with different approaches 1 Sennett emulated even parodied made fun of Griffith39s cinematic technique especially crosscutting for chases while Chaplin made technique invisible didn39t want to notice the technique weird camera placements Sennett saw stories simply as things to hang gags on characters became like machines or toys never suffering any real physical or emotional pain Chaplin wanted stories about characters the audience could care about when the character suffers the audience does too Other great comedy stars of the silent39s 1 Harold Lloyd 2 Buster Keaton N Mast Chapter 6 VI Movie Czars and Movie Stars By the time Chaplin made The Gold Rush 1925 the American lm industry had matured into essentially what it is today a highly departmentalized extremely ef cient movie factory system different department for each section of the lm World War I slowed the development of the European lm industries which allowed the American lm both in terms of style and economic s to dominate and made the 19205 the most important decade in film history because it defined and cemented the American film industry on every level a concrete de nition that persists today A Stars are born and competed for In the days of the Trust actors were not identi ed it was thought that star actors would cost more than anonymous faces they were right As stars became more popular they asked for more money and usually got it Formerly known only as The Biograph Girl Florence Lawrence finally saw her name on screen when she was hired away by IMP which would later become Universal Pictures 2 Little Maryquot became Mary Pickford and she became the second biggest international movie star behind only Chaplin in the 19teens and 205 3 The very first vamp was created Theda Bara an anagram for death Arab 4 Packaging of screen performer personae made FoX one of the biggest studios in the late 19teens which is still today 5 The popularity of the rst movie stars led to the rst fan magazine Photoplay 1912 a It began as what they used for lms audiences could send in ideas for movies but later added pictures of starts September 2 1 2009 B C And Pickford39s marriage to another star the swashbuckling Douglas Fairbanks Zorro would make entertainment magazines and gossip columns a permanent part of the entertainment industry 6 Moviemaking moved to California a To escape the Trust and or to take advantage of yearround sunshine and a variety of locations 7 United Artists Chaplin Pickford and Fairbanks were so popular powerful that in 1919 with Grif th they formed their own studio The birth of the studios Paramount Universal MGM FOX Warner Brothers Columbia were found in the 19005 largely by rst and second generation immigrant JewishAmericans who had started as businessmen from a variety of backgrounds clothing jewelry etc Knowing a good thing when they saw it many of them converted their stores into nickelodeons and eventually bought or built theatres and chains specifically for showing movies and vaudeville with the move to California they used construction facilities studio lots Two ways via which studios controlled the industry 1 Vertical Integration production distribution exhibition controlled all but this was outlawed in 1948 2 Block Booking in order to get one good film studios would sell them 12 other bad films These started in the 19teens and as early as 1917 an unhappy group of theatre owners formed D The First National Exhibitors Circuit 1 It was swallowed by Warner39s in 1928 signaling the dominance of the studio system and its power as an oligarchy to defeat competition E Movie Palaces 2000 to 10000 seat theatres 1 Modeled on grand European hotels and palaces or exotic Asian Egyptian even Mayan architecture with huge staffs or uniformed ushers and candy counter girls the palaces played an important escapist function for moviegoers F Expansion of the Art Form and the industry and its important players ghters and audiences 1 Von Stroheim an early director as divaquot 2 Oscar Micheaux an early outsiderindependentquot 3 Foreign language films lms in Yiddish Spanish etc catered to niche audiences 4 Women lmmakers also worked in the industry during the time including star producers Pickford and Lilliand Gish and writer directors like Lois Weber and Alice Guy 5 Robert Flaherty helped launch American documentary film with Nanook of the Northquot 1922 6 Modernism an art movement that rebelled against rejected past traditions appeared in many other styles genres of lm G On going morality culture wars the increased popularity of the moviesquot and expansion of experimentation with movies as an art form led to increased scrutiny from politicians religious leaders etc 1 The three contributing factors a The Fatty Arbuckle and other scandals i Accused for killing another actress but he didn39t b AntiSemitism Jews c Changing role of women 39 Could vote and started showing more skin 2 These three factors led to the industry39s second selfregulation effort H MPPDA Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America 1 Aka the Hays officequot for Will Hays the rst movie Czarquot 2 It replaced the National Board of Review in 1922 Mast Chapter 7 VII The German Golden Age A Ufa Universum film AG a government sponsored company that beginning in 1917 bought several studios production companies The goal was to provide a screen antidotequot to the negative image typi ed by Von Stroheim of Germans in lm 1 Ufa39s most lasting contribution was German Expressionism B German Expressionism emphasized mise enscene all of the visual stuff composition Lighting extreme lightdark Exaggerated set design Costume makeup Even body posture Initially the emphasis was on communicating interior emotional and psychological states via visual imagery eventually the emphasis moved towards exaggeration and distortion in order to evoke emotion mood etc Shot mostly in the studio Three classics of German Expressionism a The Cabinet of Dr Caligariquot Robert Weine 1919 b Nosferatu FW Murnau 1922 c Metropolis Fritz Lang 1927 C Then came Hitler just as the movement was peaking and many lmmakers including Murnau and Lang went to Hollywood and the in uence of the movement is seen in the horror lms of the 1930s and lm noir of the 19405 50s WPWN 53 September 2 3 2009 Mast Chapter 8 VIII Soviet Montage A Czarist lmmakers used the medium explicitly for educational purposes But revolutionary filmmakers experimented with the artistic and political potential of the medium 1 Heavily in uenced by Griffith especially Intolerance the concentrated not on the composition of individual shots mise en scene but on the effects of editing shots together montage two individual shots edited together can create a third different meaning B The Kuleshov Workshop 1 With only tail ends of film they experimented with juxtapositions of unrelated shots which led to the recognition of the functions of edits a Narrative moves the story forward most basic form of editing b Intellectual makes the audience think about the signi cance of things c Emotional C Two masters of Soviet Montage 1 Pudovkin used montage for linkage used shots like bricks in a wallquot they combine to make a whole a Most famous for Mother 1926 2 Eisenstein used editing to express collusion con ict and contrast a Most famous for Battleship Potemkin 1925 D Stalin steps in and implants Socialist Realism film will serve the interest of the state and no other September 28 2009 Mast Chapter 10 IX French AvantGarde A Narrative important lmmakers films 1 Gance Napoleon 1927 widescreen with three screens of lm in one shot with three cameras used techniques and experiments 30 years before his time 2 Dreyer The Passion of oan of Arc 1928 he wasn39t French so there was controversy but others say it was the greatest film ever made The rst two versions he released got burned in fires but a replica of the rst version was found recently in a closet in Norway 50 years after its release 3 Clair Le Million 1931 early sound lm 4 Renoir Grand Illusion 1937 passiveist lm about WWI 5 These narrative filmmakers occasionally borrows from a movement that would eventually have widespread and longterm impact B French AvantGarde and Surrealism didn39t do narratives did short films 1 Post WWI France was the capital of artistic experimentation of modernism the point was to challenge even reject the old and create the new 2 The great modernist experiments in Frenchfilmasart came in 3 forms a Films of pure visual form Le Retour a la Raison 1923 by Ray Anemic Cinema 1926 by Duchamp b Surrealistic fantasies tricks with time juxtaposition transition to create a symbolicdreamlike irrational universe Un Chien Andalou 1929 by Dali and Bunuel it gives you just enough to make you think there is going to be a point then frustrate you without one c Naturalistic studies of human passion and sensation symbols and surreal touches help render elusive human feelings Brumes D39Autome 19 29 by Kirsanoff autumn is death she is remembering another life in the city The Germans Russians and French during the 1920s and 1930s might be accused offavoring C Formalism an emphasis on style and technique rather than substance and story But in the US in the 1930s the D Classical Hollywood Style had emerges and with 1 The birth of sound plus the arrival of sound dampened experimentation 2 Political and economic changes that essentially devastated the European film industries in the 1930s40s this style would dominate for nearly four decades and beyond October 5 2009 Mast Chapter 9 Sound A Sounded film had been tinkered with essentially since the beginning of lm and many Edison and the Phonograph approaches soundondisc optical sound etc were experimented with At first the major studios resisted too unpredictable and expensive But by 1926 Warner Bros was testing the waters and Fox waded in in 1927 both with short lms of famous folks talking The real breakthrough came with B Warner Bros The Jazz Singer 1927 Not the first talkie but the first one to use synchronized sound as a means of telling a story The new technology led to C Unsound aesthetics early recording techniques made for stilted unnatural shot composition and blocking So the types offilms that relied more oh physicalitycomedy Westerns etcmade the transition more easily D Silent Stars into sound they could not speak well and foreign accents were considered a problem So new stars were created a return to stage actors who not only looked good but could speak well 1 Chaplin continued making silent films well into the sound era Cim Lights 1931 and his 1936 Modern M a critique of Industrial Capitalismviews synchronized sounds as a tool of industrial oppression As Chaplin s and other silent stars stardom waned hethey were replaced with new stars and other forms of comedy like animations Steamboat Willie Walt Disney 1928 and screwball comedy It Happened One Night Capra 1934 both ofwhich relied on and made great use of sound Mast Chapter 11 The American Studio Years 19301945 A Converting to sound was expensive studios became indebted to banks in the middle ofthe Great Depression The debt plus the Hollywood Production Code led to a more homogenized lm product that offered a subtle propaganda ofoptimism by means of an approach to filmmaking B The Classical Hollywood Style 1 Emphasis on invisible technique NOT formalism which helps present A readymade reality artificial into which audiences can easily suspend themselves and their disbelief escapism Despite the emphasis on realismcontinuity the style Emphasizes the extraordinary adventures often in exotic locations even when stories take place in everyday locales the emphasis on excitement danger implied sexuality and dramaconflict the trick lnvisibly allow the audience to escape into another world but still be able to believe that other would really exists Recognizable stock characters M A 4 a The rugged individualist male hero b The frail damsel in distress c The strong willed but ultimately vulnerable female love interest d The comic relief sidekick e The ambiguously gay comic relief f The ruthless greedy vengeful villain 5 Reliance on predictableformulaic plots often a task storyline and a romantic subplot laid out in a linear causeandeffect fashion with rising action and built along 6 3Act Structure a Act 1 the setup major characters and conflicts are introduced b Act 2 complications the hero starts his journey toward doing the taskresolving the problem c Act 3 the resolution the hero completes the tasksolves the problem typically in the most dramatic scenethe climax And frequently there is a happy ending hero completes task and gets girl 7 During the studio years especially a somethingforeveryone approach to content that resulted in safe mediocrities a political intellectually shallow stories C Departmentalization studios had specific spaces and whole staffs for every department ofthe lm sandwich set design construction sound lighting and electrical writing the efficiency of this factory system was especially important during D The Great Depression didn t impact the film industry until about 1933 Theaters many still owned by the big studios responded with 1 Double sometimes triple features 2 Concession stands and for the rst time popcorn 3 Giveaways Bank Night and dishes etc These things helped keep theaters full 1938 65 of the population went to the movies every week this immense popularity demanded a huge supply of lms which meant more streamlined production techniques departmentalization But despite the fact that the major studios released several hundred a year in the 1930s this did not mean that the lms product was rich in diversity Instead the bulk of the films in the 1930s were E Safe mediocrities for two major reasons 1 Studios still owned money to the banks for the costs of converting to sound so they often designed their lms to appeal to the most general audience possible But movies during this time were safe andor mediocre especially because of 2 The Production Code a list of rules about what movies should not contain a 1930 the code is written but not enforced until 1933 the Catholic Legion of Decency threatens a boycott then 1934 Breen goes to work in the Hays Of ce as head ofthe new PCA production code administration As a result starting in 1934 producers submit scripts to the PCA before shooting F A brief history of film industry selfregulation 908 the Nation Board ofCensorship Review 2 1922the MPPDA Hays Office 3 1930PCA is formed the code is written 4 1934the code is enforced At the same time the code was bring put into place another force was impacting the industry G The Payne Fund Studies the Production Code and Film Content 1 The Payne Fund Studies were commissioned in the late 1920s completed between 193335 conducted by leading psychologists and sociologists ofthe time they were designed to determine the negative effect of primarily movies on children results were published in popularwomen s magazines Perhaps responding to these studies 2 The code said films will avoid a Brutality sexual promiscuity the presentation of immoral lifestyles as either possible or pleasant any language that might invoke the idea ofthese things Was the code censorship Most often censorship is enforced by a government body and involves prior restraint the code was industryinitiated and lms that strayed from it could still be madereleased just not in studioowned theaters if the code wasn t pure censorship it could be called defactor censorship it definitely had a chilling effect on lmic expressionexperimentation 00 October 7 2009 In any case the bode had two different effects on filmastext H Film cycles studio heads saw what worked and kept doing it to the extent that certain studios came to be known for certain types of films 1 Horror films Universal gangster films Warner Bros historicaladventure films 20th Century Fox Musicals MGM Warners The other impact ofthe code on lm texts was I Subtext suggesting without stating 1 Ford s 1939 Stagecoach a 1 female character is pregnant which they refer to as not feeling well another is a prostitute in fact the subtext of many westerns a very popular genre during this period was a commentary on the capitalistic taming ofthe frontier and Stagecoach might be read as actually critiquing capitalism Despite the contextual constraintslimitations places on the filmasarttext during the studio years debt that lead to departmentalization that led to the Classical Hollywood Style and the Code the studio years are also sometimes called J The Golden Age ofAmerican Cinema 1 Movie Palaces mm 4 0 Oquot New kings and queens of comedy Marx brothers Mae West WC Fields Disney emerges a Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1937 Fantasia 1940 Bambi 1942 Popular and auteur directors a Alfred Hitchcockmore than 40 films 19301965 b John Ford more than 70 films 19301965 c Frank Capra Mr Smith Goes to Washington 1939 It s a Wonderful Life 1946 Some ofthe alltime classic films a The Wizard of Oz Fleming 1939 b Gone With the Wind Fleming 1939 c Citizen Kane Welles 1941 d Casablanca Curtiz 1942 Some ofthe alltime great movie stars emerge a Marlene Dietrich Carey Grant Greta Garbo Joan Crawford John Wayne Gary Cooper Katherine Hepburn Henry Fonda Humphrey Bogart Ingrid Bergman Jimmy Stewart Bette Davrs While the Golden Age of the Studio Years stretched more than 3 decades the last half of that time was marked by many changes in terms of text lmasart context filmasindustry and subtext filmasculture Though it wouldn t be recognized until later a new genrefilm noir re ected these changes Named after the fact by French critics in the 1950s lm noir has certain stylistic and thematic elements lm noir style borrowed heavily from German Expressionism 1 Exaggerated lightshadow 2 A graphicalgeometrical design 3 Low and tilted angles 4 Snappy cool dialogues sometimes confessional voice over urban setting and as a contrast to rural freedom Film Noir Themes include 1 Fatefatalism 2 Entrapmentbetrayal 3 Corruption of innocence andor personal values All ofwhich are embodied by The Femme Fatale she may seem innocent or proclaim her innocence but there s always something about her that the antihero protagonist doesn t trust The rise of popularity in lm noir reflects a subtle shift from the optimism ofthe CHS to a growing cynicism of post WWll American culture and the popularity of film noir also re ects change in the lm industry October 14 2009 III Chapter 12 Hollywood in Transition 19461965 A 4 threats to the film industry 1 A 4 Television the most commonly cited but not the most threatening force its biggest impact was the film industry s ongoing attempt to make its product different from TVs especially since most ofthe country couldn t get TV signals until the mid1950s The Paramount Case a 1948 Supreme Court case that banned vertical integration the studios sold off their theaters Suburbanization folks moving to the suburbs where they spent disposable income on things like cars and appliances instead ofgoing back into the cities to the movies The Red Scare cold war fear of communist infiltration ofthe film industry plus lingering antiSemitism led to many filmmakers called before the HUAC House UnAmerican Activities Committee those who wouldn t testify or name names were blacklisted or imprisoned the first group sent to jail was the Hollywood 10 B Response to the threats the movies dominated American entertainment for the first half ofthe 20th century But since about 1950 the history of the industry has been one ofchasing the audience 1 2 3 3D horror scifi and thrillers even Hitchcock did one Dial M for Murder 1954 Widescreens Cinerama and cinemascope etc Except for lowbudgetindependent productions almost total conversion to color But nothing represented the industry more chasing the audience more clearly than 4 Driveins 1948 820 1958 4063 the growth ofdrive ins meant that the industry was a Going to where the audience was the suburbs and especially b Going after the newlynamed teenagers C Films during this traditional period 1 M 03 gt 0 October 21 2009 Big budget blockbustersoften religioushistorical epics done in the widescreen formats a The Robe Koster 1953 b The 10 Commandments De Mille 1956 even the biggest moneyloser of all time c Cleopatra Mankiweicz 1963 Adaption s of proven commodities bestselling novels and especially Broadway Musicals a Singin in the Rain Donen 1952 b Oklahoma Zinnemann 1955 c West Side Story Wise 1961 d My Fair Lady Cukor 1964 e The Sound of Music Wise 1965 The birth ofthe art film and foreign imports many of the French and Italian films discussed in Chapter 13 scored with audiences in the US especially in repertory or art theaters dedicated to less commercial film product Brooding Stars and social issues Blackboard Jungle Brooks 1955 James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause Ray 1955 mark a trend in troubled youth films While Marlon Brando in the social issue film On the Waterfront Kazan 1954 via subtext tries on a feminine perspective the white glove But one genre more than any other during this period reflects the transitional nature of the time IndependentExploitation Cinema reflects changes in filmastext industry and culture by the mid 1950s the control over the industry the studios once had was beginning to crumble opening the door for more independent producers many ofwhom targeted carhappy drivein going teenagers from B pictures to exploitation cold war fear of the atomic bomb scienti c advances including space explorationthe Russians launch Sputnik in 1957 and things like the Roswell incident 1947 all helped spur a fascination with horror and science ction lms this kind of lowbudget movie used to be second bill the Bpicture behind the classier Apicture But now some of these lms were wellmade studio productions a The Day the Earth Stood Still Wise 1951 b War ofthe Worlds Haskin 1953 as they grew in popularity there were more and less polished imitators c Earth vs the Flying Saucers Sears 1958 d Night ofthe Bloody Beast Kawalsky 1958 the films but especially their marketing emphasized or exploited ripped fromtheheadlines sensationalism and titillation over quality despite their lower quality these films were immensely popular in the passion pit driveins Some of the independent producerdirectors who made these films had real talent andor business savvy Roger Corman was the most prolific of these e Attack of the Crab Monsters 1957 f A Bucket of Blood 1959 g The Little Shop of Horrors 1960 and the highly polished Edgar Allan Poe adaption s h House of Usher 1960 and Pit and the Pendulum 1961 other independentexploitation lmmakers weren t so talented or successful Edward D Wood Jr and his Glen or Glenda 1953 and widely considered the worst film ever made Plan 9 From Outer Space 1959 D Exploitation allegories and cautionary tales A small number of these films were meant as cautionary tales or warnings about the atomic bomb and other scientific dangers An even smaller number ofthe lms were intended or at least could be read as Red Scare allegories or fears of communist takeoverwith communist aliens attempting to overcome rugged American individualists 1 The Thing From Another World 1951 Nyby 2 Invasion ofthe Body Snatchers 1956 Siegel These might be read as Red Scare allegories But most of the films simply exploited these fears and fascinations delivering literally cheap thrills to drivein going teenagers This new target market and target marketing in general re ected The Key phase of Post WWII American Cinema fragmentationstudio vertical integration is broken up stars become free agents more independent lmmakers genres splitting no more something for everyone theaters change driveins then multiplexes all of these changes reflecting the fragmentation ofculture that took place around the world I39l39l October 28 2009 IV Chapter 13 Neorealism and the New Wave Post WWII European film searched for meaningful lifegiving value in a world in which absolute values had crumbled A PostWWII European films vs US studio films the 4 big differences 1 Originality not based on popular novels or stage plays 2 Structured on theme or psychological issues more than plot or story often concerned with political issues as well as investigations of human conduct in the face of emotional and conceptual crises in other words most American lms ofthe time and today were plot driven but many of the European films ofthe time and today are characterdriven so many ofthese films were loosely structured consisting ofa series ofvignettes little problems characters encounter in their daily lives even during big problems like war time and unresolved even unhappy ending were no uncommon 3 Geared toward and products of intellectual culture more so than popular culture brought lms back into the mainstream of 20th century thought and literature 4 They just looked different experimented with style Basically selfconscious manipulation ofthe medium technique the draws attention to itself Fellini s 8 12 B Post WWII European lmmakers embraces the major tenets of Modernism 1 Make it new 2 What is real exploring perception 3 Creating with fragmentation C Some stylistic characteristics of post WWII European film 1 Real people not glamorous actors The Bicycle Thief 2 Real locations not studio sound stages 3 Realhuman issues not contrived plot devices 4 Handheld camera 5 Montage or editing that breaks continuity The rst ofthese new lmmakers appeared in Italy and pursued D Neorealism the central theme ofwhich was the conflict between the contemporary common man and the immense social economic and political forces that determined his existence The bestknown Italian Neorealist film of the period was The Bicycle Thief 1948 Vittorio De Sica but the most importantprolific of the Neorealist lmmakers was Robert Rossellini Rome Open City 1945 Germany Year 1948 Stromboli 1950 By the 1950s many of the Italian lmmakers had moved more toward interpersonal relationships rather than socialeconomic issues the most importantprolific ofthese filmmakers was Fellini His mix of touching nostalgia surrealistic fantasies and experimental technique made him extremely influential Important Fellini films ofthe period 1 La Strada 1954 Nights of Cabiria 1957 La Dolce Vita 1960 M 1963 Meanwhile in France many postWWII filmmakers picked up where the AvantGarde and the surrealists left off in the 1920s and tried to approach reality through the conscious manipulation ofstyle and artistic form drawing on these Modernist Neorealist and experimental traditions in 1959 there came a French New Wave I39l39l a group of lmmakers that seemed to suddenly appear 1950s within a couple of years of each other several of them had begun their careers not as lmmakers but as film critics for the French journal Cahiers du Cinema As professional critics and having seen the formulaic product of Hollywood lmmaking these filmmakers were modernists who also drew on and reworked the past whereas most American films of the previous 3 decades were deliberately a political antiphilosophical and underachieved in terms oftheir artistic intent the films of the New Wave were deliberately political andor highly philosophical psychological andor sociological and the filmmakers were specifically interested in the artistic and stylistic possibilities of lm frequently drawing on the techniques ofprevious film styles and specific filmmakers They wanted to keep the strengths of lm the power ofvisual imagery movement and montage to elicit emotion to provoke thought and othenivise challenge the viewer intellectually while avoiding Hollywood filmmaking s formulaic pitfalls and emphasis on the illusion of reality some of their films were even combinations of two apparently antithetical approaches 1 Surrealism and documentary 2 Major Contributorsfilms a Francois Truffaut The 400 Blows 1959 b Alain Resnais Hiroshima Mon Amour 1959 c JeanLuc Godard Breathless 1960 Chapter 15 Hollywood Renaissance 19641976 A Common characteristics of films ofthis era 03 O O F39quot 1 Offbeat antihero main character who does bad things or at least a not very heroic protagonist America as a sterile society oppressive in its lifelessness andor blind commitment to a traditional value systems myths a Resistance to andor rejection of andor sometimes violent conflict with the sterility Explorations ofsexual conflicts andor psychological problems Mixing ofthe comedy and the serious Selfconscious use of cinematic technique a Slow motion quick cutting stylized memory and dream sequences M U IJgtA Many films of this period were also criticized for the use ofsex and violence but the reasons for thisand the characteristics above are 1 Competition from TV In uence of European cinema especially ltalianNeorealism the French New Wave etc Underground cinema Warhol DePalma etc Fragmented audiencesthanks to Changing culture value systemsespecially the orpr Counterculture a challenge to dominant value systems and institutions or myths Myths challenged by the counterculture 1 The military religion police and government education systems sobriety and restraint marriage adult authority don t trust anyone over 30 Major counterculture lms ofthe 1960s and 1970s Dr Stangelove Or How I Leaned to Stop Worrying and the Love Bomb Stanley Kubrick 1964 Bonnie and Clyde Penn 1967 The Graduate Mike Nicholas 1967 Midnight Cowboy John Schlesinger 1969 Easy Rider Dennis Hopper 1969 MASH Robert Altman 1970 One Flew Over the Cuckoo s Nest Milos Forman 1975 The sexual andorviolent content of these countercultural films were permitted by the death of the Production Code and the Birth ofthe Ratings System 1968 the MPAA motion picture association ofAmerica does away with the w production code administration and institutes the CARA Classification and ratings administration another example of industry selfregulation 1 G for general M for mature R for restricted X for no one under 17 The countercultural movement lmmakers over lapped the American Auteurs a group of directors whoworking with studios andor independently managed to consistently imbue their lms with their own personal vision In fact many of their films were personal in two ways 1 They exhibited the director s personal worldview andor 2 They were explorations of personhood what it meant to be human often within a specific socialculturaleconomic context lmportant American auteur filmmakersfilms 1970 to 1980 A Clock Work Orange Stanley Kubrick 1971 Nashville Robert Altman 1975 John Cassavetes A Woman Under the Influence 1974 The Killing of a Chinese Bookie 1976 Francis Ford Coppola Known primarily for The Godfather 1972 and The Godfather Part II 1974 his more personal films include The Conversation 1974 and Apocalypse Now 1979 Matin Scorsese Mean Streets 1973 Taxi Driver 1976 Raging Bull 1980 Woody Allen Annie Hall 1977 Manhattan 1979 Allen s films in particular reflect a 1970s
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'